Genetic and Environmental Factors Affecting Seed Germination

A special issue of Plants (ISSN 2223-7747). This special issue belongs to the section "Plant Physiology and Metabolism".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2023) | Viewed by 21460

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Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamycka 121, 16500 Prague, Czech Republic
Interests: plant physiology; plant stress physiology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Plants have evolved various strategies to be successful in heterogeneous habitats, including the number and size of produced seeds, the mechanisms of their dispersal and dormancy, seed vitality and germination, etc. Seed germination is important for generative propagation, plant life cycle, and population growth. The study of influencing seed germination is one of the most useful applications in terms of morphology, physiology, molecular biology, genetics, and ecology.

This Special Issue plans to give an overview of the most recent advances in the field of the stimulation of seed germination. It is aimed at providing selected contributions on advances in the seed germination of various plant taxon in relation to scientific theories, agriculture, forestry, and food science. 

Potential topics with relation to the stimulation of seed germination will include, above all:

  • Seed quality
  • Seed dimorphism and polymorphism
  • Genetic factors and plant breeding
  • Maternal effect
  • Phytohormonal process, balance, and regulation
  • Physical, chemical, and biological factors
  • Perspectives in seed technology

Dr. Božena Šerá
Dr. František Hnilička
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • seed germination
  • factors
  • seed control
  • field emergence of seeds
  • healthy seeds

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Editorial

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5 pages, 554 KiB  
Editorial
Genetic and Environmental Factors Affecting Seed Germination
by Božena Šerá and František Hnilička
Plants 2023, 12(24), 4106; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12244106 - 08 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1166
Abstract
Plants have evolved various strategies allowing them to be successful in heterogeneous habitats, including the number and size of the seeds they produce, mechanisms for their dispersal, seed dormancy, seed vigor, seed germination, etc [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetic and Environmental Factors Affecting Seed Germination)
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Research

Jump to: Editorial

23 pages, 1810 KiB  
Article
Investigating Mineral Accumulation and Seed Vigor Potential in Bottle Gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) through Crossbreeding Timing
by Anurag Malik, Virender Singh Mor, Himani Punia, D. S. Duhan, Axay Bhuker, Jayanti Tokas, Mohamed A. El-Sheikh and Tariq Shah
Plants 2023, 12(23), 3998; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12233998 - 28 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1182
Abstract
Bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) is a well-known cucurbit with an active functional ingredient. A two-year field experiment was carried out at the Research Farm of Seed Science and Technology, CCS HAU, Hisar, in a randomized block design during the Kharif season [...] Read more.
Bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) is a well-known cucurbit with an active functional ingredient. A two-year field experiment was carried out at the Research Farm of Seed Science and Technology, CCS HAU, Hisar, in a randomized block design during the Kharif season (Kharif is one of the two major cropping seasons in India and other South Asian countries, heavily reliant on monsoon rains with the other being Rabi) and the summer season. Five different crossing periods (CP), viz. CP1, CP2, CP3, CP4, and CP5, were considered to illustrate the effects of agro-climatic conditions on the quality and biochemical components of two bottle gourd parental lines and one hybrid, HBGH-35. The average mean temperature for the Kharif season in 2017 was 31.7 °C, and for the summer season, it was 40.1 °C. Flowers were tagged weekly from the start of the crossing period until the end and harvested separately at different times. The fruits harvested from different crossing periods under different environmental conditions influenced the bottle gourd’s qualitative and biochemical traits and showed significant variations among the five crossing period environments. A positive significance and correlation were observed between weather variables and different biochemical characteristics. Henceforth, the CP4 crossing period at a temperature of 31.7 °C retained high-quality seed development, which may be essential in enhancing agricultural productivity and the national economy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetic and Environmental Factors Affecting Seed Germination)
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18 pages, 1450 KiB  
Article
Comparing Non-Thermal Plasma and Cold Stratification: Which Pre-Sowing Treatment Benefits Wild Plant Emergence?
by Vilma Gudyniene, Sigitas Juzenas, Vaclovas Stukonis, Vida Mildaziene, Anatolii Ivankov and Egle Norkeviciene
Plants 2023, 12(18), 3220; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12183220 - 10 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 817
Abstract
Meadow restoration and creation projects have faced a lack of local seed diversity due to the limited availability of seed sources. Non-thermal plasma technologies are being developed for agriculture and do not cause damage to heat-sensitive biological systems. This technology has shown the [...] Read more.
Meadow restoration and creation projects have faced a lack of local seed diversity due to the limited availability of seed sources. Non-thermal plasma technologies are being developed for agriculture and do not cause damage to heat-sensitive biological systems. This technology has shown the potential to improve agronomic seed quality by enhancing germination and promoting plant growth. However, there is almost no information about the effect of non-thermal plasma pretreatment on the seedlings’ emergence of wild plant species. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of non-thermal plasma on the emergence of 17 plant seeds originating from local meadows in Lithuania and compare it with the cold stratification pretreatment. The results obtained indicate that there were differences in emergence parameters among the species. However, NTP did not show statistically significant differences from the control. Non-thermal plasma improved the kinetic parameters of emergence for a few specific species’ seeds, such as Anthyllis vulneraria and Prunella grandiflora, while the cold stratification pretreatment enhanced emergence for a broader range of plants. Significant differences were observed between non-thermal plasma and stratification pretreatment, as well as between the control and stratification groups. Both methods also had a negative impact. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetic and Environmental Factors Affecting Seed Germination)
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22 pages, 4850 KiB  
Article
Multiannual Assessment of Quality of Plantago major L. Seed Progeny from Kyshtym Radiation Accident Area: Weather-Dependent Effects
by Nadezhda S. Shimalina, Elena V. Antonova and Vera N. Pozolotina
Plants 2023, 12(13), 2528; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12132528 - 02 Jul 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1014
Abstract
The effects of low-dose radiation that are observed in plant populations in radioactively contaminated areas are variable. One of the reasons is the influence of fluctuating weather conditions and the interaction of radiation with weather factors. This article summarizes results of 12-year research [...] Read more.
The effects of low-dose radiation that are observed in plant populations in radioactively contaminated areas are variable. One of the reasons is the influence of fluctuating weather conditions and the interaction of radiation with weather factors. This article summarizes results of 12-year research on the viability and radioresistance of greater plantain (Plantago major L.) seed progeny growing in the East Ural Radioactive Trace (EURT) zone and in control (nonradioactive) areas, with consideration of weather conditions’ variability. The EURT was formed by the Kyshtym accident, which occurred in 1957 at the Mayak Production Association. Absorbed dose rates of P. major parental plants in the pollution gradient were 14.5–165.9 μGy h−1, which correspond to a low-dose range. Seed progeny quality was evaluated as seed weight, the survival rate, and root length of 21-day seedlings. Interannual variability in the studied parameters was high, and their ranges overlapped between EURT groups of seeds and control groups in most cases. The number of significant correlations between the parameters of seed quality and weather conditions was higher in EURT groups than in control populations. In the control groups of seeds, 88.9% of correlations were negative, whereas in the EURT groups, 78.5% were positive. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetic and Environmental Factors Affecting Seed Germination)
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14 pages, 7315 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Carbohydrate Management on Coleoptile Elongation in Anaerobically Germinating Seeds of Rice (Oryza sativa L.) under Light and Dark Cycles
by Haru Hirano, Takeru Watanabe, Mika Fukuda and Takeshi Fukao
Plants 2023, 12(7), 1565; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12071565 - 05 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1621
Abstract
The ability of rice to elongate coleoptiles under oxygen deprivation is a determinant of anaerobic germination tolerance, critical for successful direct seeding. Most studies on anaerobic coleoptile elongation have been performed under constant darkness or in flooded soils because a drilling method was [...] Read more.
The ability of rice to elongate coleoptiles under oxygen deprivation is a determinant of anaerobic germination tolerance, critical for successful direct seeding. Most studies on anaerobic coleoptile elongation have been performed under constant darkness or in flooded soils because a drilling method was the primary approach for direct seeding of rice. However, aerial seeding is becoming popular, in which seeds which land on flooded soils are exposed to light during the daytime. Here, we investigated physiological mechanisms underlying anaerobic elongation of coleoptiles under light and dark cycles. This study identified two novel varieties, LG and L202, enabling the development of long coleoptiles under oxygen limitation, comparable to well-characterized varieties with strong anaerobic germination tolerance. Germination experiments using these two tolerant and two intolerant varieties, including Takanari and IR64, revealed that light and dark cycles increased coleoptile length in LG, Takanari, and IR64 relative to constant darkness. Interestingly, even in intolerant lines, dramatic starch breakdown and soluble carbohydrate accumulation occurred under oxygen limitation. However, intolerant lines were more susceptible to a representative soluble sugar, glucose, than tolerant lines under oxygen deprivation, suggesting that coleoptile growth can be inhibited in intolerant lines due to hypersensitivity to soluble sugars accumulated in anaerobically germinating seeds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetic and Environmental Factors Affecting Seed Germination)
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17 pages, 4006 KiB  
Article
Differences in Physiological Characteristics, Seed Germination, and Seedling Establishment in Response to Salt Stress between Dimorphic Seeds in the Halophyte Suaeda liaotungensis
by Jieqiong Song, Hongfei Wang, Ruowen Chu, Lantong Zhao, Xinxin Li, Shuo An, Mengke Qiang, Wanying Du and Qiuli Li
Plants 2023, 12(6), 1408; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12061408 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1379
Abstract
Soil salinization is an increasing agricultural problem around the world, affecting crop productivity and quality. Seed germination and seedling establishment are susceptible to salt stress. Suaeda liaotungensis is a halophyte with strong salt tolerance that produces dimorphic seeds to adapt to the saline [...] Read more.
Soil salinization is an increasing agricultural problem around the world, affecting crop productivity and quality. Seed germination and seedling establishment are susceptible to salt stress. Suaeda liaotungensis is a halophyte with strong salt tolerance that produces dimorphic seeds to adapt to the saline environment. Differences in physiological characteristics, seed germination, and seedling establishment in response to salt stress between dimorphic seeds in S. liaotungensis have not been reported. The results showed that brown seeds had significantly higher H2O2 and O2. levels and betaine content, as well as POD and CAT activities, while they had significantly lower MDA and proline contents and SOD activity than black seeds. Light promoted the germination of brown seeds in a certain temperature range, and brown seeds could reach a higher germination percentage in a wide temperature range. However, light and temperature had no effect on the germination percentage of black seeds. Brown seeds had higher germination than black seeds under the same NaCl concentration. The final germination of brown seeds was significantly decreased as salt concentration increased, whereas this had no effect on the final germination of black seeds. POD and CAT activities, as well as MDA content, in brown seeds were significantly higher than those in black seeds during germination under salt stress. Additionally, the seedlings from brown seeds were more tolerant to salinity than those from black seeds. Therefore, these results will give an in-depth understanding of the adaptation strategies of dimorphic seeds to a salinization environment, and better exploitation and utilization of S. liaotungensis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetic and Environmental Factors Affecting Seed Germination)
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18 pages, 1014 KiB  
Article
Germination of Lolium perenne and Medicago Species under the Conditions of Drought and Silicon Application as Well as Variable pH and Medicago sativa Root Extracts
by Barbara Borawska-Jarmułowicz and Grażyna Mastalerczuk
Plants 2023, 12(4), 910; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12040910 - 17 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1073
Abstract
Drought and allelopathic conditions impact the germination of seeds of grass and legume species used in mixtures on grassland. This study evaluated the effects of drought and Medicago sativa root extracts at different pH levels on the germination and characteristics of seedlings of [...] Read more.
Drought and allelopathic conditions impact the germination of seeds of grass and legume species used in mixtures on grassland. This study evaluated the effects of drought and Medicago sativa root extracts at different pH levels on the germination and characteristics of seedlings of Lolium perenne and selected Medicago species. Two experiments were carried out: the first explored the effects of drought induced by PEG solutions (0.0, −0.3, and −0.6 MPa) under silicon (Si) application; the second studied the influence of Medicago sativa root extracts (12 and 24 g/100 mL H2O) and variable pH solutions (control, 5.0, and 6.5) on seed germination. Germination was carried out on Petri dishes for individual species and in two-species mixtures. The drought conditions did not affect the germination capacity of seeds, but it increased the dry weight of the seedlings of the tested species. The application of silicon decreased the root length of the seedlings of all species, independent of the germination conditions. The higher concentration of M. sativa root extract combined with the studied pH solutions had an inhibitive impact on the germination capacity of L. perenne. Our findings revealed that the lower concentration of M. sativa root extract had a beneficial effect on the morphological features (length of roots and leaves, fresh and dry weight) of the seedlings when germination was carried out separately for both species. In the mixture, the effect was especially marked for L. perenne (only in terms of the root length and fresh weight of seedlings). The applied root extracts in combination with the acidic pH conditions limited the germination capacity and growth of the seedlings of L. perenne the most when germination was performed separately. It was concluded from this study that silicon application did not improve the germination capacity of seeds under drought conditions, whereas the germination of L. perenne seeds in a mixture with M. sativa mitigated the negative allelopathic effects of M. sativa root extracts on the seed germination capacity and morphological features of seedlings of L. perenne. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetic and Environmental Factors Affecting Seed Germination)
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11 pages, 1784 KiB  
Communication
Positive Effect Induced by Plasma Treatment of Seeds on the Agricultural Performance of Sunflower
by Ioana Florescu, Ioan Radu, Andrei Teodoru, Lorena Gurau, Constantina Chireceanu, Florin Bilea and Monica Magureanu
Plants 2023, 12(4), 794; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12040794 - 10 Feb 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1508
Abstract
The need for efficient technologies to enhance productivity in agriculture strongly motivates research on plasma treatment of seeds and plants. In this study, the influence of plasma treatment on sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seeds was evidenced throughout the entire life span of [...] Read more.
The need for efficient technologies to enhance productivity in agriculture strongly motivates research on plasma treatment of seeds and plants. In this study, the influence of plasma treatment on sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seeds was evidenced throughout the entire life span of the plants. The seeds were packed in a DBD reactor operated in air and treated in plasma for 10 min, using a sinusoidal voltage of 16 kV amplitude at 50 Hz frequency. Early growth observation of plants under laboratory conditions showed that, after a slower start, the plasma-treated seeds developed faster and produced taller seedlings with greater total mass as compared to the control samples. Results obtained from mature plants cultivated in the field revealed a positive effect of plasma exposure with respect to capitulum size, number of seeds per capitulum and mass per thousand seeds, resulting in a remarkable increase in crop yield. The plasma effect lasted for at least two weeks of seed storage; however, it was considerably affected by the sowing period. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetic and Environmental Factors Affecting Seed Germination)
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18 pages, 3213 KiB  
Article
Stipagrostis pennata (Trin.) De Winter Artificial Seed Production and Seedlings Multiplication in Temporary Immersion Bioreactors
by Masoumeh Asadi Aghbolaghi, Beata Dedicova, Farzad Sharifzadeh, Mansoor Omidi and Ulrika Egertsdotter
Plants 2022, 11(22), 3122; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11223122 - 15 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1503
Abstract
This study was conducted to develop the protocol for artificial seed production of Stipagrostis pennata (Trin.) De Winter via somatic embryo encapsulation as well as test a temporary bioreactor system for germination and seedling growth. Embryogenic calli were encapsulated using sodium alginate and calcium [...] Read more.
This study was conducted to develop the protocol for artificial seed production of Stipagrostis pennata (Trin.) De Winter via somatic embryo encapsulation as well as test a temporary bioreactor system for germination and seedling growth. Embryogenic calli were encapsulated using sodium alginate and calcium chloride and then sowed in the Murashige and Skoog (MS) germination medium in in vitro cultures. The experiments were conducted as a factorial based on a completely randomized design with three replications. The treatments include three concentrations of sodium alginate (1.5%, 2.5%, and 3.5%), two ion exchange times (20 and 30 min), and two artificial seed germination media (hormone-free MS and MS supplemented with zeatin riboside and L-proline). Germination percentage and number of days needed until the beginning of germination were studied. The highest percentage of artificial seed germination was obtained when 2.5% sodium alginate was used for 30 min (ion exchange time) and when the seeds were placed on the MS germination medium supplemented with zeatin riboside and L-proline. The results of the analysis of variance in the temporary immersion bioreactor system showed that the main effects observed on the seedling growth were associated with different growth hormones in culture media and the number of feeding cycles. Experimental results also indicated that the total protein analyses of zygotic seedlings and seedlings originating from the synthetic seeds showed no statistically significant differences between these samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetic and Environmental Factors Affecting Seed Germination)
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15 pages, 1720 KiB  
Article
Effect of the Soil Matric Potential on the Germination Capacity of Prosopis chilensis, Quillaja saponaria and Cryptocarya alba from Contrasting Geographical Origins
by Ángela Faúndez, Carlos R. Magni, Eduardo Martínez-Herrera, Sergio Espinoza, Suraj Vaswani, Marco A. Yañez, Iván Gréz, Oscar Seguel, Betsabé Abarca-Rojas and Iván Quiroz
Plants 2022, 11(21), 2963; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11212963 - 02 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1361
Abstract
As a consequence of the megadrought in Central Chile, it is expected that most of the distribution of woody species will be narrowed in the northern limits because of restrictions imposed by soil matric potential on seed germination. In this study, we analyzed [...] Read more.
As a consequence of the megadrought in Central Chile, it is expected that most of the distribution of woody species will be narrowed in the northern limits because of restrictions imposed by soil matric potential on seed germination. In this study, we analyzed the effect of the soil matric potential on seed germination and initial recruitment of the sclerophyllous species Prosopis chilensis, Quillaja saponaria and Cryptocarya alba from contrasting geographic origins (i.e., seed sources). We evaluated the germination capacity (%) under different matric potentials (i.e., 0, −6, −33, −750 and −1250 kPa) for 100 days. Soil matric potential of −1250 kPa negatively affected the germination capacity of the three species. P. chilensis seeds stopped germinating under soil matric potential close to −1200 kPa, whereas in Q. saponaria and C. alba the complete inhibition of germination was under −1000 kPa. Seed sources also differed in their germination capacity by soil matric potential: northern seed sources of P. chilensis germinated with the lowest soil matric potential. There was no clear trend in Q. saponaria and C. alba, but in general, southern seed sources performed better than the northern ones. The results showed that Ѱm in the soil played an important role in the germinative capacity against different seed source origins, but not in soils with a north–south gradient. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetic and Environmental Factors Affecting Seed Germination)
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14 pages, 985 KiB  
Article
Pre-Sowing Treatment of Tilia cordata Mill. by Seed Material Fermentation
by František Bednařík, Kateřina Houšková, Lena Bezděčková and Oldřich Mauer
Plants 2022, 11(21), 2880; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11212880 - 28 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1105
Abstract
The aim of the work was to verify whether the fermentation of seed material is a suitable pre-sowing treatment of small-leaved lime. Seed material of two origins was treated for a period of 7, 14 and 21 days using anaerobic fermentation and for [...] Read more.
The aim of the work was to verify whether the fermentation of seed material is a suitable pre-sowing treatment of small-leaved lime. Seed material of two origins was treated for a period of 7, 14 and 21 days using anaerobic fermentation and for 10, 20 and 30 days using aerobic fermentation, the control treatment being the seed after warm–cold stratification. The water content, germination capacity and abscisic acid level of the seed were evaluated, together with the emergence and morphological parameters of annual lime seedlings that had emerged from the tested seeds. It was found that fermented seed had a low abscisic acid level (up to 700 pmol/g), a higher germination capacity (approx. 90%) than mature seed without fermentation and the morphological parameters of the seedlings that had emerged from seed after fermentation reached higher values, compared to those of the seedlings that had emerged from seed after warm–cold stratification. The seed material had to be collected green (e.g., immature seeds) and moistened. A suitable anaerobic fermentation time is 7 days; the aerobic phase can last 10, 20 or 30 days. The fermentation of seed material can shorten the preparation of seed for sowing by 1 year. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetic and Environmental Factors Affecting Seed Germination)
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14 pages, 4423 KiB  
Article
Pre-Germinative Treatments and Morphophysiological Traits in Enterolobium cyclocarpum and Piscidia piscipula (Fabaceae) from the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico
by Thomas Martín Arceo-Gómez, Erika Robles-Díaz, Mayra D. Manrique-Ortega, Ángel Roberto Martínez-Campos, José Luis Aragón-Gastélum, Francisco Javier Aguirre-Crespo, Jorge E. Ramírez-Albores, Marlín Pérez-Suárez, Rafael Robles, Javier Reyes-Trujeque, Aarón A. Can-Estrada, Eduardo J. Gutiérrez-Alcántara, Bardo H. Sánchez-Soto and Pedro Zamora-Crescencio
Plants 2022, 11(21), 2844; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11212844 - 26 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1516
Abstract
Enterolobium cyclocarpum and Piscidia piscipula are two important tree Fabaceae species distributed from the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Our aims were focused on the E. cyclocarpum and P. piscipula seeds for: (1) to examine the seed permeability and imbibition rate, (2) to evaluate the [...] Read more.
Enterolobium cyclocarpum and Piscidia piscipula are two important tree Fabaceae species distributed from the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Our aims were focused on the E. cyclocarpum and P. piscipula seeds for: (1) to examine the seed permeability and imbibition rate, (2) to evaluate the effect of seed pre-germinative treatments, and (3) to characterize the structures involved on the presence of physical dormancy (PY). We used fresh seeds to determine seed permeability and imbibition rate, seed viability by means of tetrazolium test, furthermore, we applied mechanical scarification and boiler shocks for 5 s, 10 s and 15 s treatments. Morphological characterization of the seed coat was by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Seed viability in E. cyclocarpum and P. piscipula were 100% and 96%, respectively. Seed permeability and imbibition rate in E. cyclocarpum were low. The highest germination in E. cyclocarpum was in the mechanical scarification (92%), while in P. piscipula, this parameter was in the 10 s boiling water treatment (76.0%). The presence of PY was confirmed in both species because they showed low seed permeability, and imbibition rate; furthermore, exhibited macrosclereids cells. The present research seeks to promote the sustainable use of E. cyclocarpum and P. piscipula. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetic and Environmental Factors Affecting Seed Germination)
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12 pages, 1320 KiB  
Article
Comparison of the Effect of Plasma-Activated Water and Artificially Prepared Plasma-Activated Water on Wheat Grain Properties
by Jana Jirešová, Vladimír Scholtz, Jaroslav Julák and Božena Šerá
Plants 2022, 11(11), 1471; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11111471 - 30 May 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2213
Abstract
Recently, much attention has been paid to the use of low-temperature plasmas and plasma-activated water (PAW) in various areas of biological research. In addition to its use in medicine, especially for low-temperature disinfection and sterilization, a number of works using plasma in various [...] Read more.
Recently, much attention has been paid to the use of low-temperature plasmas and plasma-activated water (PAW) in various areas of biological research. In addition to its use in medicine, especially for low-temperature disinfection and sterilization, a number of works using plasma in various fields of agriculture have already appeared. While direct plasma action involves the effects of many highly reactive species with short lifetimes, the use of PAW involves the action of only long-lived particles. A number of articles have shown that the main stable components of PAW are H2O2, O3, HNO2, and HNO3. If so, then it would be faster and much more practical to artificially prepare PAW by directly mixing these chemicals in a given ratio. In this article, we review the literature describing the composition and properties of PAW prepared by various methods. We also draw attention to an otherwise rather neglected fact, that there are no significant differences between the action of PAW and artificially prepared PAW. The effect of PAW on the properties of wheat grains (Triticum aestivum L.) was determined. PAW exposure increased germination, shoot length, and fresh and dry shoot weight. The root length and R/S length, i.e., the ratio between the underground (R) and aboveground (S) length of the wheat seedlings, slightly decreased, while the other parameters changed only irregularly or not at all. Grains artificially inoculated with Escherichia coli were significantly decontaminated after only one hour of exposure to PAW, while Saccharomyces cerevisiae decontamination required soaking for 24 h. The differences between the PAW prepared by plasma treatment and the PAW prepared by artificially mixing the active ingredients, i.e., nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide, proved to be inconsistent and statistically insignificant. Therefore, it may be sufficient for further research to focus only on the effects of artificial PAW. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetic and Environmental Factors Affecting Seed Germination)
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21 pages, 5985 KiB  
Article
Seed Viability and Potential Germination Rate of Nine Endemic Boswellia Taxa (Burseraceae) from Socotra Island (Yemen)
by Salem Hamdiah, Lukáš Karas, Kateřina Houšková, Kay Van Damme, Fabio Attorre, Petr Vahalík, Hana Habrová, Samuel Lvončík, Klemen Eler and Petr Maděra
Plants 2022, 11(11), 1418; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11111418 - 26 May 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2183
Abstract
The endemic Boswellia species (Burseraceae) on Socotra Island (Yemen) are of great local significance due to their various local ethnobotanical uses. However, despite the fact that these trees are endangered, little is known about their biology. We tested seed germination rates in controlled [...] Read more.
The endemic Boswellia species (Burseraceae) on Socotra Island (Yemen) are of great local significance due to their various local ethnobotanical uses. However, despite the fact that these trees are endangered, little is known about their biology. We tested seed germination rates in controlled experiments (trials of 21 days) for two subsequent years and for nine endemic taxa of Boswellia occurring on Socotra Island. For this, seeds were collected island-wide from a wide range of localities and for several populations per species. We observed differences in germination among Boswellia species, among species and localities and among both years, which indicates that the development of seeds is strongly affected by external ecological factors. Although we noted a large variation in seed germination (relatively high in Boswellia socotrana), and half of the species showed relatively low mean daily germination, our study indicated that all endangered endemic Frankincense Tree taxa of Socotra harbor the potential for in situ conservation through recruitment, given that known impacts can be reduced in local replantation areas (e.g., grazing). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetic and Environmental Factors Affecting Seed Germination)
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