Pre-Breeding in Crops

A special issue of Plants (ISSN 2223-7747). This special issue belongs to the section "Plant Genetics, Genomics and Biotechnology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2024 | Viewed by 3966

Special Issue Editors

International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), Av. Mohamed Belarbi Alaloui, Al Irfan, Rabat BP. 6299, Morocco
Interests: agrobiodiversity conservation; pre-breeding cereals and legumes; breeding cereals

E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
South Asia and China Regional Program, International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), New Delhi 110012, India
Interests: crop genetics; food legumes and rice; crop improvement; genetic enhancement; pre-breeding

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The challenges imposed by climate change and by requirements for quality and nutritional attributes of crops call for broadening the genetic base available to breeders to develop climate resilient, diseases and insect resistant and high-quality germplasm. Genetic resources, mainly landraces and crop wild relatives are special germplasm which can serve to introgress useful traits into elite germplasm through strengthening of pre-breeding efforts. From the existing literature, few examples of success of transferring genes from different genepools of crops are cited in case of wheat, tomatoes, rice and few other crops. This special issue will allow to share other successful efforts of pre-breeding for major crops and others and to show the impacts on the release of new varieties.

Dr. Ahmed Amri
Dr. Shiv Kumar Agrawal
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • genetic resources
  • pre-breeding
  • tolerance to abiotic stresses
  • resistance to biotic stresses
  • quality and nutrition
  • interspecific crosses
  • released varieties

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

18 pages, 2176 KiB  
Article
Heat Stress-Tolerant Quantitative Trait Loci Identified Using Backcrossed Recombinant Inbred Lines Derived from Intra-Specifically Diverse Aegilops tauschii Accessions
by Monir Idres Yahya Ahmed, Nasrein Mohamed Kamal, Yasir Serag Alnor Gorafi, Modather Galal Abdeldaim Abdalla, Izzat Sidahmed Ali Tahir and Hisashi Tsujimoto
Plants 2024, 13(3), 347; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants13030347 - 24 Jan 2024
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Abstract
In the face of climate change, bringing more useful alleles and genes from wild relatives of wheat is crucial to develop climate-resilient varieties. We used two populations of backcrossed recombinant inbred lines (BIL1 and BIL2), developed by crossing and backcrossing two intra-specifically diverse [...] Read more.
In the face of climate change, bringing more useful alleles and genes from wild relatives of wheat is crucial to develop climate-resilient varieties. We used two populations of backcrossed recombinant inbred lines (BIL1 and BIL2), developed by crossing and backcrossing two intra-specifically diverse Aegilops tauschii accessions from lineage 1 and lineage 2, respectively, with the common wheat cultivar ‘Norin 61′. This study aimed to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with heat stress (HS) tolerance. The two BILs were evaluated under heat stress environments in Sudan for phenology, plant height (PH), grain yield (GY), biomass (BIO), harvest index (HI), and thousand-kernel weight (TKW). Grain yield was significantly correlated with BIO and TKW under HS; therefore, the stress tolerance index (STI) was calculated for these traits as well as for GY. A total of 16 heat-tolerant lines were identified based on GY and STI-GY. The QTL analysis performed using inclusive composite interval mapping identified a total of 40 QTLs in BIL1 and 153 QTLs in BIL2 across all environments. We detected 39 QTLs associated with GY-STI, BIO-STI, and TKW-STI in both populations (14 in BIL1 and 25 in BIL2). The QTLs associated with STI were detected on chromosomes 1A, 3A, 5A, 2B, 4B, and all the D-subgenomes. We found that QTLs were detected only under HS for GY on chromosome 5A, TKW on 3B and 5B, PH on 3B and 4B, and grain filling duration on 2B. The higher number of QTLs identified in BIL2 for heat stress tolerance suggests the importance of assessing the effects of intraspecific variation of Ae. tauschii in wheat breeding as it could modulate the heat stress responses/adaptation. Our study provides useful genetic resources for uncovering heat-tolerant QTLs for wheat improvement for heat stress environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pre-Breeding in Crops)
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20 pages, 2244 KiB  
Article
Impact of Heat and Drought Stress on Grasspea and Its Wild Relatives
by Khawla Aloui, Hasnae Choukri, Noureddine El Haddad, Priyanka Gupta, Keltoum El Bouhmadi, Peter M. F. Emmrich, Akanksha Singh, Anne Edwards, Fouad Maalouf, Outmane Bouhlal, Jasmine Staples and Shiv Kumar
Plants 2023, 12(19), 3501; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12193501 - 8 Oct 2023
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Abstract
Grasspea (Lathyrus sativus L.) is recognized as a highly drought-tolerant legume. However, excessive consumption of its seeds and green tissues causes neurolathyrism, a condition characterized by an irreversible paralysis of the legs induced by a neurotoxin amino acid called β-N-oxalyl-L-α, β- diaminopropionic [...] Read more.
Grasspea (Lathyrus sativus L.) is recognized as a highly drought-tolerant legume. However, excessive consumption of its seeds and green tissues causes neurolathyrism, a condition characterized by an irreversible paralysis of the legs induced by a neurotoxin amino acid called β-N-oxalyl-L-α, β- diaminopropionic acid (β-ODAP). The present study investigated the effects of heat, and combined heat + drought during the reproductive phase on physiological and phenological parameters, yield-related factors, ODAP content, and seed protein of 24 genotypes representing 11 Lathyrus species under controlled conditions. Analysis of variance revealed a highly significant effect (p < 0.001) of stress treatments and genotypes for all the traits. In general, heat stress individually or in combination with drought expedited phenology, reduced relative leaf water content, stimulated proline synthesis, and influenced chlorophyll concentration; the effects were more severe under the combined heat + drought stress. ODAP content in seeds ranged from 0.06 to 0.30% under no-stress conditions. However, under heat stress, there was a significant increase of 33% in ODAP content, and under combined stress (heat + drought), the increase reached 83%. Crude protein content ranged from 15.64 to 28.67% among no stress plants and decreased significantly by 23% under heat stress and by 36% under combined stress. The findings of this study also indicated substantial reductions in growth and grain yield traits under both heat stress and combined heat + drought stress. Six accessions namely IG 66026, IG 65018, IG 65687, IG 118511, IG 64931, and IG65273 were identified as having the most favorable combination of yield, protein content, and seed ODAP levels across all conditions. ODAP content in these six accessions varied from 0.07 to 0.11% under no stress and remained at moderate levels during both heat stress (0.09–0.14%) and combined stress (0.11–0.17%). IG 66026 was identified as the most stable genotype under drought and heat stress conditions with high protein content, and low ODAP content. By identifying those promising accessions, our results have established a basis for forthcoming grasspea breeding initiatives while paving the way for future research exploration into the fundamental mechanisms driving ODAP variation in the presence of both heat and drought stress conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pre-Breeding in Crops)
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21 pages, 10098 KiB  
Article
Phenotypic Diversity in Domesticated and Wild Timothy Grass, and Closely Related Species for Forage Breeding
by Yousef Rahimi, Girma Bedada, Silvana Moreno, Anne-Maj Gustavsson, Pär K. Ingvarsson and Anna Westerbergh
Plants 2023, 12(19), 3494; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12193494 - 7 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1013
Abstract
Timothy grass (Phleum pratense L.) is one of the most important forage crops in temperate regions. Forage production, however, faces many challenges, and new cultivars adapted to a changing climate are needed. Wild populations and relatives of timothy may serve as valuable [...] Read more.
Timothy grass (Phleum pratense L.) is one of the most important forage crops in temperate regions. Forage production, however, faces many challenges, and new cultivars adapted to a changing climate are needed. Wild populations and relatives of timothy may serve as valuable genetic resources in the breeding of improved cultivars. The aim of our study is to provide knowledge about the phenotypic diversity in domesticated (cultivars, breeding lines and landraces) and wild timothy and two closely related species, P. nodosum (lowland species) and P. alpinum, (high altitude species) to identify potential genetic resources. A total of 244 accessions of timothy and the two related species were studied for growth (plant height, fresh and dry weight) and plant development (days to stem elongation, days to booting and days to heading) in the field and in a greenhouse. We found a large diversity in development and growth between the three Phleum species, as well as between the accessions within each species. Timothy showed the highest growth, but no significant difference was found between wild accessions and cultivars of timothy in fresh and dry weight. However, these two groups of accessions showed significant differences in plant development, where timothy cultivars as a group reached flowering earlier than the wild accessions. This suggests that there has not been a strong directional selection towards increased yield during the domestication and breeding of timothy; rather, timothy has been changed for other traits such as earlier heading. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis based on all traits revealed distinct clusters. Accessions falling within the same cluster showed similarities in the development and growth rather than the type of accession. The large diversity found in this study shows the potential of using timothy accessions as genetic resources in crosses with existing cultivars. Also, accessions of P. nodosum with favorable traits can be candidates for the domestication of a novel forage crop, and the high-altitude relative P. alpinum may be a source of genes for the development of more cold and stresstolerant cultivars. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pre-Breeding in Crops)
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