New and Re-emerging Plant Diseases and Pathogens

A special issue of Plants (ISSN 2223-7747). This special issue belongs to the section "Plant Protection and Biotic Interactions".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2022) | Viewed by 21180

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
IFAPA, Sustainable Plant Protection, 04745 La Mojonera, Almeria, Spain
Interests: etiology of plant diseases; plant virus detection; epidemiology and control; virus–vector–plant relationships
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
1. Department of Agricultural Botany, Faculty of Agriculture, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt
2. Department of Plant Pathology, Citrus Research and Education Center, University of Florida, Lake Alfred, FL, USA
Interests: plant responses; metabolomics; biotic stress; phytobacteriology; citrus greening disease; host–pathogen interaction; phytochemistry
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Due to the significant threat of new and re-emerging plant diseases and pathogens, the United Nations declared 2020 the International Year of Plant Health. New and re-emerging plant diseases threaten global ecosystems, health, food security, and economy, which are particularly vulnerable due to geographic expansion, climate change, modified land use, and the increased use of agrochemical including insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, and nematicides in agricultural practices. Novel and emerging plant disease can be caused by a broad range of organisms that include fungi, bacteria, bacteria, viruses, and phytoplasmas, and it produces occasionally important crop losses of global economic importance. Recent research and developments such as the use of molecular biology have led to improved technologies for faster and better detection of pathogens. Conventional epidemiology has changed and now includes molecular factors, ecology, and evolution as new challenges for plant pathology research. Consumer demands for healthier food and sustainability of food production have made many farmers switch to integrated disease management strategies. On the other hand, global climate changes and increased traffic of people and goods are leading to the emergence of new diseases, or the re-emergence of diseases from the past, putting modern agriculture in a constantly alert situation.

In this Special Issue, articles (original research papers, perspectives, hypotheses, opinions, reviews, and modeling approaches and methods) that focus on emerging plant disease and pathogens at all levels, including new pathogen species and strains, new detection and diagnosis methods, spatiotemporal spread dynamics, molecular epidemiology, dynamic disease networks, and risk predictive models, as well as the role of geography, weather, climate change, and ecosystems in general in the development of new and re-emerging plant diseases of field and greenhouse crops, trees, native species, and aquatic plants, in addition to the control strategies of these plant diseases, are most welcome.

Dr. Dirk Janssen
Dr. Yasser Sobhy Ahmed Nehela
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • emerging plant disease
  • plant pathogens
  • early detection and diagnosis
  • epidemiology
  • ecology
  • vector-borne diseases
  • host–pathogen interactions
  • management and control of plant disease
  • abiotic factors affecting the epidemiology of plant disease
  • decision making in crop protection
  • dynamic disease network models (dnms)
  • risk predictive models

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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15 pages, 4186 KiB  
Article
Phylodynamics and Coat Protein Analysis of Babaco Mosaic Virus in Ecuador
by Francisco Mosquera-Yuqui, Francisco J. Flores, Eduardo A. Moncayo, Brighitte A. Garzón-Proaño, Miguel A. Méndez, Fiama E. Guevara, Diego F. Quito-Avila, William Viera, Juan F. Cornejo-Franco, Andrés R. Izquierdo and Carlos Noceda
Plants 2022, 11(13), 1646; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11131646 - 22 Jun 2022
Viewed by 3095
Abstract
Babaco is a fast-growing herbaceous shrub with great commercial potential because of the organoleptic properties of its fruit. Babaco mosaic virus (BabMV) is a potexvirus in the family Alphaflexiviridae affecting babaco in all the provinces that produce this crop in Ecuador. BabMV was [...] Read more.
Babaco is a fast-growing herbaceous shrub with great commercial potential because of the organoleptic properties of its fruit. Babaco mosaic virus (BabMV) is a potexvirus in the family Alphaflexiviridae affecting babaco in all the provinces that produce this crop in Ecuador. BabMV was recently described but it has been affecting babaco for decades and, since many potexviruses are serologically indistinguishable, it may have been previously misidentified as papaya mosaic virus. Based on the coat protein (CP) gene, we aimed to study the distribution and epidemiological patterns of BabMV in babaco and chamburo over the years and to model its three-dimensional structure. Sequences of the CP were obtained from thirty-six isolates from plants collected in the main babaco-producing provinces of Ecuador between 2016 and 2021. The evolution rate of BabMV was estimated at 1.21 × 10−3 nucleotide substitutions site−1 year−1 and a time of origin of the most recent common ancestor around 1958.80. From molecular dynamics simulations, compared to other proteins of BabMV—RDRP, TGB1, and Alkb domain—the CP exhibited a higher flexibility with the C and N terminals as the most flexible regions. The reconstructed viral distribution provides dispersion patterns which have implications for control approaches of BabMV. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New and Re-emerging Plant Diseases and Pathogens)
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14 pages, 2108 KiB  
Article
Molecular and Pathogenic Characterization of Cylindrocarpon-like Anamorphs Causing Root and Basal Rot of Almonds
by Nieves Capote, María Ángeles Del Río, Juan Francisco Herencia and Francisco Teodoro Arroyo
Plants 2022, 11(7), 984; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11070984 - 04 Apr 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2343
Abstract
Three almond nurseries were prospected in the South of Spain (Sevilla) to evaluate the sanitary status of the nursery plant material. Samples consisted of main roots, secondary roots and six-month-old basal stems ‘GxN-15’, ‘Nemaguard’, ‘Cadaman’, ‘Rootpac-40’ and ‘Rootpac-20’ rootstocks planted in the soil, [...] Read more.
Three almond nurseries were prospected in the South of Spain (Sevilla) to evaluate the sanitary status of the nursery plant material. Samples consisted of main roots, secondary roots and six-month-old basal stems ‘GxN-15’, ‘Nemaguard’, ‘Cadaman’, ‘Rootpac-40’ and ‘Rootpac-20’ rootstocks planted in the soil, and twigs of mother plants from ‘Lauranne’, ‘Guara’, ‘Marcona’, ‘Marta’ and ‘Ferragnes’ almond cultivars. Endophytic and potential pathogenic fungi were identified in mother plants and 70 Cylindrocarpon-like anamorph isolates were detected in the root system and basal stems of analyzed rootstocks. Based on partial sequencing of the his3 gene and multilocus phylogenetic analysis of the concatenated ITS, tub2, his3 and tef1-α partial sequences, seven Cylindrocarpon-like anamorph species were identified as Dactylonectria torresensis, D. novozelandica, D. macrodidyma, Ilyonectria liriodendri, Neonectria sp. 1, N. quercicola and Cylindrocladiella variabilis. Pathogenicity was assessed on young healthy detached twigs of ‘Guara’ almond cultivar and one-year-old ‘Lauranne’ potted almonds grafted onto ‘GxN-15’ rootstocks. Among the seven Cylindrocarpon-like anamorph species, I. liriodendri, Neonectria sp. 1 and N. quercicola were the most aggressive. Inoculated detached shoots developed necrotic lesions 15 days after inoculation. Inoculated trees showed sectorized necrosis in the main and secondary roots and the basal stem of the rootstock 5 months after inoculation. The most aggressive species were able to cause necrosis also in the grafted cultivar, and I. liriodendri, and N. quercicola also reduced the root biomass. This is the first report of Cylindrocarpon-like anamorph species causing root and basal rot of almonds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New and Re-emerging Plant Diseases and Pathogens)
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13 pages, 1761 KiB  
Article
Identification of Causal Agent Inciting Powdery Mildew on Common Bean and Screening of Resistance Cultivars
by Dong Deng, Suli Sun, Wenqi Wu, Canxing Duan, Zhaoli Wang, Shilong Zhang and Zhendong Zhu
Plants 2022, 11(7), 874; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11070874 - 25 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2591
Abstract
Powdery mildew is one of the severe diseases on common bean in Southwestern China, but the identity of the pathogen inciting this disease is unclear. The objective of this study was to identify the causal agent of common bean powdery mildew and to [...] Read more.
Powdery mildew is one of the severe diseases on common bean in Southwestern China, but the identity of the pathogen inciting this disease is unclear. The objective of this study was to identify the causal agent of common bean powdery mildew and to screen resistant cultivars. The pathogen was identified through morphological identification, molecular phylogenetic analysis, and pathogenicity tests. Resistance of common bean cultivars was evaluated by artificial inoculation at the seedling stage. The common bean powdery mildew isolate CBPM1 was obtained after pathogen isolation and purification. Morphological identification confirmed that the isolate CBPM1 belonged to the Oidium subgenus Pseudoidium and germinated Pseudoidium-type germ tubes. Molecular phylogenetic analysis showed that the isolate CBPM1 and Erysiphe vignae isolates from different hosts were clustered into a distinct group. The pathogenicity and host range tests revealed that the isolate CBPM1 was strongly pathogenic to common bean, multiflora bean, lablab bean, cowpea, and mung bean, but not to soybean, adzuki bean, pea, faba bean, chickpea, lentil, pumpkin, and cucumber. In addition, 54 common bean cultivars were identified for resistance to powdery mildew, and 15 were resistant or segregant. Based on the morphological, molecular and pathogenic characteristics, the causal agent of common bean powdery mildew was identified as E. vignae. This is the first time E. vignae has been confirmed on common bean. Cultivars with different resistance levels were screened, and these cultivars could be used for disease control or the breeding of new resistant cultivars. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New and Re-emerging Plant Diseases and Pathogens)
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14 pages, 3639 KiB  
Article
A New Disease for Europe of Ficus microcarpa Caused by Botryosphaeriaceae Species
by Alberto Fiorenza, Dalia Aiello, Mariangela Benedetta Costanzo, Giorgio Gusella and Giancarlo Polizzi
Plants 2022, 11(6), 727; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11060727 - 09 Mar 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3105
Abstract
The Indian laurel-leaf fig (Ficus microcarpa) is an important ornamental tree widely distributed in the urban areas of Italy. Surveys conducted in 2019 and 2020 on several tree-lined streets, squares, and public parks in Catania and Siracusa provinces (Sicily, southern Italy) [...] Read more.
The Indian laurel-leaf fig (Ficus microcarpa) is an important ornamental tree widely distributed in the urban areas of Italy. Surveys conducted in 2019 and 2020 on several tree-lined streets, squares, and public parks in Catania and Siracusa provinces (Sicily, southern Italy) revealed the presence of a new disease on mature trees. About 9% of approximately 450 mature plants showed extensive branch cankers and dieback. Isolations from woody tissues obtained from ten symptomatic plants consistently yielded species belonging to the Botryosphaeriaceae family. The identification of the recovered fungal isolates was based on a multi-loci phylogenetic (maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood) approach of the ITS, tef1-α, and tub2 gene regions. The results of the analyses confirmed the presence of three species: Botryosphaeria dothidea, Neofusicoccum mediterraneum, and N. parvum. Pathogenicity tests were conducted on potted, healthy, 4-year-old trees using the mycelial plug technique. The inoculation experiments revealed that all the Botryosphaeriaceae species identified in this study were pathogenic to this host. Previous studies conducted in California showed similar disease caused by Botryosphaeriaceae spp., and the pathogenic role of these fungi was demonstrated. To our knowledge, this is the first report of Botryosphaeriaceae affecting Ficus microcarpa in Europe. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New and Re-emerging Plant Diseases and Pathogens)
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12 pages, 818 KiB  
Article
Host Species-Dependent Transmission of Tomato Leaf Curl New Delhi Virus-ES by Bemisia tabaci
by Dirk Janssen, Almudena Simón, Maher Boulares and Leticia Ruiz
Plants 2022, 11(3), 390; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11030390 - 30 Jan 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3174
Abstract
The tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV) is a bipartite, single-stranded begomovirus that was first identified in India in 1995 affecting solanaceous crops. A different strain, named ToLCNDV-ES, was introduced in Spain in 2012 and causes severe symptoms in zucchini crops. Virus [...] Read more.
The tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV) is a bipartite, single-stranded begomovirus that was first identified in India in 1995 affecting solanaceous crops. A different strain, named ToLCNDV-ES, was introduced in Spain in 2012 and causes severe symptoms in zucchini crops. Virus transmission experiments with the whitefly Bemisia tabaci, were used to compare the transmission parameters in zucchini and tomato plants. The minimum acquisition access period and inoculation access period of ToLCNDV-ES transmission was similar in zucchini and tomato. However, the transmission efficiency was significantly higher in zucchini (96%) compared to tomato (2%). The maximum retention of the virus in the vector was 16 days. B. tabaci feeding on, or recently emerged from infected zucchini plants, accumulated more virus than those from infected tomato, as determined by real-time PCR. A total of 20% of B. tabaci that were recently emerged from infected zucchini, and none from infected tomato, were able to transmit the virus to virus-free zucchini. The results may explain the different incidences of ToLCNDV-ES in zucchini and tomato crops in Spain. But they are also relevant for ToLCNDV-ES management of crops and the role of the trade and transport of infected plant material, when small-sized immature stages of B. tabaci could be a source of infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New and Re-emerging Plant Diseases and Pathogens)
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Review

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15 pages, 3201 KiB  
Review
Cassava Frogskin Disease: Current Knowledge on a Re-Emerging Disease in the Americas
by Juan Manuel Pardo, Elizabeth Alvarez, Luis Augusto Becerra Lopez-Lavalle, Cristian Olaya, Ana Maria Leiva and Wilmer Jose Cuellar
Plants 2022, 11(14), 1841; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11141841 - 14 Jul 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3191
Abstract
Cassava frogskin disease (CFSD) is a graft-transmissible disease of cassava reported for the first time in the 1970s, in Colombia. The disease is characterized by the formation of longitudinal lip-like fissures on the peel of the cassava storage roots and a progressive reduction [...] Read more.
Cassava frogskin disease (CFSD) is a graft-transmissible disease of cassava reported for the first time in the 1970s, in Colombia. The disease is characterized by the formation of longitudinal lip-like fissures on the peel of the cassava storage roots and a progressive reduction in fresh weight and starch content. Since its first report, different pathogens have been identified in CFSD-affected plants and improved sequencing technologies have unraveled complex mixed infections building up in plants with severe root symptoms. The re-emergence of the disease in Colombia during 2019–2020 is again threatening the food security of low-income farmers and the growing local cassava starch industry. Here, we review some results obtained over several years of CFSD pathology research at CIAT, and provide insights on the biology of the disease coming from works on symptoms’ characterization, associated pathogens, means of transmission, carbohydrate accumulation, and management. We expect this work will contribute to a better understanding of the disease, which will reflect on lowering its impact in the Americas and minimize the risk of its spread elsewhere. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New and Re-emerging Plant Diseases and Pathogens)
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