Integrated Disease Management in Fruit Crops

A special issue of Plants (ISSN 2223-7747). This special issue belongs to the section "Plant Protection and Biotic Interactions".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 March 2023) | Viewed by 11621

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
1. Plant Protection Division, ARC-Infruitec Nietvoorbij, Private Bag X5026, Stellenbosch, 7599, South Africa
2. Department of Plant Pathology, University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch, South Africa
Interests: plant pathology; plant protection; integrated disease management; fungal pathogens; trunk diseases of grapevine and fruit trees

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Guest Editor
AGROINNOVA, Centre for Innovation in the Agro-Environmental Sector, University of Torino, Largo Braccini 2, 10095 Grugliasco (TO), Italy
Interests: plant pathology; fungal pathogens phylogeny; tropical and subtropical crop diseases; fruit crop diseases; berry fruit diseases; molecular diagnostics and early detection
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Integrated disease management is the practice of using a range of measures to prevent and manage diseases in crops. In principle, integrated disease management is the ability to use the necessary effective agricultural practices to economically produce a crop in a sustainable, accountable and socially acceptable manner. 

A comprehensive understanding of the host plant, the environment in which it is grown, and the disease-causing pathogen is the basis upon which pathogens and their associated diseases are managed: the so-called disease triangle. Pathogen-free plant propagation materials, plant breeding, managing the growth environment, disease monitoring and physical control (i.e. hot water treatment), as well as the use of alternative, biological or chemical treatments, are all available tools in modern agriculture. However, each individual component in such a strategy is an important contribution to the overall success of plant disease management.

We invite researchers to submit original scientific articles, reviews and communications, which address the integrated disease management of the fungi, bacteria, viruses or phytoplasmas that affect grapevine and fruit crops. New or improved components of integrated disease management strategies will also be considered.     

Dr. Francois Halleen
Dr. Vladimiro Guarnaccia
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • integrated disease management
  • disease control
  • grapevine
  • fruit trees
  • fungi
  • bacteria
  • viruses
  • phytoplasmas
  • disease monitoring

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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21 pages, 3515 KiB  
Article
Biocontrol Potential of an Endophytic Pseudomonas poae Strain against the Grapevine Trunk Disease Pathogen Neofusicoccum luteum and Its Mechanism of Action
by Jennifer Millera Niem, Regina Billones-Baaijens, Benjamin J. Stodart, Pierluigi Reveglia and Sandra Savocchia
Plants 2023, 12(11), 2132; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12112132 - 28 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1836
Abstract
Grapevine trunk diseases (GTDs) impact the sustainability of vineyards worldwide and management options are currently limited. Biological control agents (BCAs) may offer a viable alternative for disease control. With an aim to develop an effective biocontrol strategy against the GTD pathogen Neofusicoccum luteum [...] Read more.
Grapevine trunk diseases (GTDs) impact the sustainability of vineyards worldwide and management options are currently limited. Biological control agents (BCAs) may offer a viable alternative for disease control. With an aim to develop an effective biocontrol strategy against the GTD pathogen Neofusicoccum luteum, this study investigated the following: (1) the efficacy of the strains in suppressing the BD pathogen N. luteum in detached canes and potted vines; (2) the ability of a strain of Pseudomonas poae (BCA17) to colonize and persist within grapevine tissues; and (3) the mode of action of BCA17 to antagonize N. luteum. Co-inoculations of the antagonistic bacterial strains with N. luteum revealed that one strain of P. poae (BCA17) suppressed infection by 100% and 80% in detached canes and potted vines, respectively. Stem inoculations of a laboratory-generated rifampicin-resistant strain of BCA17 in potted vines (cv. Shiraz) indicated the bacterial strain could colonize and persist in the grapevine tissues, potentially providing some protection against GTDs for up to 6 months. The bioactive diffusible compounds secreted by BCA17 significantly reduced the spore germination and fungal biomass of N. luteum and the other representative GTD pathogens. Complementary analysis via MALDI-TOF revealed the presence of an unknown cyclic lipopeptide in the bioactive diffusible compounds, which was absent in a non-antagonistic strain of P. poae (JMN13), suggesting this novel lipopeptide may be responsible for the biocontrol activity of the BCA17. Our study provided evidence that P. poae BCA17 is a potential BCA to combat N. luteum, with a potential novel mode of action. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrated Disease Management in Fruit Crops)
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14 pages, 828 KiB  
Article
Susceptibility of Novel Promising Citrus Rootstocks to White Root Rot
by Juan M. Arjona-López, Frederick G. Gmitter, Jr., Estefanía Romero-Rodríguez, Jude W. Grosser, Aurea Hervalejo, Carlos J. López-Herrera and Francisco J. Arenas-Arenas
Plants 2022, 11(23), 3388; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11233388 - 05 Dec 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1507
Abstract
Citrus is one of the most important fruit crops in Mediterranean countries such as Spain, which is one of the main citrus-producing countries worldwide. Soil-borne pathogens, such as Rosellinia necatrix, are relevant limiting biotic factors in fruit trees, due to their tricky [...] Read more.
Citrus is one of the most important fruit crops in Mediterranean countries such as Spain, which is one of the main citrus-producing countries worldwide. Soil-borne pathogens, such as Rosellinia necatrix, are relevant limiting biotic factors in fruit trees, due to their tricky management. This fungus is a polyphagous plant pathogen with worldwide distribution, causing white root rot in woody crops, including citrus trees in Spain. The objective of this study was to evaluate the tolerance of new plant material against R. necatrix infection. Therefore, plants of 12 different citrus rootstocks were inoculated with one R. necatrix isolate. During the assay, and periodically, above-ground symptoms and chlorophyll content were evaluated. At the end of the experiment, leaf area and plant biomass measures were obtained. Rootstocks B11R5T64 and B11R5T60 achieved the lowest disease incidence of symptoms and reduction of biomass, and were similar to their respective controls in chlorophyll content and leaf area. Carrizo citrange, CL-5146 and UFR-5 were the most affected rootstocks in symptoms and biomass reduction. This work provides information about R. necatrix-tolerant citrus rootstocks, which can constitute a new integrated, sustainable and effective long-term strategy to avoid white root rot. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrated Disease Management in Fruit Crops)
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19 pages, 4200 KiB  
Article
Identification of Soil Properties Associated with the Incidence of Banana Wilt Using Supervised Methods
by Barlin O. Olivares, Andrés Vega, María A. Rueda Calderón, Juan C. Rey, Deyanira Lobo, José A. Gómez and Blanca B. Landa
Plants 2022, 11(15), 2070; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11152070 - 08 Aug 2022
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 2914
Abstract
Over the last few decades, a growing incidence of Banana Wilt (BW) has been detected in the banana-producing areas of the central zone of Venezuela. This disease is thought to be caused by a fungal–bacterial complex, coupled with the influence of specific soil [...] Read more.
Over the last few decades, a growing incidence of Banana Wilt (BW) has been detected in the banana-producing areas of the central zone of Venezuela. This disease is thought to be caused by a fungal–bacterial complex, coupled with the influence of specific soil properties. However, until now, there was no consensus on the soil characteristics associated with a high incidence of BW. The objective of this study was to identify the soil properties potentially associated with BW incidence, using supervised methods. The soil samples associated with banana plant lots in Venezuela, showing low (n = 29) and high (n = 49) incidence of BW, were collected during two consecutive years (2016 and 2017). On those soils, sixteen soil variables, including the percentage of sand, silt and clay, pH, electrical conductivity, organic matter, available contents of K, Na, Mg, Ca, Mn, Fe, Zn, Cu, S and P, were determined. The Wilcoxon test identified the occurrence of significant differences in the soil variables between the two groups of BW incidence. In addition, Orthogonal Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA) and the Random Forest (RF) algorithm was applied to find soil variables capable of distinguishing banana lots showing high or low BW incidence. The OPLS-DA model showed a proper fitting of the data (R2Y: 0.61, p value < 0.01), and exhibited good predictive power (Q2: 0.50, p value < 0.01). The analysis of the Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curves by RF revealed that the combination of Zn, Fe, Ca, K, Mn and Clay was able to accurately differentiate 84.1% of the banana lots with a sensitivity of 89.80% and a specificity of 72.40%. So far, this is the first study that identifies these six soil variables as possible new indicators associated with BW incidence in soils of lacustrine origin in Venezuela. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrated Disease Management in Fruit Crops)
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Review

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21 pages, 968 KiB  
Review
A Review of Cultural Practices for Botrytis Bunch Rot Management in New Zealand Vineyards
by Dion Charles Mundy, Philip Elmer, Peter Wood and Rob Agnew
Plants 2022, 11(21), 3004; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11213004 - 07 Nov 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3578
Abstract
Botrytis bunch rot of grapes (BBR) causes substantial crop and wine quality issues globally. Past and present foundations for BBR control are based upon synthetic fungicides and varying forms of canopy management. Many authors regard the continued dependence on fungicides as unsustainable and [...] Read more.
Botrytis bunch rot of grapes (BBR) causes substantial crop and wine quality issues globally. Past and present foundations for BBR control are based upon synthetic fungicides and varying forms of canopy management. Many authors regard the continued dependence on fungicides as unsustainable and have urged greater deployment of cultural, biological and nutritional strategies. However, in contrast to organic wine production, the uptake of alternative strategies in conventional vineyards has been slow based on cost and perceived reliability issues. This review summarises research from many different wine growing regions in New Zealand with the aim of demonstrating how traditional and newly developed cultural control practices have cost-effectively reduced BBR. In addition to reviewing traditional cultural practices (e.g., leaf removal), mechanical tools are described that remove floral trash and mechanically shake the vines. Multi-omics has improved our knowledge of the underlying changes to grape berries after mechanical shaking. Exogenous applications of calcium may correct calcium deficiencies in the berry skin and reduce BBR but the outcome varies between cultivar and regions. Nitrogen aids in grapevine defence against BBR but remains a complex and difficult nutrient to manage. The sustainable growth of organics and The European Green Deal will stimulate researchers to evaluate new combinations of non-chemical BBR strategies in the next decade. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrated Disease Management in Fruit Crops)
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