Effects of Environmental Factors on the Germination of Weeds

A special issue of Plants (ISSN 2223-7747). This special issue belongs to the section "Plant Ecology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2021) | Viewed by 2530

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Agronomy, Food, Natural Resources, Animals and Environment (DAFNAE), University of Padova, Viale dell’Università 16, 35020 Legnaro, Italy
Interests: seed biology; seed germination; seed dormancy; soil seedbank; seed persistence; seedling emergence and early growth; plant phenology
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Weeds are one of the major agricultural problems worldwide. Weed species composition depends on the environment, which in turn is linked to crop and management practices (soil tillage, fertilizers, herbicides, crop rotation, cover crops, and other agricultural practices). In order to develop effective weed control strategies, the requirements for weed germination and seedling emergence need to be investigated. By identifying the environmental factors which positively or negatively affect weed seed germination, effective management strategies can be developed to reduce weed infestation and the soil seed bank. The seed bank is the reserve of viable seeds and vegetative propagules able to regenerate persistent weed infestation in the agroecosystem. Therefore, a high density of seeds in the soil seed bank can cause management difficulties for many years. Understanding seed ecology and weed seed bank dynamics is essential for effective weed management. 

This Special Issue aims to give prominence to the environmental factors affecting weed seed germination and seedling emergence and to promote discussion about this topic. The objective is to bring together papers that attempt to answer questions relating in particular to environmental factors influencing:

  1. Weed seed dynamics.
  2. Weed seed longevity.
  3. Weed seed predation.
  4. Weed seed bank.
  5. Weed seed dormancy, germination, and emergence.
  6. Weed seed response to agricultural practices.
  7. Weed seed behaviour under particular environmental conditions (salinity, floods, droughts, extreme weather events, etc.).

Prof. Dr. Roberta Masin
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Weed seed germination
  • Weed seed dormancy
  • Weed seedling emergence
  • Soil and seeds interaction
  • Weed ecology
  • Weed seedbank
  • Soil, weed seeds, and microorganism
  • Agronomic practices and weed seeds

Published Papers (1 paper)

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Research

20 pages, 5232 KiB  
Article
Dynamic Seed Emission, Dispersion, and Deposition from Horseweed (Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronquist)
by Jun Liu, Qidi Zhao, Haiyan Huang, Rongjian Ye, Charles Neal Stewart and Junming Wang
Plants 2022, 11(9), 1102; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11091102 - 19 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1660
Abstract
The wide dispersion of glyphosate-resistant (GR) horseweed (Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronquist: synonym Erigeron canadensis L.) biotypes has been reported in agricultural fields in many states. GR traits may be transferred through seeds or pollen from fields with existing GR horseweed prevalence [...] Read more.
The wide dispersion of glyphosate-resistant (GR) horseweed (Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronquist: synonym Erigeron canadensis L.) biotypes has been reported in agricultural fields in many states. GR traits may be transferred through seeds or pollen from fields with existing GR horseweed prevalence to surrounding fields. Understanding seed production and movement is essential when characterizing and predicting the spread of GR horseweed, yet a literature review indicates that there are no experimental data on dynamic (hourly) seed production and horizontal dispersion and deposition from horseweed. To obtain the dynamic data, two field experiments were performed, one in Illinois and one in Tennessee, USA in 2013 and 2014, respectively. Seed concentration and deposition along with atmospheric conditions were measured with samplers in the Illinois (184 m × 46 m, natural plants, density = 9.5 plants/m2) and Tennessee (6 m × 6 m, cultivated plants, density = 4 plants/m2) experimental fields and their surrounding areas along the downwind direction up to 1 km horizontally and 100 m vertically in the Illinois field and up to 32 m horizontally and 5 m vertically in the Tennessee field. The dynamic seed source strengths (emission rates) measured during two entire seed-shedding seasons were reported, ranging from 0 to 0.41 grains/plant/s for Illinois and ranging from 0 to 0.56 grains/plant/s for Tennessee. The average total seed production was an estimated 122,178 grains/plant for the duration of the Illinois experiment and 94,146 grains/plant for Tennessee. Seeds trapped by Rotorod samplers attached beneath two balloons in the Illinois field experiment were observed at heights of 80 to 100 m, indicating the possibility of long-distance transport. Normalized (by source data) seed deposition with distance followed a negative power exponential function. Seed emission and transport were affected mainly by wind speed. This study is the first to investigate dynamic horseweed seed emission, dispersion, and deposition for an entire seed-shedding season. The results will aid in the management of GR horseweed. The potential for regional effects of horseweed invasion may require all farmers to control horseweed in their individual fields. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Environmental Factors on the Germination of Weeds)
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