Mitigation Strategies and Tolerance of Plants to Abiotic Stresses

A special issue of Plants (ISSN 2223-7747). This special issue belongs to the section "Plant Response to Abiotic Stress and Climate Change".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 9 August 2024 | Viewed by 10034

Special Issue Editors


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Universidade Federal de Campina Grande-UFCG, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia Agrícola, Campus Campina Grande, Campina Grande, PB, Brazil
Interests: tolerance mechanisms; salt stress; oxidative stress; irrigation; ionic interactions
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Centro de Ciência e Tecnologia Agroalimentar - CCTA, Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, UFCG, Campus Pombal, Pombal, PB, Brazil
Interests: irrigation; salt stress; water stress; physiology; tolerance mechanisms

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Agronomic and Forest Science, Federal Rural University of the Semi-Arid—UFERSA, Mossoró 59625-900, Brazil
Interests: salt stress; drought stress; irrigation; water management; wastewater; alkaline soils; horticulture; plant physiology; plant ecophysiology; plant nutrition
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Semi-arid and arid areas around the world are subject to a qualitative and quantitative scarcity of water resources. Thus, both scarcity (water deficit) and the occurrence of water sources with high salt concentrations stand out as limiting factors for agricultural production. Thus, there is an urgent need to establish strategies that mitigate abiotic stresses aimed at facilitating the sustainability of crops and meeting growing needs for food production. This Special Issue on Mitigation Strategies and Plant Tolerance to Abiotic Stresses presents original research results on the effects of abiotic stresses, tolerance mechanisms, crop tolerance associated with mitigation strategies, and biomolecular mechanisms. Submitted manuscripts must not be previously published or under evaluation for publication in another journal.

Prof. Dr. Geovani Soares de Lima
Prof. Dr. Lauriane Almeida dos Anjos Soares
Prof. Dr. Francisco Vanies Da Silva Sá
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Plants is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • salt and water stress
  • tolerance mechanisms
  • oxidative stress
  • hydroponic cultivation
  • hydroponic cultivation
  • fertilizing
  • eliciting substances

Published Papers (12 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

15 pages, 6621 KiB  
Article
Effect of Secondary Paper Sludge on Physiological Traits of Lactuca sativa L. under Heavy-Metal Stress
by Marija Yurkevich, Arkadiy Kurbatov and Elena Ikkonen
Plants 2024, 13(8), 1098; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants13081098 - 14 Apr 2024
Viewed by 340
Abstract
To eliminate the negative effect of soil contamination with heavy metals on plant growth and crop yield, different methods and techniques are the subject of discussion and study. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effect of secondary pulp and paper-mill sludge [...] Read more.
To eliminate the negative effect of soil contamination with heavy metals on plant growth and crop yield, different methods and techniques are the subject of discussion and study. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effect of secondary pulp and paper-mill sludge application to soil on the response of the main physiological processes such as the growth, photosynthesis, and respiration of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) plants to soil contamination with Pb. For the pot experiment, Pb was added to sandy loam soil at concentrations of 0, 50, and 250 mg Pb(NO3)2 per kg of the soil, and secondary sludge was added to a 0, 20, or 40% sludge solution during each plant watering. The Pb-mediated change in plant biomass allocation, decrease in the photosynthetic rate, increase in leaf respiration rate, and the degree of light inhibition of respiration were closely associated with increases in both root and shoot Pb content. For the Pb-free soil condition, secondary sludge application contributed to the allocation of plant biomass towards a greater accumulation in the shoots than in the roots. Although stomatal opening was not affected by either Pb or sludge, sludge application increased photosynthetic CO2 assimilation regardless of soil Pb content, which was associated with an increase in the electron-transport rate and carboxylase activity of Rubisco. Soil contamination with Pb significantly increased the ratio of respiration to photosynthesis, reflecting a shift in the carbon balance toward carbon losses in the leaves, but sludge application modified the coupling between the processes with a decrease in the proportion of respiratory carbon losses. The sludge-mediated recovery of the physiological processes of L. sativa reflected an increase in plant tolerance to soil contamination with heavy metals, the formation of which is associated with plant and soil adjustments initiated by secondary sludge application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mitigation Strategies and Tolerance of Plants to Abiotic Stresses)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 7358 KiB  
Article
The Physiological Response of Apricot Flowers to Low-Temperature Stress
by Jingjing Gao, Wenbo Guo, Qingwei Liu, Meige Liu, Chen Shang, Yuqin Song, Ruijie Hao, Liulin Li and Xinxin Feng
Plants 2024, 13(7), 1002; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants13071002 - 31 Mar 2024
Viewed by 536
Abstract
The growth and development of apricot flower organs are severely impacted by spring frosts. To better understand this process, apricot flowers were exposed to temperatures ranging from 0 °C to −8 °C, including a control at 18 °C, in artificial incubators to mimic [...] Read more.
The growth and development of apricot flower organs are severely impacted by spring frosts. To better understand this process, apricot flowers were exposed to temperatures ranging from 0 °C to −8 °C, including a control at 18 °C, in artificial incubators to mimic diverse low-temperature environments. We aimed to examine their physiological reactions to cold stress, with an emphasis on changes in phenotype, membrane stability, osmotic substance levels, and antioxidant enzyme performance. Results reveal that cold stress induces significant browning and cellular damage, with a sharp increase in browning rate and membrane permeability below −5 °C. Soluble sugars and proteins initially rise as osmoprotectants, but their content decreases at lower temperatures. Proline content consistently increases, suggesting a protective role. Antioxidant enzyme activities, including catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX), exhibit a complex pattern, with initial increases followed by declines at more severe cold conditions. Correlation and principal component analyses highlight the interplay between these responses, indicating a multifaceted adaptation strategy. The findings contribute to the understanding of apricot cold tolerance and inform breeding efforts for improved crop resilience. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mitigation Strategies and Tolerance of Plants to Abiotic Stresses)
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 6376 KiB  
Article
Ability of Different Growth Indicators to Detect Salt Tolerance of Advanced Spring Wheat Lines Grown in Real Field Conditions
by Muhammad Mubushar, Salah El-Hendawy, Yaser Hassan Dewir and Nasser Al-Suhaibani
Plants 2024, 13(6), 882; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants13060882 - 19 Mar 2024
Viewed by 571
Abstract
Plant growth indicators (GIs) are important for evaluating how different genotypes respond to normal and stress conditions separately. They consider both the morphological and physiological components of plants between two successive growth stages. Despite their significance, GIs are not commonly used as screening [...] Read more.
Plant growth indicators (GIs) are important for evaluating how different genotypes respond to normal and stress conditions separately. They consider both the morphological and physiological components of plants between two successive growth stages. Despite their significance, GIs are not commonly used as screening criteria for detecting salt tolerance of genotypes. In this study, 36 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) along with four genotypes differing in their salt tolerance were grown under normal and 150 mM NaCl in a two-year field trial. The performance and salt tolerance of these germplasms were assessed through various GIs. The analysis of variance showed highly significant variation between salinity levels, genotypes, and their interaction for all GIs and other traits in each year and combined data for two years, with a few exceptions. All traits and GIs were significantly reduced by salinity stress, except for relative growth rate (RGR), net assimilation rate (NAR), and specific leaf weight (SLW), which increased under salinity conditions. Traits and GIs were more correlated with each other under salinity than under normal conditions. Principal component analysis organized traits and GIs into three main groups under both conditions, with RGR, NAR, and specific leaf area (SLA) closely associated with grain yield (GY) and harvest index, while leaf area duration (LAD) was closely associated with green leaf area (GLA), plant dry weight (PDW), and leaf area index (LAI). A hierarchical clustering heatmap based on GIs and traits organized germplasms into three and four groups under normal and salinity conditions, respectively. Based on the values of traits and GIs for each group, the germplasms varied from high- to low-performing groups under normal conditions and from salt-tolerant to salt-sensitive groups under salinity conditions. RGR, NAR, and LAD were important factors determining genotypic variation in GY of high- and low-performing groups, while all GIs, except leaf area duration (LAR), were major factors describing genotypic variation in GY of salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive groups. In conclusion, different GIs that reveal the relationship between the morphological and physiological components of genotypes could serve as valuable selection criteria for evaluating the performance of genotypes under normal conditions and their salt tolerance under salinity stress conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mitigation Strategies and Tolerance of Plants to Abiotic Stresses)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 10597 KiB  
Article
Transcriptome Profiling of a Salt Excluder Hybrid Grapevine Rootstock ‘Ruggeri’ throughout Salinity
by Pranavkumar Gajjar, Ahmed Ismail, Tabibul Islam, Md Moniruzzaman, Ahmed G. Darwish, Ahmed S. Dawood, Ahmed G. Mohamed, Amr M. Haikal, Abdelkareem M. El-Saady, Ashraf El-Kereamy, Sherif M. Sherif, Michael D. Abazinge, Devaiah Kambiranda and Islam El-Sharkawy
Plants 2024, 13(6), 837; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants13060837 - 14 Mar 2024
Viewed by 623
Abstract
Salinity is one of the substantial threats to plant productivity and could be escorted by other stresses such as heat and drought. It impairs critical biological processes, such as photosynthesis, energy, and water/nutrient acquisition, ultimately leading to cell death when stress intensity becomes [...] Read more.
Salinity is one of the substantial threats to plant productivity and could be escorted by other stresses such as heat and drought. It impairs critical biological processes, such as photosynthesis, energy, and water/nutrient acquisition, ultimately leading to cell death when stress intensity becomes uncured. Therefore, plants deploy several proper processes to overcome such hostile circumstances. Grapevine is one of the most important crops worldwide that is relatively salt-tolerant and preferentially cultivated in hot and semi-arid areas. One of the most applicable strategies for sustainable viticulture is using salt-tolerant rootstock such as Ruggeri (RUG). The rootstock showed efficient capacity of photosynthesis, ROS detoxification, and carbohydrate accumulation under salinity. The current study utilized the transcriptome profiling approach to identify the molecular events of RUG throughout a regime of salt stress followed by a recovery procedure. The data showed progressive changes in the transcriptome profiling throughout salinity, underpinning the involvement of a large number of genes in transcriptional reprogramming during stress. Our results established a considerable enrichment of the biological process GO-terms related to salinity adaptation, such as signaling, hormones, photosynthesis, carbohydrates, and ROS homeostasis. Among the battery of molecular/cellular responses launched upon salinity, ROS homeostasis plays the central role of salt adaptation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mitigation Strategies and Tolerance of Plants to Abiotic Stresses)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 2055 KiB  
Article
Interactive Effects of Temperature, Water Regime, and [CO2] on Wheats with Different Heat Susceptibilities
by Rong Zhou, Benita Hyldgaard, Lamis Abdelhakim, Thayna Mendanha, Steven Driever, Davide Cammarano, Eva Rosenqvist and Carl-Otto Ottosen
Plants 2024, 13(6), 830; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants13060830 - 13 Mar 2024
Viewed by 462
Abstract
Plants’ response to single environmental changes can be highly distinct from the response to multiple changes. The effects of a single environmental factor on wheat growth have been well documented. However, the interactive influences of multiple factors on different wheat genotypes need further [...] Read more.
Plants’ response to single environmental changes can be highly distinct from the response to multiple changes. The effects of a single environmental factor on wheat growth have been well documented. However, the interactive influences of multiple factors on different wheat genotypes need further investigation. Here, treatments of three important growth factors, namely water regime, temperature, and CO2 concentration ([CO2]), were applied to compare the response of two wheat genotypes with different heat sensitivities. The temperature response curves showed that both genotypes showed more variations at elevated [CO2] (e[CO2]) than ambient [CO2] (a[CO2]) when the plants were treated under different water regimes and temperatures. This corresponded to the results of water use efficiency at the leaf level. At e[CO2], heat-tolerant ‘Gladius’ showed a higher net photosynthetic rate (Pn), while heat-susceptible ‘Paragon’ had a lower Pn at reduced water, as compared with full water availability. The temperature optimum for photosynthesis in wheat was increased when the growth temperature was high, while the leaf carbon/nitrogen was increased via a reduced water regime. Generally, water regime, temperature and [CO2] have significant interactive effects on both wheat genotypes. Two wheat genotypes showed different physiological responses to different combinations of environmental factors. Our investigation concerning the interactions of multi-environmental factors on wheat will benefit the future wheat climate-response study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mitigation Strategies and Tolerance of Plants to Abiotic Stresses)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 6173 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Growth and Physiological Effects of Soil Moisture Regime on Plantago maritima Plants from Geographically Isolated Sites on the Eastern Coast of the Baltic Sea
by Katrīna Anna Ozoliņa, Astra Jēkabsone, Una Andersone-Ozola and Gederts Ievinsh
Plants 2024, 13(5), 633; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants13050633 - 25 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1046
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the morphological and physiological responses of P. maritima plants from five geographically isolated sites growing in habitats with different conditions to different substrate moisture levels in controlled conditions. Plants were produced from seed and [...] Read more.
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the morphological and physiological responses of P. maritima plants from five geographically isolated sites growing in habitats with different conditions to different substrate moisture levels in controlled conditions. Plants were produced from seed and cultivated in a greenhouse at four relatively constant soil moisture regimes: at 25, 50, and 75% soil water content and in soil flooded 3 cm above the surface (80% F). The two morphological traits that varied most strikingly among P. maritima accessions were the number of flower stalks and the number of leaves. Only plants from two accessions uniformly produced generative structures, and allocation to flowering was suppressed by both low moisture and flooding. Optimum shoot biomass accumulation for all accessions was at 50 and 75% soil moisture. The Performance Index Total was the most sensitive among the measured photosynthesis-related parameters, and it tended to decrease with an increase in soil water content for all P. maritima accessions. The initial hypothesis—that plants from relatively dry habitats will have a higher tolerance against low soil water levels, but plants from relatively wet habitats will have a higher tolerance against waterlogged or flooded soil—was not proven. The existence of three ecotypes of P. maritima within the five accessions from geographically isolated subpopulations on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea at the level of morphological responses to soil water content can be proposed. P. maritima plants can be characterized as extremely tolerant to soil waterlogging and highly tolerant to soil flooding and low soil water content. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mitigation Strategies and Tolerance of Plants to Abiotic Stresses)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

25 pages, 20094 KiB  
Article
Synergistic Influence of Arbuscular mycorrhizal Fungi Inoculation with Nanoparticle Foliar Application Enhances Chili (Capsicum annuum L.) Antioxidant Enzymes, Anatomical Characteristics, and Productivity under Cold-Stress Conditions
by Eman G. Sayed, S. F. Desoukey, Abeer F. Desouky, Mervat F. Farag, Ragab I. EL-kholy and Samah N. Azoz
Plants 2024, 13(4), 517; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants13040517 - 14 Feb 2024
Viewed by 737
Abstract
In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of Arbuscular mycorrhiza fungus (AMF) inoculation, foliar application of zinc oxide and selenium nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs and Se-NPs), and their combined interactions on the growth and productivity of chili pepper under cold-stress conditions. Two field [...] Read more.
In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of Arbuscular mycorrhiza fungus (AMF) inoculation, foliar application of zinc oxide and selenium nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs and Se-NPs), and their combined interactions on the growth and productivity of chili pepper under cold-stress conditions. Two field experiments were successfully conducted during the winter seasons of 2021 and 2022 in an experimental field at the Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt. The results showed that, under cold stress, the combination of AMF inoculation and ZnO-NPs + Se-NPs as a foliar spray increased the average fruit weight by 92.4% and 98.7%, and the number of fruits by 34.6% and 54.8 compared to control treatment in the 2021 and 2022 seasons, respectively. Additionally, the combination of AMF and a mixture of nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs + Se-NPs) significantly increased the total marketable yield by 95.8% and 94.7% compared to the control, which recorded values of 2.4 and 1.9 kg m−2 in the 2021 and 2022 seasons, respectively. Furthermore, the combination of AMF and a mixture of nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs + Se-NPs) showed the highest total content of ascorbic acid and capsaicin in chili fruits compared to the other treatments. The combination of AMF and a mixture of nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs + Se-NPs) stimulated the accumulation of peroxidase (POD) and nitrogen glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) while decreasing hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and lipid peroxidation (MDA) contents. SDS analysis revealed that the application of ZnO-NPs, Se-NPs, AMF + ZnO-NPs, and AMF + ZnO-NPs + Se-NPs induced the emergence of new protein bands and reconstitution of those damaged by cold stress. Regarding histological structure, the combination of AMF inoculation and ZnO-NPs + Se-NPs as a foliar spray showed an enhancement in the thickness of grana thylakoids and increased the number of chloroplasts. Intriguingly, the findings showed that AMF and a mixture of nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs + Se-NPs) could offer guidance for increasing plant development and productivity under cold-stress conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mitigation Strategies and Tolerance of Plants to Abiotic Stresses)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 2622 KiB  
Article
Beneficial Effect of Exogenously Applied Calcium Pyruvate in Alleviating Water Deficit in Sugarcane as Assessed by Chlorophyll a Fluorescence Technique
by Mirandy dos Santos Dias, Francisco de Assis da Silva, Pedro Dantas Fernandes, Carlos Henrique de Azevedo Farias, Robson Felipe de Lima, Maria de Fátima Caetano da Silva, Vitória Régia do Nascimento Lima, Andrezza Maia de Lima, Cassiano Nogueira de Lacerda, Lígia Sampaio Reis, Weslley Bruno Belo de Souza, André Alisson Rodrigues da Silva and Thiago Filipe de Lima Arruda
Plants 2024, 13(3), 434; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants13030434 - 01 Feb 2024
Viewed by 659
Abstract
The growing demand for food production has led to an increase in agricultural areas, including many with low and irregular rainfall, stressing the importance of studies aimed at mitigating the harmful effects of water stress. From this perspective, the objective of this study [...] Read more.
The growing demand for food production has led to an increase in agricultural areas, including many with low and irregular rainfall, stressing the importance of studies aimed at mitigating the harmful effects of water stress. From this perspective, the objective of this study was to evaluate calcium pyruvate as an attenuator of water deficit on chlorophyll a fluorescence of five sugarcane genotypes. The experiment was conducted in a plant nursery where three management strategies (E1—full irrigation, E2—water deficit with the application of 30 mM calcium pyruvate, and E3—water deficit without the application of calcium pyruvate) and five sugarcane genotypes (RB863129, RB92579, RB962962, RB021754, and RB041443) were tested, distributed in randomized blocks, in a 3 × 5 factorial design with three replications. There is dissimilarity in the fluorescence parameters and photosynthetic pigments of the RB863129 genotype in relation to those of the RB041443, RB96262, RB021754, and RB92579 genotypes. Foliar application of calcium pyruvate alleviates the effects of water deficit on the fluorescence parameters of chlorophyll a and photosynthetic pigments in sugarcane, without interaction with the genotypes. However, subsequent validation tests will be necessary to test and validate the adoption of this technology under field conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mitigation Strategies and Tolerance of Plants to Abiotic Stresses)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

18 pages, 2795 KiB  
Article
Water-Retaining Polymer and Planting Pit Size on Chlorophyll Index, Gas Exchange and Yield of Sour Passion Fruit with Deficit Irrigation
by Antônio Gustavo de Luna Souto, Edinete Nunes de Melo, Lourival Ferreira Cavalcante, Ana Paula Pereira do Nascimento, Ítalo Herbert Lucena Cavalcante, Geovani Soares de Lima, Rafael Oliveira Batista, Hans Raj Gheyi, Reynaldo Teodoro de Fátima, Evandro Franklin de Mesquita, Gleyse Lopes Fernandes de Souza, Guilherme Romão Silva, Daniel Valadão Silva, Francisco de Oliveira Mesquita and Palloma Vitória Carlos de Oliveira
Plants 2024, 13(2), 235; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants13020235 - 15 Jan 2024
Viewed by 796
Abstract
Water availability is a limiting factor for the cultivation of sour passion fruit. Soil management techniques and the use of water-retaining polymers can increase soil water retention, reducing the frequency of irrigation in the crop. In this context, the objective of the research [...] Read more.
Water availability is a limiting factor for the cultivation of sour passion fruit. Soil management techniques and the use of water-retaining polymers can increase soil water retention, reducing the frequency of irrigation in the crop. In this context, the objective of the research was to evaluate the gas exchange, the chlorophyll index, and the yield of the sour passion fruit cv. BRS GA1 as a function of irrigation depths, pit volumes, and doses of water-retaining polymer. The experiment was carried out in randomized blocks, in plots subdivided in a 2 × (2 × 5) arrangement, with irrigation depths of 70 and 100% of the crop evapotranspiration (ETc) as the main plot, the subplots with the volumes of pit of 64 and 128 dm3, and doses of the water-retaining polymer of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 g dm−3. The interaction of irrigation depths × pit volumes × doses of water-retaining polymer influences chlorophyll indexes, gas exchange, and water productivity, with positive impacts on yield of the sour passion fruit. The water depth of 70% of ETc increased the yield of sour passion fruit, in pits of 64 dm3. The application of doses of up to 1.1 g dm−3 of the water-retaining polymer and irrigation with water of 70% of ETc is recommended, and a dose of 2.0 g dm−3 of the water-retaining polymer in a pit volume of 128 dm3, associated with an irrigation depth of 100% ETc causes stress in sour passion fruit plants due to excess water. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mitigation Strategies and Tolerance of Plants to Abiotic Stresses)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 1649 KiB  
Article
Exploring the Differential Impact of Salt Stress on Root Colonization Adaptation Mechanisms in Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria
by Lorena del Rosario Cappellari, Pablo Cesar Bogino, Fiorela Nievas, Walter Giordano and Erika Banchio
Plants 2023, 12(23), 4059; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12234059 - 03 Dec 2023
Viewed by 997
Abstract
Salinity inhibits plant growth by affecting physiological processes, but soil microorganisms like plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) can alleviate abiotic stress and enhance crop productivity. However, it should be noted that rhizobacteria employ different approaches to deal with salt stress conditions and successfully colonize [...] Read more.
Salinity inhibits plant growth by affecting physiological processes, but soil microorganisms like plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) can alleviate abiotic stress and enhance crop productivity. However, it should be noted that rhizobacteria employ different approaches to deal with salt stress conditions and successfully colonize roots. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of salt stress on bacterial survival mechanisms such as mobility, biofilm formation, and the autoaggregation capacity of three plant growth-promoting strains: Pseudomonas putida SJ04, Pseudomonas simiae WCS417r, and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens GB03. These strains were grown in diluted LB medium supplemented with 0, 100, 200, or 300 mM NaCl. Swimming and swarming mobility were evaluated in media supplemented with 0.3 and 0.5% agar, respectively. Biofilm formation capacity was quantified using the crystal violet method, and the autoaggregation capacity was measured spectrophotometrically. In addition, we evaluated in vitro the capacity of the strains to ameliorate the effects of saline stress in Mentha piperita. The study found that the GB03 strain exhibited enhanced swarming mobility when the salt concentration in the medium increased, resulting in a two-fold increase in the halo diameter at 300 mM. However, high concentrations of NaCl did not affect the swimming mobility. In contrast, swimming motility was reduced in WCS417r and SJ04 under salt stress. On the other hand, exposure to 300 mM NaCl resulted in a 180% increase in biofilm formation and a 30% rise in the percentage of autoaggregation in WCS417r. Conversely, the autoaggregation percentage of the strains SJ04 and GB03 remained unaffected by saline stress. However, for GB03, biofilm formation decreased by 80% at 300 mM. Simultaneously, inoculation with the three evaluated strains alleviated the detrimental effects of salinity on plant growth. Under 150 mM salt stress, all strains showed increased fresh weight, with GB03 and WCS417r improving by 40% and SJ04 exhibiting the most remarkable effect with a 70% rise compared to non-inoculated plants. Despite their different strategies for mitigating salt stress, the application of these strains presents a promising strategy for effectively mitigating the negative consequences of salt stress on plant cultivation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mitigation Strategies and Tolerance of Plants to Abiotic Stresses)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 2082 KiB  
Article
The Effects of Irrigation Water Salinity on the Synthesis of Photosynthetic Pigments, Gas Exchange, and Photochemical Efficiency of Sour Passion Fruit Genotypes
by Francisco Jean da Silva Paiva, Geovani Soares de Lima, Vera Lúcia Antunes de Lima, Weslley Bruno Belo de Souza, Lauriane Almeida dos Anjos Soares, Rafaela Aparecida Frazão Torres, Hans Raj Gheyi, Luderlândio de Andrade Silva, Francisco Vanies da Silva Sá, Valeska Karolini Nunes Oliveira de Sá, Smyth Trotsk de Araújo Silva, Reynaldo Teodoro de Fátima, Pedro Dantas Fernandes and Alan Keis Chaves de Almeida
Plants 2023, 12(22), 3894; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12223894 - 18 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1018
Abstract
The objective of this study was to evaluate the synthesis of photosynthetic pigments, gas exchange, and photochemical efficiency of sour passion fruit genotypes irrigated with saline water under the conditions of the semi-arid region of Paraíba state, Brazil. The experiment was conducted at [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the synthesis of photosynthetic pigments, gas exchange, and photochemical efficiency of sour passion fruit genotypes irrigated with saline water under the conditions of the semi-arid region of Paraíba state, Brazil. The experiment was conducted at the experimental farm in São Domingos, PB. A randomized block design was adopted, in a 5 × 3 factorial scheme, with five levels of electrical conductivity of irrigation water—ECw (0.3, 1.1, 1.9, 2.7, and 3.5 dS m−1)—and three genotypes of sour passion fruit (Gigante Amarelo—‘BRS GA1’; Sol do Cerrado—‘BRS SC1’; and Catarina—‘SCS 437’. The increase in the electrical conductivity of irrigation water negatively affected most of the physiological characteristics of the sour passion fruit at 154 days after transplanting. Significant differences were observed between sour passion fruit genotypes when its tolerance was subjected to the salinity of irrigation water. There was an increase in the percentage of damage to the cell membrane with the increase in the electrical conductivity of irrigation water, with maximum values of 70.63, 60.86, and 80.35% for the genotypes ‘BRS GA1’, ‘BRS SC1’, and SCS 437’, respectively, when irrigated with water of 3.5 dS m−1. The genotype ‘BRS Sol do Cerrado’ showed an increase in the synthesis of photosynthetic pigments when irrigated with water of 3.5 dS m−1, with maximum values estimated at 1439.23 μg mL−1 (Chl a); 290.96 μg mL−1 (Chl b); 1730.19 μg mL−1 (Chl t); and 365.84 μg mL−1 (carotenoids). An increase in photosynthetic efficiency parameters (F0, Fm, and Fv) of the genotype ‘BRS Gigante Amarelo’ was observed when cultivated with water with high electrical conductivity (3.5 dS m−1). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mitigation Strategies and Tolerance of Plants to Abiotic Stresses)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 5084 KiB  
Article
Foliar Application of Melatonin Positively Affects the Physio-Biochemical Characteristics of Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) under the Combined Effects of Low Temperature and Salinity Stress
by Yuanyuan Fu, Lang Xin, Abdoul Kader Mounkaila Hamani, Weihao Sun, Hongbo Wang, Abubakar Sunusi Amin, Xingpeng Wang, Anzhen Qin and Yang Gao
Plants 2023, 12(21), 3730; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12213730 - 31 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1106
Abstract
Low temperature and soil salinization during cotton sowing and seedling adversely affect cotton productivity. Exogenous melatonin (MT) can alleviate the damage caused to plants under non-biological stress; thus, applying MT is a means to improve the growth condition of crops under stress. However, [...] Read more.
Low temperature and soil salinization during cotton sowing and seedling adversely affect cotton productivity. Exogenous melatonin (MT) can alleviate the damage caused to plants under non-biological stress; thus, applying MT is a means to improve the growth condition of crops under stress. However, achieving this goal requires a thorough understanding of the physiological regulatory mechanisms of MT on cotton seedlings under low temperature and salinity stress. This study could bring new knowledge on physio-biochemical mechanisms that improve the tolerance of cotton seedlings to combined effects of low temperature and salt stress using an exogenous foliar application of MT. The phytotron experiment comprised two temperature levels of cold stress and control and five MT treatments of 0, 50, 100, 150, and 200 μM and two salinity levels of 0 and 150 mM NaCl. Compared with the control treatments (non-salinity stress under cold stress and control), the combined stress of salt and low temperature reduced cotton seedlings’ biomass and net photosynthetic rate (Pn), aggravated the membrane damage, reduced the potassium (K+) content, and increased the sodium (Na+) accumulation in the leaves and roots. Under NaCl stress, exogenously sprayed 50–150 μM MT increased the biomass and gas exchange parameters of cotton seedlings under salt and low temperature combined with salt stress, reduced the degree of membrane damage, and regulated the antioxidant enzyme, ion homeostasis, transport, and absorption of cotton seedlings. The pairwise correlation analysis of each parameter using MT shows that the parameters with higher correlation with MT at cold stress are mainly malondialdehyde (MDA), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT). The highest correlation coefficient at 25 °C is observed between the K+ and Na+ content in cotton seedlings. The conclusion indicates that under salt and low-temperature stress conditions, exogenous application of MT primarily regulates the levels of Pn, superoxide dismutase (SOD), andPOD in cotton seedlings, reduces Na+ and MDA content, alleviates damage to cotton seedlings. Moreover, the most significant effect was observed when an exogenous application of 50–150 μM of MT was administered under these conditions. The current study’s findings could serve as a scientific foundation for salinity and low-temperature stress alleviation during the seedling stage of cotton growth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mitigation Strategies and Tolerance of Plants to Abiotic Stresses)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Application Methods and Concentrations of Ascorbic Acid as a Saline Stress Attenuator in Passion Fruit Cultivation
Authors: Edmilson Júnio Medeiros Caetano 1, André Alisson Rodrigues da Silva 1, Geovani Soares de Lima 1,*, Carlos Alberto Vieira de Azevedo 1, Luana Lucas de Sá Almeida Veloso 1, Thiago Filipe de Lim
Affiliation: Academic Unit of Agricultural Engineering; Federal University of Campina Grande, Campina Grande 58430-380, PB, Brazil
Abstract: Salinity is one of the abiotic stresses that most limits the development of irrigated fruit growing in semi-arid regions of Brazil. In this sense, the search for strategies that minimize the effects of saline stress is extremely important. Among these strategies, the use of elicitor substances such as ascorbic acid stands out; however, the beneficial effects of ascorbic acid may depend on the concentration and application method used. In this context, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of ascorbic acid concentrations and application methods on the levels of photosynthetic pigments, gas exchange and water relations in sour passion fruit irrigated with brackish water. The treatments were distributed in a randomized block design, in a 3 × 3 × 2 fac-torial scheme, corresponding to three application methods (soaking, spraying and soaking + spraying), three concentrations of ascorbic acid (0, 0.8, and 1.6 mM) and two levels of electrical conductivity of irrigation water (0.8 and 3.8 dS m-1) with three replicates and one plant per plot. The foliar spray of ascorbic acid at a concentration of 0.8 mM mitigated the effects of saline stress on the relative content of leaf water, photosynthetic pigments and gas exchange in sour passion fruit. However, the best results were obtained in plants irrigated with an ECw of 0.8 dS m-1

Title: Exogenous Sodium Nitroprusside Treatment Affects the Redox System of Wheat Roots Differentially Regulating the Activity of Antioxidant Enzymes Under Short-Time Osmotic Stress
Authors: Alsu R. Lubyanova*; Chulpan R. Allagulova
Affiliation: Institute of Biochemistry and Genetics - Subdivision of the Ufa Federal Research Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia
Abstract: The understanding the mechanisms of nitric oxide (NO)-induced plant`s adaptation to environmental changes is an important step for receiving the productive and tolerant crops in the future. 12% polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG) supplementation during 0.5-24 h caused in wheat roots transient superoxide (O2•-) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) accumulation, the increase of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) activities, level of malondialdehyde (MDA), and electrolyte leakage (EL) as compared to control. 2 × 10-4 M sodium nitroprusside (SNP/+NO, NO donor) pretreatment for 24 h decreased the O2•-, H2O2 generation, MDA accumulation, and EL of wheat roots subjected to osmotic stress for 0.5-24 h as compared to SNP-untreated stressed plants. (SNP/+NO) pretreatment differently regulated the activity of antioxidant enzymes at the initial phase of osmotic stress, so NO donor reduced SOD, POD, CAT activities during 4 h of PEG influence, and stimulated their activity under 24 h of wheat exposure to osmotic stress as compared to SNP-untreated stressed plants. Osmotic stress triggered in 57-fold excretion of proline by wheat roots into the growth medium. (SNP/+NO) pretreatment additionally increased proline accumulation in wheat nutrient solution during 12% PEG application as compared to (SNP/+NO) pretreatment alone.

Title: Physiological and proteomic changes of Helianthus annus L. in response to elevated CO2 and biofertilization with Rizophagus irregularis
Authors: Bellido, E.; Agüera E.
Affiliation: Department of Botany, Ecology and Plant Physiology, Faculty of Science, University of Córdoba, 14071 Córdoba, Spain
Abstract: In this work we are going to examine the effect of increasing atmospheric CO2 on primary sunflower leaves of plants biofertilized with Rizophagus irregularis. To do this, physiological markers commonly used to control leaf development will be examined. In addition, a proteomic approach will be used to identify differentially expressed proteins between biofertilized plants grown at high CO2 versus biofertilized plants grown. in environmental CO2, as well as between non-biofertilized plants grown at high CO2 and biofertilized plants grown at high CO2. The molecular differences detected in the primary leaf could provide information about the greater tolerance of Helianthus annuus L. to the stress conditions that are known to be caused by high CO2 in this plant. Through these results, relevant information can be provided to understand the adaptation mechanism of this plant with a view to future scenarios. where the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere will be increased.

Title: Oxyfertigation in adult citrus trees based on the application of hydrogen peroxide in irrigation water. Physiological and agronomic response
Authors: Juan M. Robles 1*, Josefa M. Navarro 1, Pablo Botía 1 and Juan G. Pérez 1,2
Affiliation: 1 Equipo de Riego y Fisiología del Estrés, Instituto Murciano de Investigación y Desarrollo Agrario y Medioambiental (IMIDA), 30150 La Alberca, Region of Murcia, Spain; josefam.navarro2@carm.es (J.M.N.); pablo.botia@carm.es (P.B.); perez_juaperb@gva.es (J.G.P.-P.) 2 Centro Para el Desarrollo de la Agricultura Sostenible, Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Agrarias (IVIA), 46113 Moncada, Valencia Province, Spain
Abstract: The use of oxyfertigation in citrus trees as a palliative technique to increase the oxygen content in the root zone, under conditions of no soil tillage, is scarcely studied. Therefore, the objec-tive of the work was to study the physiological and agronomic response of the application of chem-ical oxyfertigation, based on the application of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in irrigation water as a source of oxygen at the root level to increase water use efficiency (WUE). The experiment took place during four seasons (2019-2022) on adult 'Ortanique' hybrid mandarin trees located in an orchard in Torre Pacheco (Murcia). A 'Control' treatment (0 ppm of H2O2) and another identified as 'OXI' (50-100 ppm of H2O2 throughout the cultivation cycle) were established. The 'OXI' treatment signif-icantly increased the level of dissolved oxygen in the irrigation water, as well as the diffusion rate of oxygen in the soil. This was reflected in a significant improvement in the gas exchange parameters in the plant during the cultivation cycle. However, production and WUE did not show significant differences, although a trend of increasing cumulative production of 13% was noted, due to a greater number of fruits harvested (around 18%). Therefore, the possible agronomic improvements from the use of oxyfertigation in citrus trees would tend to occur in the long term.

Title: Comparison of Growth and Physiological Effects of Soil Moisture Regime on Plantago maritima Plants from Geographically Isolated Sites on the Eastern Coast of the Baltic Sea
Authors: Katrīna Anna Ozoliņa; Astra Jēkabsone; Una Andersone-Ozola; Gederts Ievinsh
Affiliation: Department of Plant Physiology, Faculty of Biology, University of Latvia, 1 Jelgavas Str., LV–1004 Riga, Latvia
Abstract: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the morphological and physiological responses of P. maritima plants from five geographically isolated sites growing in habitats with different conditions to different substrate moisture levels in controlled conditions. Plants were produced from seed and cultivated in a greenhouse at four relatively constant soil moisture regimes: at 25, 50, 75% soil water content as well as in soil flooded 3 cm above the surface (80% F). The two morphological traits that varied most strikingly among P. maritima accessions were the number of flower stalks and the number of leaves. Only plants from two accessions uniformly produced generative structures, and allocation to flowering was suppressed by both low moisture and flooding. Optimum shoot biomass accumulation for all accessions was at 50 and 75% soil moisture. Performance Index Total was the most sensitive among the measured photosynthesis-related parameters and it tended to decrease with an increase in soil water content for all P. maritima accessions. The initial hypothesis that plants from relatively dry habitats will have higher tolerance against low soil water level, but plants from relatively wet habitats will have higher tolerance against waterlogged or flooded soil was not approved. The existence of three ecotypes of P. maritima within the five accessions from geographically isolated subpopulations on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea at the level of morphological responses to soil water content can be proposed. P. maritima plants can be characterized as extremely tolerant to soil waterlogging and highly tolerant to soil flooding and low soil water content.

Title: Recovery effect of secondary paper sludge on physiological traits of Lactuca sativa L. under heavy metal stress
Authors: Yurkevich M., Kurbatov A.A., Ikkonen E*
Affiliation: Institute of Biology of the Karelian Research Centre, Russian Academy of Sciences, Petrozavodsk 185910, Russia
Abstract: To eliminate the negative effect of soil contamination with heavy metal on plant growth and crop yield, different methods and techniques are under discussion and study. In this study we aimed to evaluate the effect of secondary pulp and paper mill sludge application to soil on the response of the main physiological processes such as growth, photosynthesis, respiration and water metabolism of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) plants to soil contamination with Pb. For the pot experiment, Pb was added in the loamy Retisol soil with the rate of 0, 50, and 250 mg Pb(NO3)2 per kg of the soil, and secondary sludge was added with each watering plants with a 0, 20 or 40% sludge solution. The Pb-mediated change in plant biomass allocation, decrease in the photosynthetic rate, as well as increase in leaf respiration rate and in degree of light inhibition of respiration were closely associated with increases in both root and shoot Pb content. For Pb-free soil condition, secondary sludge application contributed to redistribution of plant biomass towards greater accumulation in the shoots than in the roots. Although stomatal opening was not affected by either lead or waste, addition of waste increased photosynthetic CO2 assimilation regardless of soil Pb content, which was associated with an increase in electron transport rate and carboxylase activity of Rubisco. Soil contamination with Pb significantly increased a ratio of respiration to photosynthesis, reflecting a shift in the carbon balance toward carbon losses by plants but sludge application modified the coupling between the processes with a decrease in the proportion of respiratory carbon losses. Sludge-mediated recovery of the physiological processes of L. sativa reflected an increase in plant tolerance to soil contamination with heavy metal, the formation of which is associated with plant adjustments initiated by secondary sludge application.

Title: Orchard climate control as a way to improve the kiwifruit tolerance to climate change and prevent decline syndrome onset
Authors: Claudio Mandalà1, Luca Nari2, Stefano Monaco1, Francesco Palazzi1, Chiara Morone3, Grazia Federica Bencresciuto1, and Laura Bardi1
Affiliation: 1 Research Centre for Engineering and Agro-Food Processing, CREA Council for Agricultural Research and Economics, Turin, Italy 2 AGRION, The Foundation for Research, Innovation and Technological Development of Piedmont Agriculture, Manta, Italy 3 Phytosanitary and Scientific-technical services Department, Agricultural and Food Directorate, Piedmont Region, Turin, Italy
Abstract: Kiwifruit cultivation is severely affected in several Mediterranean areas by a syndrome called "kiwifruit decline syndrome". The symptoms appear in the canopy with growth arrest and wilt that rapidly progress to desiccation; roots show growth arrest, absence of fine feeder roots, brown soft-rotting areas and cortical detachment from the central cylinder. A specific cause has not been identified, and a multifactor origin is generally recognised for this syndrome. A correlation of symptoms onset with hydraulic conductance impairment caused by climate stress was detected, in particular by vapour pressure deficit and high temperature; then, it can be assumed that climate change increases the weakness and sensibility of kiwifruit to other biotic and abiotic stress factors, inducing the occurrence of this syndrome. In this work a climate control system was tested for three years in an experimental orchard, using shading nets and over-tree micro-sprinkler irrigation, aimed at protecting leaves from overheating and locally decreasing vapour pressure deficit stress. Plants were monitored for physiological and morphological parameters (leaf gas exchanges, leaf temperature, stem water potential, stem growth, root starch content, root xylem vessels diameter, density and vulnerability to cavitation). Narrow diameters of xylem vessels were observed in all plants, including those of the control plot, as a sign of a general long-term adaptation strategy to rising vapour pression deficit for lower vulnerability to cavitation. A positive effect of the orchard climate control system was detected: lower leaf temperature throughout the whole vegetative season, higher leaf water potential, higher stomatal conductance and photosynthetic activity were detected, in particular in afternoon and in autumn; moreover, the root starch content was higher in springtime. No decline syndrome symptoms were detected. These results indicates that a proper agronomic management can protect kiwifruit plants from climate stress, decreasing the risk of decline syndrome onset.

Back to TopTop