Recovery, Characterization, Functionality and Applications of Bioactive Compounds from Food-Plant Products and Their By-Products

A special issue of Plants (ISSN 2223-7747). This special issue belongs to the section "Phytochemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 June 2023) | Viewed by 48311

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Grupo de Bioquímica Vegetal, Instituto de Biología Agrícola de Mendoza, Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias, CONICET-Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Almirante Brown 500, Chacras de Coria, Mendoza M5528AHB, Argentina
Interests: bioactive compounds; grape chemistry; wine; winemaking by-products; phenolic compounds analysis; antioxidant activity; extraction; secondary metabolites; antioxidants; plant extracts; development of methods of analysis
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Sustainability in food industry has been frequently linked with strategies that avoid, or at least minimize, the by-products of food production. Although reducing these by-products is highly desirable, the processing of plants and fruits is unavoidably associated with the occurrence of by-products. In the context of consumers becoming more interested every day in natural products without synthetic preservers with labels showing a full breakdown of resources and contents that provide additional health benefits, the recovery of bioactive compounds from food and plant industry by-products has acquired some interest.

Phytochemicals derived from plants have demonstrated several in vitro and in vivo biological effects. They have also been used as ingredients in functional foods due to their health-promoting effects and their potential to improve the conservation of foodstuffs in a natural way. These effects have been connected to the antioxidant properties of different families of bioactive compounds such as phenolic compounds, carotenoids, tocopherols, and phytosterols, amongst others.

The extraction and characterization steps are directly related to the functionality and applicability of bioactive compounds because, according to the conditions used for recovery, the composition and potential functions of individual components can also change. Understanding the stability and functionality, including the bioaccessibility and bioavailability, of isolated compounds is an essential step to define the application of a phytochemical extract. Additionally, a compound or compound families may suffer changes during food elaboration that can also modify their bioavailability and, in fact, their biological properties.

Consequently, in this Special Issue, articles (original research papers, perspectives, hypotheses, opinions, reviews, modeling approaches, and methods) focused on bioactive compounds derived from food-plant industry products and their by-products are welcome. The topics include (but are not restricted to): extraction and chemical characterization methods, the identification of new compounds and biological activities of extracts/isolated compounds, the bioavalability of phytochemicals, functional food products’ development and characterization, and stability studies of compounds/extracts under different storage conditions.

Dr. Ariel Fontana
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • phytonutrients
  • chemical composition
  • side streams of food industry
  • biofunctional and technofunctional compounds  
  • improving storage stability
  • phenolic compounds
  • extraction, separation and fractionation methods
  • liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry
  • phytochemical composition
  • functional properties assessment
  • health-promoting properties

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Published Papers (21 papers)

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Editorial

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7 pages, 222 KiB  
Editorial
Recovery, Characterization, Functionality and Applications of Bioactive Compounds from Food-Plant Products and Their By-Products
by Ariel Fontana
Plants 2023, 12(23), 3964; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12233964 - 24 Nov 2023
Viewed by 706
Abstract
Sustainability in the food industry has been frequently linked to strategies that avoid, or at least minimize, the amount of by-products in food production [...] Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

16 pages, 1550 KiB  
Article
Characterization of the Effect of a Novel Production Technique for ‘Not from Concentrate’ Pear and Apple Juices on the Composition of Phenolic Compounds
by José Carlos Teixeira, Catarina Ribeiro, Rodolfo Simôes, Maria João Alegria, Nuno Mateus, Victor de Freitas, Rosa Pérez-Gregorio and Susana Soares
Plants 2023, 12(19), 3397; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12193397 - 26 Sep 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1042
Abstract
The consumption of ‘not-from-concentrate’ (NFC) fruit juices can be a convenient and enjoyable way to incorporate the nutritional benefits and flavors of fruits into one’s diet. This study will focus on the effect of production of juices from apple and pear fruits, by [...] Read more.
The consumption of ‘not-from-concentrate’ (NFC) fruit juices can be a convenient and enjoyable way to incorporate the nutritional benefits and flavors of fruits into one’s diet. This study will focus on the effect of production of juices from apple and pear fruits, by using centrifugal decanter and tangential filtration, on the profile of polyphenols as a valuable source of bioactive compounds. Likewise, by-products from the juice industry were characterized in order to understand the high-value-added potential based on their composition of polyphenols. Briefly, apple and apple juice showed great contents of chlorogenic acid (0.990 ± 0.021 mg/g of DW), the dihydrochalcone phloridzin (1.041 ± 0.062 mg/g of DW), procyanidins (0.733 ± 0.121 mg/g of DW) and quercetin derivatives (1.501 ± 0.192 mg/g of DW). Likewise, the most abundant compounds in pear and pear juices were chlorogenic acid (0.917 ± 0.021 mg/g of DW), caffeoylquinic acid (0.180 ± 0.029 mg/g of DW), procyanidins (0.255 ± 0.016 mg/g of DW) and quercetin derivatives (0.181 ± 0.004 mg/g of DW). Both temperature and tangential speed affect the amount of phenolic compounds in fruit juices, highlighting the need to control the technological process to obtain a more nutritious/healthier beverage. Overall, NFC juices arise as a better option when compared with concentrated juices. Furthermore, the higher yield of phenolic compounds found in fruit pomace clearly open new ways for upcycling this fruit by-product as a high-value-added ingredient. Full article
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13 pages, 3127 KiB  
Article
Solanum aethiopicum L. from the Basilicata Region Prevents Lipid Absorption, Fat Accumulation, Oxidative Stress, and Inflammation in OA-Treated HepG2 and Caco-2 Cell Lines
by Ludovica Lela, Daniela Russo, Filomena De Biasio, Domenico Gorgoglione, Angela Ostuni, Maria Ponticelli and Luigi Milella
Plants 2023, 12(15), 2859; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12152859 - 3 Aug 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1197
Abstract
Obesity is widely associated with intestine barrier impairment, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) outbreaks, oxidative stress, and inflammation. In a previous investigation, the Solanum aethiopicum L. growing in Basilicata Region has demonstrated to have antioxidant activity; hence this investigation was aimed to evaluate [...] Read more.
Obesity is widely associated with intestine barrier impairment, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) outbreaks, oxidative stress, and inflammation. In a previous investigation, the Solanum aethiopicum L. growing in Basilicata Region has demonstrated to have antioxidant activity; hence this investigation was aimed to evaluate for the first time the antilipidemic and anti-inflammatory activity of the Lucanian S. aethiopicum L. peel extract in vitro on OA-treated HepG2 and Caco-2 cell lines. It was shown that the extract could reduce lipogenesis by down-regulating SREBP-1c and HMGCR expression and fatty acid β-oxidation by up-regulating PPARα, CPT1A, and UCP2 expression. In addition, the S. aethiopicum L. peel extract might also improve oxidative stress by reducing endoplasmic reticulum stress and regulating the Nrf2 and Nf-κB molecular pathways. Altogether, these results demonstrated for the first time the possible application of the Lucanian S. aethiopicum peel extract for preventing obesity and managing NAFLD. Full article
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15 pages, 4190 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Total Isoflavones in Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Sprouts Germinated under Precursors (p-Coumaric Acid and L-Phenylalanine) Supplementation
by Jaya Arora, Bhanupriya Kanthaliya, Abhishek Joshi, Mukesh Meena, Supriya Meena, Manzer H. Siddiqui, Saud Alamri and Hari Prasad Devkota
Plants 2023, 12(15), 2823; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12152823 - 31 Jul 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1283
Abstract
Cicer arietinum L. (Bengal gram, chickpea) is one of the major pulse crops and an important part of traditional diets in Asia, Africa, and South America. The present study was conducted to determine the changes in total isoflavones during sprouting (0, 3, and [...] Read more.
Cicer arietinum L. (Bengal gram, chickpea) is one of the major pulse crops and an important part of traditional diets in Asia, Africa, and South America. The present study was conducted to determine the changes in total isoflavones during sprouting (0, 3, and 7 days) along with the effect of two precursor supplementations, p-coumaric acid (p-CA) and L-phenylalanine (Phe), in C. arietinum. It was observed that increasing sprouting time up to the seventh day resulted in ≈1282 mg 100 g−1 isoflavones, which is approximately eight times higher than chickpea seeds. The supplementation of Phe did not affect the total length of sprouts, whereas the supplementation of p-CA resulted in stunted sprouts. On the third day of supplementation with p-CA (250 mg L−1), the increase in the total phenolic content (TPC) (80%), daidzein (152%), and genistin (158%) contents were observed, and further extending the supplementation reduced the growth of sprouts. On the seventh day of supplementation with Phe (500 mg L−1), the increase in TPC by 43% and genistin content by 74% was observed compared with non-treated sprouts; however, the total isoflavones content was found to be 1212 mg 100 g−1. The increased TPC was positively correlated with the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity (r = 0.787) and ferric-reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) (r = 0.676) activity. This study suggests that chickpea sprouts enriched in TPC and antioxidants can be produced by the appropriate quantity of precursor supplementation on a particular day. The results indicated major changes in the phytochemical content, especially daidzein and genistin. It was also concluded that the consumption of 100 g of seventh-day sprouts provided eight times higher amounts of isoflavones in comparison to chickpea seeds. Full article
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15 pages, 2793 KiB  
Article
Effects of Different Heating Treatments on the Antioxidant Activity and Phenolic Compounds of Ecuadorian Red Dacca Banana
by Diego Armando Tuárez-García, Hugo Galván-Gámez, Cyntia Yadira Erazo Solórzano, Carlos Edison Zambrano, Raquel Rodríguez-Solana, Gema Pereira-Caro, Mónica Sánchez-Parra, José M. Moreno-Rojas and José L. Ordóñez-Díaz
Plants 2023, 12(15), 2780; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12152780 - 27 Jul 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1417
Abstract
The banana is a tropical fruit characterized by its composition of healthy and nutritional compounds. This fruit is part of traditional Ecuadorian gastronomy, being consumed in a wide variety of ways. In this context, unripe Red Dacca banana samples and those submitted to [...] Read more.
The banana is a tropical fruit characterized by its composition of healthy and nutritional compounds. This fruit is part of traditional Ecuadorian gastronomy, being consumed in a wide variety of ways. In this context, unripe Red Dacca banana samples and those submitted to different traditional Ecuadorian heating treatments (boiling, roasting, and baking) were evaluated to profile their phenolic content by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS) and the antioxidant activity by ORAC, ABTS, and DPPH assays. A total of sixty-eight phenolic compounds were identified or tentatively identified in raw banana and treated samples, highlighting the content in flavonoids (flavan-3-ols with 88.33% and flavonols with 3.24%) followed by the hydroxybenzoic acid family (5.44%) in raw banana samples. The total phenolic compound content significantly decreased for all the elaborations evaluated, specifically from 442.12 mg/100 g DW in fresh bananas to 338.60 mg/100 g DW in boiled (23.41%), 243.63 mg/100 g DW in roasted (44.90%), and 109.85 mg/100 g DW in baked samples (75.15%). Flavan-3-ols and flavonols were the phenolic groups most affected by the heating treatments, while flavanones and hydroxybenzoic acids showed higher stability against the heating treatments, especially the boiled and roasted samples. In general, the decrease in phenolic compounds corresponded with a decline in antioxidant activity, evaluated by different methods, especially in baked samples. The results obtained from PCA studies confirmed that the impact of heating on the composition of some phenolic compounds was different depending on the technique used. In general, the heating processes applied to the banana samples induced phytochemical modifications. Even so, they remain an important source of bioactive compounds for consumers. Full article
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19 pages, 2474 KiB  
Article
Optimization of the Green Chemistry-like Extraction of Phenolic Compounds from Grape (Vitis labrusca L.) and Blackberry (Rubus fruticosus L.) Seeds with Concomitant Biological and Antioxidant Activity Assessments
by Tufy Kabbas Junior, Cristiane de Moura, Thiago Mendanha Cruz, Mariza Boscacci Marques, Mariana Araújo Vieira do Carmo, Carolina Turnes Pasini Deolindo, Heitor Daguer, Luciana Azevedo and Daniel Granato
Plants 2023, 12(14), 2618; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12142618 - 11 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1379
Abstract
The objective of this work was to determine the phenolic composition, chemical and cellular antioxidant activity, cytotoxicity in human cells, and peroxidative inhibition of the defatted fraction of grape (Vitis labrusca) and blackberry (Rubus fruticosus) seeds. Soxhlet extraction (Sox) [...] Read more.
The objective of this work was to determine the phenolic composition, chemical and cellular antioxidant activity, cytotoxicity in human cells, and peroxidative inhibition of the defatted fraction of grape (Vitis labrusca) and blackberry (Rubus fruticosus) seeds. Soxhlet extraction (Sox) was used to extract the fat and obtain the degreased material. A statistical optimization study was developed to maximize the extraction of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity from defatted grape and blackberry seeds. Simultaneous optimization was applied with a combination of 35.9 min of extraction and a solid-to-solvent ratio of 1 g of defatted grape seed to 61.28 mL of an extracting solvent (60% ethanol) and 62.1 min of extraction and a solid-to-solvent ratio of 1 g of defatted blackberry seed to 64.1 mL of an extracting solvent (60% ethanol). In the cell viability assay, HepG2 cancer cells seemed more sensitive to grape and blackberry extracts, while Ea.hy926 hybrid cells showed more resistance to their effects. In general, the extracts presented low/no cytotoxicity, exhibited a protective effect against H2O2-induced ROS production, and demonstrated antioxidant activity and a protective effect on the erythrocytes when subjected to hypotonic and isotonic conditions not presenting hemolytic behavior (5.0 to 10.0 μg GAE/mL). Thus, the results provided a broad assessment of the bioactivity of the extracts obtained using a simple and low-cost process developed by employing non-toxic solvents and with the potential to be used in technological applications. Full article
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13 pages, 754 KiB  
Article
Preparative Fractionation of Phenolic Compounds and Isolation of an Enriched Flavonol Fraction from Winemaking Industry By-Products by High-Performance Counter-Current Chromatography
by Ariel Fontana and Andreas Schieber
Plants 2023, 12(12), 2242; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12122242 - 7 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1376
Abstract
High-performance counter-current chromatography (HPCCC) was used as a tool for the isolation and fractionation of phenolic compounds (PCs) in extracts from wine lees (WL) and grape pomace (GP). The biphasic solvent systems applied for HPCCC separation were n-butanol:methyl tert-butyl ether:acetonitrile:water (3:1:1:5) [...] Read more.
High-performance counter-current chromatography (HPCCC) was used as a tool for the isolation and fractionation of phenolic compounds (PCs) in extracts from wine lees (WL) and grape pomace (GP). The biphasic solvent systems applied for HPCCC separation were n-butanol:methyl tert-butyl ether:acetonitrile:water (3:1:1:5) with 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) and n-hexane:ethyl acetate:methanol:water (1:5:1:5). After refining the ethanol:water extracts of GP and WL by-products by ethyl acetate extraction, the latter system yielded an enriched fraction of the minor family of flavonols. Recoveries of 112.9 and 105.9 mg of purified flavonols (myricetin, quercetin, isorhamnetin, and kaempferol) in GP and WL, respectively, from 500 mg of ethyl acetate extract (equivalent to 10 g of by-product) were obtained. The HPCCC fractionation and concentration capabilities were also exploited for the characterization and tentative identification of constitutive PCs by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS). In addition to the isolation of the enriched flavonol fraction, a total of 57 PCs in both matrixes were identified, 12 of which were reported for the first time in WL and/or GP. The application of HPCCC to GP and WL extracts may be a powerful approach to isolate large amounts of minor PCs. The composition of the isolated fraction demonstrated quantitative differences in the individual compound composition of GP and WL, supporting the potential exploitation of these matrixes as sources of specific flavonols for technological applications. Full article
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16 pages, 2692 KiB  
Article
Contribution of Proteins and Peptides to the Impact of a Soy Protein Isolate on Oxidative Stress and Inflammation-Associated Biomarkers in an Innate Immune Cell Model
by Giselle Franca-Oliveira, Adolfo J. Martinez-Rodriguez, Esperanza Morato and Blanca Hernández-Ledesma
Plants 2023, 12(10), 2011; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12102011 - 17 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1629
Abstract
The innate and adaptative immune systems are involved in the regulation of inflammatory and oxidative processes and mediators such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO). The exacerbated action of these players results in an oxidative stress status and chronic inflammation, [...] Read more.
The innate and adaptative immune systems are involved in the regulation of inflammatory and oxidative processes and mediators such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO). The exacerbated action of these players results in an oxidative stress status and chronic inflammation, which is responsible for the development of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). By modulating these mediators, bioactive compounds in food can exert a key role in the prevention of several NCDs. Among these compounds, soybean proteins and peptides such as lunasin have been considered to be among the most promising. The aim of this study was to obtain and characterize a soluble protein-enriched extract from a commercial soybean protein isolate and fractionate it into different fractions through ultrafiltration. Their antioxidant and immunomodulatory properties were then evaluated using biochemical and cell models. A total of 535 proteins (from 282 protein groups) were identified in the extract, in which the presence of the peptide lunasin was confirmed. The enrichment of this peptide was achieved in the 3–10 kDa fraction. The protective effects against the oxidative stress induced by LPS in the macrophage model could have been mediated by the radical scavenging capacity of the peptides present in the soybean samples. Under basal conditions, the extract and its ultrafiltered fractions activated macrophages and induced the release of NO. However, under challenged conditions, the whole extract potentiated the NO-stimulating effects of LPS, whereas the fraction containing 3–10 kDa peptides, including lunasin, counteracted the LPS-induced NO increase. Our findings suggest a promising role of soybean protein as an ingredient for functional foods and nutraceuticals aimed at promoting health and preventing oxidative stress and/or immune-alteration-associated diseases. Full article
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14 pages, 2220 KiB  
Article
Storage Stability of Arauco Virgin Olive Oil: Evolution of Its Quality Parameters and Phenolic and Triterpenic Compounds under Different Conservation Conditions
by Romina P. Monasterio, Eduardo Trentacoste, Carlos López Appiolaza, María Gemma Beiro-Valenzuela, Irene Serrano-García, Lucía Olmo-García and Alegría Carrasco-Pancorbo
Plants 2023, 12(9), 1826; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12091826 - 29 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1188
Abstract
The storage conditions are very critical to minimize hydrolytic and oxidative reactions of virgin olive oils (VOOs). These reactions are logically influenced by the composition of the VOO, so that each variety may have a specific behavior. The aim of this study was [...] Read more.
The storage conditions are very critical to minimize hydrolytic and oxidative reactions of virgin olive oils (VOOs). These reactions are logically influenced by the composition of the VOO, so that each variety may have a specific behavior. The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in quality parameters and in the phenolic and triterpenic profile of Arauco VOOs, a unique local variety from Argentina, after storage under different conditions. The effects of exposure to light (darkness and light), temperature (24 and 40 °C), packaging material (polyethylene (PET) and dark glass), and headspace (air and N2 atmosphere) were investigated for 76 days. A reduction in total phenolic compounds was observed after storage treatments, but all samples still complied with the EFSA health claim after the different handlings. Overall, the results revealed that the preservation of the oils in PET appears adequate, with improved stability when N2 was used in the headspace, along with darkness and low temperature. The study of phenolic profiles showed that substances previously reported as possible markers of olive oil aging, such as hydroxytyrosol and an isomer of decarboxymethyl oleuropein aglycone, also have a similar behavior during the aging of Arauco variety oil. Interestingly, some evidence was found that another oleuropein-derived compound (oleuropein aglycone isomer 3) could also be used as an aging marker. Full article
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17 pages, 1381 KiB  
Article
Kinetics of Microwave-Assisted Extraction Process Applied on Recovery of Peppermint Polyphenols: Experiments and Modeling
by Branimir Pavlić, Muammer Kaplan, Zoran Zeković, Oltan Canli, Nebojša Jovičić, Danijela Bursać Kovačević, Anica Bebek Markovinović, Predrag Putnik and Oskar Bera
Plants 2023, 12(6), 1391; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12061391 - 21 Mar 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1962
Abstract
The aim of this work was to investigate the microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) kinetics of polyphenolic compounds from organic peppermint leaves. The phytochemicals of peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) are increasingly used in food technology due to their numerous biological activities. The processing of [...] Read more.
The aim of this work was to investigate the microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) kinetics of polyphenolic compounds from organic peppermint leaves. The phytochemicals of peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) are increasingly used in food technology due to their numerous biological activities. The processing of various plant materials by MAE and the production of high-quality extracts is becoming increasingly important. Therefore, the influence of microwave irradiation power (90, 180, 360, 600, and 800 W) on total extraction yield (Y), total polyphenols yield (TP), and flavonoid yield (TF) were investigated. Common empirical models (first-order, Peleg’s hyperbolic, Elovich’s logarithmic, and power-law model) were applied to the extraction process. The first-order kinetics model provided the best agreement with the experimental results in terms of statistical parameters (SSer, R2, and AARD). Therefore, the influences of irradiation power on the adjustable model parameters (k and Ceq) were investigated. It was found that irradiation power exerted a significant influence on k, while its influence on the asymptotic value of the response was negligible. The highest experimentally determined k (2.28 min−1) was obtained at an irradiation power of 600 W, while the optimal irradiation power determined by the maximum fitting curve determination predicted the highest k (2.36 min−1) at 665 W. Full article
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15 pages, 1895 KiB  
Article
Optimization of a New Antioxidant Formulation Using a Simplex Lattice Mixture Design of Apium graveolens L., Coriandrum sativum L., and Petroselinum crispum M. Grown in Northern Morocco
by Ghizlane Nouioura, Meryem Tourabi, Asmae El Ghouizi, Mohammed Kara, Amine Assouguem, Asmaa Saleh, Omkulthom Al Kamaly, Faiçal El Ouadrhiri, Badiaa Lyoussi and El Houssine Derwich
Plants 2023, 12(5), 1175; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12051175 - 3 Mar 2023
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1965
Abstract
A statistical Simplex Lattice Mixture design was applied to develop a new formulation based on a combination of three plants grown in northern Morocco: Apium graveolens L., Coriandrum sativum L., and Petroselinum crispum M. We examined the extraction yield, total polyphenol content (TPC), [...] Read more.
A statistical Simplex Lattice Mixture design was applied to develop a new formulation based on a combination of three plants grown in northern Morocco: Apium graveolens L., Coriandrum sativum L., and Petroselinum crispum M. We examined the extraction yield, total polyphenol content (TPC), 2′2-diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). The results of this screening study showed that C. sativum L. had the highest content of DPPH (53.22%) and TAC (37.46 ± 0.29 mg Eq AA/g DW) compared to the other two plants, while P. crispum M. showed the highest TPC (18.52 ± 0.32 mg Eq GA/g DW). Furthermore, the ANOVA analysis of the mixture design showed that all three responses (DPPH, TAC, and TPC) were statistically significant, with determination coefficients of 97%, 93%, and 91%, respectively, and fit the cubic model. Moreover, the diagnostic plots showed good correlation between the experimental and predicted values. Therefore, the best combination obtained under optimal conditions (P1 = 0.611, P2 = 0.289, P3 = 0.100) was characterized by DPPH, TAC, and TPC of 56.21%, 72.74 mg Eq AA/g DW, and 21.98 mg Eq GA/g DW, respectively. The results of this study reinforce the view of stimulating the effect of plant combinations to achieve better antioxidant activities, thus providing a better formulation using designs of mixtures for the food industry and in cosmetic and pharmaceutical applications. Moreover, our findings support the traditional use of the Apiaceae plant species in managing many disorders cited in the Moroccan pharmacopeia. Full article
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22 pages, 1095 KiB  
Article
Essential Oils from Apiaceae, Asteraceae, Cupressaceae and Lamiaceae Families Grown in Serbia: Comparative Chemical Profiling with In Vitro Antioxidant Activity
by Nevena Gladikostić, Bojana Ikonić, Nemanja Teslić, Zoran Zeković, Danica Božović, Predrag Putnik, Danijela Bursać Kovačević and Branimir Pavlić
Plants 2023, 12(4), 745; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12040745 - 7 Feb 2023
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2130
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to investigate the chemical profile and antioxidant activity of essential oils obtained from the most commonly grown plant species in Serbia. Aromatic and medicinal plants from Lamiaceae (Mentha x Piperita, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum [...] Read more.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the chemical profile and antioxidant activity of essential oils obtained from the most commonly grown plant species in Serbia. Aromatic and medicinal plants from Lamiaceae (Mentha x Piperita, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum majorana, Origanum vulgare, Salvia officinalis, Satureja hortensis, Satureja montana and Thymus vulgaris), Asteraceae (Ehinacea purpurea and Matricaria chamomilla), Apiaceae (Anethum graveolens, Carum carvi, Foeniculum vulgare, Petroselinum crispum and Pimpinella anisum) and Cupressaceae (Juniperus comunis) were selected as raw material for essential oils (EOs)’ isolation. Hydrodistillation (HD) was used for the isolation of EOs while they were evaluated in terms of yield and terpenoid profiles by GC-MS. In vitro radical scavenging DPPH and ABTS+ radical activities were carried out for all EOs. Finally, a principal component analysis (PCA) was performed with the experimental results of the composition and antioxidant activity of the EOs, which showed a clear distinction between the selected plant species for the aforementioned responses. This work represents a screening tool for the selection of other EO candidates for further processing by emerging extraction techniques and the use of EOs as natural additives for meat products. Full article
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15 pages, 6383 KiB  
Article
Antioxidant, Bacteriostatic and Preservative Effects of Extractable Condensed Tannins Isolated from Longan Pericarps and Seeds
by Mengli Wang, Ting Chen, Qin Wang and Yan Shi
Plants 2023, 12(3), 512; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12030512 - 22 Jan 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2208
Abstract
In the process of longan production and processing, a large amount of remnants is produced, such as dried longan pericarps and seeds, which have been reported to be rich in polyphenols but not effectively utilized. In this paper, the total phenolic contents in [...] Read more.
In the process of longan production and processing, a large amount of remnants is produced, such as dried longan pericarps and seeds, which have been reported to be rich in polyphenols but not effectively utilized. In this paper, the total phenolic contents in the remnants of longan pericarps and seeds were found to be 39.58 ± 3.54 and 69.53 ± 1.99 mg/g (DW), respectively, accounting for 60–80% of those in fresh samples. The contents of extractable condensed tannins (ECTs) in the remnants of longan pericarps and seeds were 19.25 ± 6.71 mg/g (DW) and 44.59 ± 2.05 mg/g (DW), respectively, accounting for 60–70% of the fresh samples. These data indicate that the polyphenols in the remnants of the sampled longan pericarps and seeds were effectively retained. The antioxidant capacity of ECTs from the longan pericarps and seeds was more than 60% of the fresh samples measured with the 1, 1-diphenyl-2-trinitrophenylhydrazine and ferric reducing ability of plasma methods. Further exploration showed that ECTs from the longan pericarps and seeds had significant inhibitory effects on Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Salmonella and Staphylococcus aureus. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the longan pericarp ECTs on all four studied bacteria was 3 mg/mL. The MIC of longan seed ECTs on Salmonella was 3 mg/mL, and that of the other three bacteria was 1.5 mg/mL. In view of the good antioxidant and antibacterial activities of longan pericarps and seeds, we applied them to the preservation of fresh-cut lotus roots. When the concentration of ECTs in the longan pericarps and seeds was 2 mg/mL and 1 mg/mL, respectively, the two kinds of ECTs showed an obvious preservative effect. After the ECT treatment of the lotus roots, their browning degree was reduced, their color was better maintained, their respiration was inhibited and their nutrient loss was reduced. Bacterial reproduction was inhibited, and cell senescence was slowed. Accordingly, the shelf life of ECT-treated fruits and vegetables can be effectively extended. Overall, we can suggest that ECTs from the remnants of dried longan pericarps and seeds could be used as natural preservatives for fresh-cut fruits and vegetables. Full article
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13 pages, 1820 KiB  
Article
Organic vs. Non-Organic Plant-Based Foods—A Comparative Study on Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Capacity
by Álvaro Cruz-Carrión, Ma. Josefina Ruiz de Azua, Begoña Muguerza, Miquel Mulero, Francisca Isabel Bravo, Anna Arola-Arnal and Manuel Suarez
Plants 2023, 12(1), 183; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12010183 - 1 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2930
Abstract
A plant’s stress response involves the production of phytochemicals, including phenolic compounds. Their synthesis can be modulated by organic (ORG) or non-organic (NORG) farming systems in which they are grown. To examine this issue, thirteen plant-based foods cultivated in ORG and NORG systems [...] Read more.
A plant’s stress response involves the production of phytochemicals, including phenolic compounds. Their synthesis can be modulated by organic (ORG) or non-organic (NORG) farming systems in which they are grown. To examine this issue, thirteen plant-based foods cultivated in ORG and NORG systems were compared in terms of antioxidant capacity, total content of phenolics, anthocyanins, flavan-3-ols and flavonols. The results showed that NORG fruits tended to have higher phenolic compounds content, whereas ORG fruits had more antioxidant capacity. NORG legume stood out for having higher values from all the parameters analyzed in comparison to its ORG equivalent. ORG nuts showed more flavan-3-ols and flavonols than their NORG counterparts, nonetheless, tended to be less antioxidant. ORG vegetables displayed higher phenolics and anthocyanins, which reflected in higher antioxidant capacity than NORG ones. These findings suggest that farming systems differentially modulate phenolic compound composition and antioxidant capacity based on the plant species studied. Full article
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15 pages, 2964 KiB  
Article
Metabolomics Approach to Characterize Green Olive Leaf Extracts Classified Based on Variety and Season
by Graziana Difonzo, Maria Assunta Crescenzi, Sonia Piacente, Giuseppe Altamura, Francesco Caponio and Paola Montoro
Plants 2022, 11(23), 3321; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11233321 - 1 Dec 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1822
Abstract
The huge interest in the health-related properties of plant polyphenols to be applied in food and health-related sectors has brought about the development of sensitive analytical methods for metabolomic characterization. Olive leaves constitute a valuable waste rich in polyphenols with functional properties. A [...] Read more.
The huge interest in the health-related properties of plant polyphenols to be applied in food and health-related sectors has brought about the development of sensitive analytical methods for metabolomic characterization. Olive leaves constitute a valuable waste rich in polyphenols with functional properties. A (HR)LC-ESI-ORBITRAP-MS analysis with a multivariate statistical analysis approach using PCA and/or PLS-DA projection methods were applied to identify polyphenols in olive leaf extracts of five varieties from the Apulia region (Italy) in two different seasonal times. A total of 26 metabolites were identified, further finding that although metabolites are common among the different cultivars, they differ in the relative intensity of each peak and within each cultivar in the two seasonal periods taken into consideration. The results of the total phenol contents showed the highest content in November for Bambina and Cima di Mola varieties (1816 and 1788 mg/100 g, respectively), followed by Coratina, Leccino, and Cima di Melfi; a similar trend was found for the antioxidant activity and RapidOxy evaluations by reaching in Bambina values of 45 mmol TE/100 g and 85 min of induction time. Full article
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17 pages, 3989 KiB  
Article
Multi-Step Biomass Fractionation of Grape Seeds from Pomace, a Zero-Waste Approach
by Yara Salem, Hiba N. Rajha, Lambertus A. M. van den Broek, Carl Safi, Arnoud Togtema, Maria Manconi, Maria Letizia Manca, Espérance Debs, Zeina Hobaika, Richard G. Maroun and Nicolas Louka
Plants 2022, 11(21), 2831; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11212831 - 25 Oct 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1699
Abstract
Grape seeds are the wineries’ main by-products, and their disposal causes ecological and environmental problems. In this study seeds from the pomace waste of autochthonous grape varieties from Lebanon, Obeidi (white variety) and Asswad Karech (red variety) were used for a multi-step biomass [...] Read more.
Grape seeds are the wineries’ main by-products, and their disposal causes ecological and environmental problems. In this study seeds from the pomace waste of autochthonous grape varieties from Lebanon, Obeidi (white variety) and Asswad Karech (red variety) were used for a multi-step biomass fractionation. For the first step, a lipid extraction was performed, and the obtained yield was 12.33% (w/w) for Obeidi and 13.04% (w/w) for Asswad Karech. For the second step, polyphenols’ recovery from the defatted seeds was carried out, resulting in 12.0% (w/w) for Obeidi and 6.6% (w/w) for Asswad Karech, with Obeidi’s extract having the highest total phenolic content (333.1 ± 1.6 mg GAE/g dry matter) and antioxidant activity (662.17 ± 0.01 µg/mL of Trolox equivalent). In the third step, the defatted and dephenolized seeds were subsequently extracted under alkaline conditions and the proteins were isoelectric precipitated. The recovered protein extract was 3.90% (w/w) for Obeidi and 4.11% (w/w) for Asswad Karech seeds, with Asswad Karech’s extract having the highest protein content (64 ± 0.2 mg protein/g dry matter). The remaining exhausted residue can be valorized in cosmetic scrubs formulations as a replacement for plastic microbeads. The designed zero-waste approach multi-step biomass fractionation has the potential to improve the valorization of the side products (grape seeds) of these two Lebanese autochthonous grape varieties. Full article
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16 pages, 3329 KiB  
Article
Intensification of Polyphenols Extraction from Eryngium creticum Leaves Using Ired-Irrad® and Evaluation of Antibiofilm and Antibacterial Activities
by Mariam Hammoud, Ali Chokr, Hiba N. Rajha, Carl Safi, Martijn van Walsem, Lambertus A. M. van den Broek, Espérance Debs, Richard G. Maroun, Nicolas Louka and Hassan Rammal
Plants 2022, 11(19), 2458; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11192458 - 21 Sep 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1741
Abstract
(1) Background: Eryngium creticum is a plant medicinally valued, and used in pharmacopeia to treat various diseases. No previous studies have been reported on E. creticum leaf extracts using an IR-assisted technique; thus, this study aimed to intensify polyphenol extraction using Ired-Irrad® [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Eryngium creticum is a plant medicinally valued, and used in pharmacopeia to treat various diseases. No previous studies have been reported on E. creticum leaf extracts using an IR-assisted technique; thus, this study aimed to intensify polyphenol extraction using Ired-Irrad®, comparing it to the conventional water bath (WB) method. (2) Methods: Optimization of polyphenol extraction from E. creticum leaves was conducted using Response Surface Methodology. Ired-Irrad® was used and compared to the WB method. The biological activities (antiradical, antioxidant, antibacterial, and antibiofilm) of both extracts were assessed. UHPLC analysis was performed to analyze the phytochemical profile of both extracts. (3) Results: Under optimal conditions, IR improved the polyphenol extraction yield by 1.7 times, while lowering ethanol consumption by 1.5 times. Regarding the antibacterial activity, both WB and IR E. creticum leaf extracts exhibited the highest antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis. The maximum biofilm prevention capacity was also noticed against S. epidermidis. UHPLC-MS analysis quantified two major phenolic compounds in both extracts: rutin and sinapic acid. (4) Conclusions: Ired-Irrad® technology proved to be an effective technique in intensifying polyphenol recovery, while preserving their quantity and quality. Full article
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Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research

21 pages, 974 KiB  
Review
Sustainable Isolation of Bioactive Compounds and Proteins from Plant-Based Food (and Byproducts)
by Zakir Showkat Khan, Saira Amir, Tea Sokač Cvetnić, Ana Jurinjak Tušek, Maja Benković, Tamara Jurina, Davor Valinger and Jasenka Gajdoš Kljusurić
Plants 2023, 12(16), 2904; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12162904 - 9 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2376
Abstract
Plant-based food produces significantly less greenhouse gases, and due to its wealth of bioactive components and/or plant-based protein, it becomes an alternative in a sustainable food system. However, the processing and production of products from plant sources creates byproducts, which can be waste [...] Read more.
Plant-based food produces significantly less greenhouse gases, and due to its wealth of bioactive components and/or plant-based protein, it becomes an alternative in a sustainable food system. However, the processing and production of products from plant sources creates byproducts, which can be waste or a source of useful substances that can be reused. The waste produced during the production and processing of food is essentially nutrient- and energy-rich, and it is recognized as an excellent source of secondary raw materials that could be repurposed in the process of manufacturing and preparing food, or as feed for livestock. This review offers an overview of the sources and techniques of the sustainable isolation of bioactive substances and proteins from various sources that might represent waste in the preparation or production of food of plant origin. The aim is to uncover novel approaches to use waste and byproducts from the process of making food to provide this waste food an additional benefit, not forgetting the expectations of the end user, the consumer. For the successful isolation of bioactive ingredients and proteins from food of plant origin, it is crucial to develop more eco-friendly and efficient extraction techniques with a low CO2 footprint while considering the economic aspects. Full article
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39 pages, 2986 KiB  
Review
Scientific Advances in the Last Decade on the Recovery, Characterization, and Functionality of Bioactive Compounds from the Araticum Fruit (Annona crassiflora Mart.)
by Henrique Silvano Arruda, Felipe Tecchio Borsoi, Amanda Cristina Andrade, Glaucia Maria Pastore and Mario Roberto Marostica Junior
Plants 2023, 12(7), 1536; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12071536 - 3 Apr 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2190
Abstract
Araticum (Annona crassiflora Mart.) is a native and endemic species to Brazilian Cerrado whose fruits have high sensorial, nutritional, bioactive, and economic potential. Its use in local folk medicine, associated with recent scientific findings, has attracted growing interest from different industrial sectors. [...] Read more.
Araticum (Annona crassiflora Mart.) is a native and endemic species to Brazilian Cerrado whose fruits have high sensorial, nutritional, bioactive, and economic potential. Its use in local folk medicine, associated with recent scientific findings, has attracted growing interest from different industrial sectors. Therefore, understanding the scientific advances achieved so far and identifying gaps to be filled is essential to direct future studies and transform accumulated knowledge into innovative technologies and products. In this review, we summarize the phytochemical composition, bioactivities, and food products from araticum fruit that have been reported in the scientific literature over the past 10 years. The compiled data showed that araticum fruit parts contain a wide range of bioactive compounds, particularly phenolic compounds, alkaloids, annonaceous acetogenins, carotenoids, phytosterols, and tocols. These phytochemicals contribute to different biological activities verified in araticum fruit extracts/fractions, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-Alzheimer, anticancer, antidiabetic, anti-obesity, antidyslipidemic, antinociceptive, hepatoprotective, healing of the cutaneous wound, antibacterial, and insecticide effects. Despite the promising findings, further studies—particularly toxicological (especially, with byproducts), pre-clinical, and clinical trials—must be conducted to confirm these biological effects in humans and assure the safety and well-being of consumers. Full article
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12 pages, 1178 KiB  
Review
Chlorophylls as Natural Bioactive Compounds Existing in Food By-Products: A Critical Review
by Peyman Ebrahimi, Zahra Shokramraji, Setareh Tavakkoli, Dasha Mihaylova and Anna Lante
Plants 2023, 12(7), 1533; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12071533 - 2 Apr 2023
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 8132
Abstract
Chlorophylls are a group of naturally occurring pigments that are responsible for the green color in plants. This pigment group could have numerous health benefits due to its high antioxidant activity, including anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and anti-obesity properties. Many food by-products contain a high [...] Read more.
Chlorophylls are a group of naturally occurring pigments that are responsible for the green color in plants. This pigment group could have numerous health benefits due to its high antioxidant activity, including anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and anti-obesity properties. Many food by-products contain a high level of chlorophyll content. These by-products are discarded and considered environmental pollutants if not used as a source of bioactive compounds. The recovery of chlorophylls from food by-products is an interesting approach for increasing the sustainability of food production. This paper provides insight into the properties of chlorophylls and the effect of different treatments on their stability, and then reviews the latest research on the extraction of chlorophylls from a sustainable perspective. Full article
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19 pages, 2105 KiB  
Review
Acacia catechu (L.f.) Willd.: A Review on Bioactive Compounds and Their Health Promoting Functionalities
by Monika Kumari, Radha, Manoj Kumar, Baohong Zhang, Ryszard Amarowicz, Sunil Puri, Ashok Pundir, Sonia Rathour, Neeraj Kumari, Deepak Chandran, Abhijit Dey, Niharika Sharma, Sureshkumar Rajalingam, Pran Mohankumar, Surinder Sandhu, Nutan Pant, Raja Priya Ravichandran, Marimuthu Subramani, Kunjammal Pandi, Muthamilselvan Muthukumar, Gokhan Zengin, Mohamed Mekhemar and Jose M. Lorenzoadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Plants 2022, 11(22), 3091; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11223091 - 14 Nov 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 6415
Abstract
With the advent of pandemics and infectious diseases, numerous research activities on natural products have been carried out to combat them. Researchers are investigating natural products for the treatment and/or management of various infectious diseases and/or disorders. Acacia catechu (L.f.) Willd. belongs to [...] Read more.
With the advent of pandemics and infectious diseases, numerous research activities on natural products have been carried out to combat them. Researchers are investigating natural products for the treatment and/or management of various infectious diseases and/or disorders. Acacia catechu (L.f.) Willd. belongs to the family Fabaceae (subfamily Mimosoideae) known as Khair or Cutch tree, possesses diverse pharmacological actions, and has been widely used in Asia and different parts of the world. The purpose of the present study is to highlight the phytochemical profile of different parts of A. catechu, the different biological activities of A. catechu extract, and the utilization of A. catechu as food and beverage. The present work constitutes a review of A. catechu; we performed searches (books, Google, Google Scholar, and Scopus publications) to compile the work/investigations made on A. catechu to the present. From our survey, it was concluded that the main phytochemicals compounds in A. catechu are protocatechuic acid, taxifolin, epicatechin, epigallocatechin, catechin, epicatechin gallate, procyanidin, phloroglucin, aldobiuronic acid, gallic acid, D-galactose, afzelchin gum, L-arabinose, D-rhamnose, and quercetin. The whole plant of A. catechu possesses a comprehensive variety of medicinal potentials such as antimicrobial, antidiarrheal, antinociceptive, antihyperlipidemic, antiulcer, antioxidant, antidiabetic, antiproliferative, haemolytic, and anti-inflammatory properties due to the presence of bioactive compounds like flavonoids, alkaloids, and tannins. However, even though the plant’s metabolites were reported to have many different pharmacological uses, there is limited information about their toxicity or clinical trials. Further research on diverse metabolites of A. catechu should be carried out to ensure the safety or utilization of this plant in the pharma or food industries and in the development of potent plant-based drugs. Full article
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