Feature Papers in Human Physiology

A special issue of Physiologia (ISSN 2673-9488).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2022) | Viewed by 25272

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Guest Editor
School of Medicine, Royal Derby Hospital, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK
Interests: skeletal muscle; nutrition; metabolism; protein synthesis; ageing; cell signalling
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

It is our pleasure to announce a new Special Issue on “Feature Papers in Human Physiology”. This Special Issue is designed to publish high-quality papers in Physiologia, a new journal dedicated to recent advances in the research area of physiology. The Special Issue engages in but is not limited to the following topics: musculoskeletal physiology, endocrine physiology, adipose physiology, and cardiovascular physiology (in health, aging, and/or disease). The Special Issue will present a collection of research articles and review articles highlighting interesting results in the field of human physiology.

Prof. Dr. Philip J. Atherton
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Published Papers (10 papers)

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Editorial

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2 pages, 179 KiB  
Editorial
A Note from the Editor-in-Chief of Physiologia
by Philip J. Atherton
Physiologia 2022, 2(2), 32-33; https://doi.org/10.3390/physiologia2020003 - 2 Jun 2022
Viewed by 1289
Abstract
I am proud to call myself a physiologist, and, as such, it was my pleasure and honour (over a year ago now) to take on the role of founding Editor-in-Chief of Physiologia [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Human Physiology)

Research

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10 pages, 1170 KiB  
Article
Effect of Ice Slurry Ingestion on Post-Exercise Physiological Responses in Rugby Union Players
by Akihisa Morito, Takayuki Inami, Akihiro Hirata, Satoshi Yamada, Masatsugu Shimomasuda, Keita Kato, Shigeyuki Tahara and Naohiko Kohtake
Physiologia 2022, 2(4), 154-163; https://doi.org/10.3390/physiologia2040013 - 5 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1659
Abstract
Delayed recovery of the core body temperature after exercise adversely affects physiological functions, and the effects of ingesting lower-temperature ice slurry on post-exercise recovery remain unclear. We investigated the effects of ingesting −2 °C ice slurry on physiological recovery after field-based rugby union [...] Read more.
Delayed recovery of the core body temperature after exercise adversely affects physiological functions, and the effects of ingesting lower-temperature ice slurry on post-exercise recovery remain unclear. We investigated the effects of ingesting −2 °C ice slurry on physiological recovery after field-based rugby union training. Fifteen university rugby union players participated in our randomized controlled study. The players participated in the training for 60 min in a hot outdoor environment (wet-bulb globe temperature, 30.5 °C). Physiological responses were measured during a physical performance test performed after the players ingested either −2 °C-ice slurry (ICE, N = 7) at 5 g/kg body mass or a 30 °C-fluid (CON, N = 8) during the 15 min recovery period after the training. Tympanic temperatures and heart rates were measured as the physiological indices, as well as heat storage. The ICE group showed significantly decreased tympanic temperatures and heart rates (p < 0.05) during the recovery period and increased heat storage (p < 0.05) but did not show improvement of physiological indices during the performance test compared to the CON group. These results suggest that ingestion of −2 °C ice slurry in even lower amounts than those previously reported is useful for physiological recovery after training in hot outdoor environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Human Physiology)
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12 pages, 1120 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of the Efficacy of Cryopreserved Human Umbilical Cord Tissue Allografts to Augment Functional and Pain Outcome Measures in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis: An Observational Data Collection Study
by Justine M. Davis, Mitchell B. Sheinkop and Tyler C. Barrett
Physiologia 2022, 2(3), 109-120; https://doi.org/10.3390/physiologia2030010 - 19 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2879
Abstract
The primary objective of this study is to report the initial efficacy data observed with the use of cryopreserved human umbilical tissue allografts for supplementation in patients with symptomatic degeneration of load-bearing articular cartilage in the knee joint. Our primary endpoints were pain, [...] Read more.
The primary objective of this study is to report the initial efficacy data observed with the use of cryopreserved human umbilical tissue allografts for supplementation in patients with symptomatic degeneration of load-bearing articular cartilage in the knee joint. Our primary endpoints were pain, stiffness, and functional recovery scores. In this ongoing study, 55 participants (age 56–93 years) received a single Wharton’s jelly tissue allograft application. The study dose consisted of 150 mg of Wharton’s jelly allograft suspended in approximately 2 mL of sterile sodium chloride 0.9% solution (normal saline). Each study knee application was performed under ultrasound guidance in a physician’s office. The research methodology consisted of Numeric Pain Rating Scale (NPRS) scores and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) subsection scores including pain, stiffness, and physical function. Study enrollment consisted of 55 patients followed for a post-application duration of 90 days. No adverse events or adverse reactions were reported. The results demonstrated statistically significant improvements of NPRS and WOMAC in initial versus 90-day examination. The data represent Wharton’s jelly tissue allograft applications are safe, non-surgical, and efficacious for patients with symptomatic osteoarthritis of the knee. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Human Physiology)
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14 pages, 1860 KiB  
Article
Mitochondrial Effects, DNA Damage, and Antioxidant Enzyme Activity in Cryopreserved Human Sperm Samples: A Pilot Study
by Patrícia Pinto-Pinho, Regina Arantes-Rodrigues, Isabel Gaivão, Francisco Peixoto, Zélia Gomes, Miguel Brito, Osvaldo Moutinho, Bruno Colaço and Rosário Pinto-Leite
Physiologia 2022, 2(3), 80-93; https://doi.org/10.3390/physiologia2030008 - 23 Aug 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2094
Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate the impact of a vapor freezing protocol on antioxidant enzyme activity (superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase (GR)), sperm with active mitochondria, DNA damage, and spermatic parameters. Twenty-six semen samples from men undergoing infertility investigation were cryopreserved in [...] Read more.
This study aimed to evaluate the impact of a vapor freezing protocol on antioxidant enzyme activity (superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase (GR)), sperm with active mitochondria, DNA damage, and spermatic parameters. Twenty-six semen samples from men undergoing infertility investigation were cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen (LN) vapors and plunged into LN, with (method A) and without (method B) a commercial sperm freezing medium (SFM) and inherent removal with a sperm preparation medium (SPM). Most parameters were assessed before and after freezing, except for SOD and GR activity, which were only assessed after freezing. Although method A promoted better results than method B, the percentage of spermatozoa with active mitochondria, motility, vitality, and normal morphology decreased significantly. DNA damage (determined by comet assay) increased similarly with both methods, but the percentage of spermatozoa with fragmented DNA (by TUNEL assay) remained similar to fresh values when method A was applied. GR activity was higher and SOD activity lower with method A. The addition of SFM coupled with the sperm wash with SPM seems essential to preserve the quality of most of the analyzed spermatic parameters and active mitochondria. The detrimental effects promoted by freezing were shown to depend on the quality of the fresh semen, according to correlation coefficients. Interestingly, thawed samples of both methods shared similar DNA damage. These results highlight the need to find more effective protocols, especially for the freezing of low-quality semen samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Human Physiology)
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12 pages, 2220 KiB  
Article
Proteasome- and Calpain-Mediated Proteolysis, but Not Autophagy, Is Required for Leucine-Induced Protein Synthesis in C2C12 Myotubes
by Shelby C. Osburn, Christopher G. Vann, David D. Church, Arny A. Ferrando and Michael D. Roberts
Physiologia 2021, 1(1), 22-33; https://doi.org/10.3390/physiologia1010005 - 8 Nov 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3486
Abstract
Muscle protein synthesis and proteolysis are tightly coupled processes. Given that muscle growth is promoted by increases in net protein balance, it stands to reason that bolstering protein synthesis through amino acids while reducing or inhibiting proteolysis could be a synergistic strategy in [...] Read more.
Muscle protein synthesis and proteolysis are tightly coupled processes. Given that muscle growth is promoted by increases in net protein balance, it stands to reason that bolstering protein synthesis through amino acids while reducing or inhibiting proteolysis could be a synergistic strategy in enhancing anabolism. However, there is contradictory evidence suggesting that the proper functioning of proteolytic systems in muscle is required for homeostasis. To add clarity to this issue, we sought to determine if inhibiting different proteolytic systems in C2C12 myotubes in conjunction with acute and chronic leucine treatments affected markers of anabolism. In Experiment 1, myotubes underwent 1-h, 6-h, and 24-h treatments with serum and leucine-free DMEM containing the following compounds (n = 6 wells per treatment): (i) DMSO vehicle (CTL), (ii) 2 mM leucine + vehicle (Leu-only), (iii) 2 mM leucine + 40 μM MG132 (20S proteasome inhibitor) (Leu + MG132), (iv) 2 mM leucine + 50 μM calpeptin (calpain inhibitor) (Leu + CALP), and (v) 2 mM leucine + 1 μM 3-methyladenine (autophagy inhibitor) (Leu + 3MA). Protein synthesis levels significantly increased (p < 0.05) in the Leu-only and Leu + 3MA 6-h treatments compared to CTL, and levels were significantly lower in Leu + MG132 and Leu + CALP versus Leu-only and CTL. With 24-h treatments, total protein yield was significantly lower in Leu + MG132 cells versus other treatments. Additionally, the intracellular essential amino acid (EAA) pool was significantly greater in 24-h Leu + MG132 treatments versus other treatments. In a follow-up experiment, myotubes were treated for 48 h with CTL, Leu-only, and Leu + MG132 for morphological assessments. Results indicated Leu + MG132 yielded significantly smaller myotubes compared to CTL and Leu-only. Our data are limited in scope due to the utilization of select proteolysis inhibitors. However, this is the first evidence to suggest proteasome and calpain inhibition with MG132 and CALP, respectively, abrogate leucine-induced protein synthesis in myotubes. Additionally, longer-term Leu + MG132 treatments translated to an atrophy phenotype. Whether or not proteasome inhibition in vivo reduces leucine- or EAA-induced anabolism remains to be determined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Human Physiology)
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Review

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19 pages, 759 KiB  
Review
Proteogenomic Approaches to Understand Gene Mutations and Protein Structural Alterations in Colon Cancer
by Soumyadev Sarkar
Physiologia 2023, 3(1), 11-29; https://doi.org/10.3390/physiologia3010002 - 4 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2841
Abstract
With colon cancer being one of the deadliest and most common cancers, understanding the mechanisms behind colon cancer is crucial in improving therapies. One of the newest approaches in cancer research is the concept of proteogenomics. While genomic data is not sufficient to [...] Read more.
With colon cancer being one of the deadliest and most common cancers, understanding the mechanisms behind colon cancer is crucial in improving therapies. One of the newest approaches in cancer research is the concept of proteogenomics. While genomic data is not sufficient to understand cancer, the integration of multi-omics data including proteomics in conjugation with protein modeling has a better potential to elucidate protein structural alterations and characterize tumors. This enables a more efficient diagnosis of cancer and improves remedial strategies. In this review, we aim to discuss the linkage between gene mutations and protein structural alterations that lead to colon cancer. Topics include alterations in the glycoproteome and structures of proteases that impact colon cancer development. Additionally, we highlight the importance of precision oncology with an emphasis on proteogenomic approaches, protein modeling, and the potential impact on colon cancer therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Human Physiology)
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14 pages, 618 KiB  
Review
Pathophysiology of Placenta in Antiphospholipid Syndrome
by Anca Bobircă, Ana Dumitrache, Cristina Alexandru, Anca Florescu, George Ciobotaru, Florin Bobircă, Romina-Marina Sima, Cristian Poalelungi, Mihai Bojincă and Ioan Ancuța
Physiologia 2022, 2(3), 66-79; https://doi.org/10.3390/physiologia2030007 - 17 Aug 2022
Viewed by 2863
Abstract
Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by clinical manifestations caused by arterial or venous thrombosis and pregnancy conditions such as recurrent miscarriage, fetal death, or premature birth in the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies. The obstetrical manifestations are strongly related to the [...] Read more.
Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by clinical manifestations caused by arterial or venous thrombosis and pregnancy conditions such as recurrent miscarriage, fetal death, or premature birth in the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies. The obstetrical manifestations are strongly related to the placental alterations. The aim of this review is to summarize the latest data on pathophysiology of obstetrical APS, emphasizing the disturbance of the placentation process. Due to a lack of extravillous trophoblasts to properly reconstruct the spiral arteries, APS causes hypoxic or ischemic injury or high-speed blood flow that damages the placenta. This results in decreased or interrupted maternal blood flow to the placenta and a lack of nutrients for the fetus. Antiphospholipid antibodies can lower the proliferation and infiltration of the extravillous trophoblasts. The placental mal-perfusion causes the release of antiangiogenic substances such as soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 and soluble endoglin. Placental growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) may be sequestered by sFlt1 and blocked from binding to trophoblast and endothelial cell VEGF receptors, inhibiting their proangiogenic effects. Preeclampsia is the clinical result from a lack of angiogenic factors needed for endothelial vascular homeostasis due to an excess of sFlt1 in the maternal circulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Human Physiology)
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11 pages, 275 KiB  
Review
Physiological Stress as Risk Factor for Hypersensitivity to Contrast Media: A Narrative Review of the Literature and a Proposal of Psychophysiological Tools for Its Detection
by Carlo Pruneti and Sara Guidotti
Physiologia 2022, 2(3), 55-65; https://doi.org/10.3390/physiologia2030006 - 20 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2588
Abstract
The use of contrast media in clinical diagnostic practice has increased significantly in recent years, accompanied by an increase in adverse reactions. These are the fleeting symptoms most complained about by patients: Flushing of the face, feeling of nausea, and heat lasting a [...] Read more.
The use of contrast media in clinical diagnostic practice has increased significantly in recent years, accompanied by an increase in adverse reactions. These are the fleeting symptoms most complained about by patients: Flushing of the face, feeling of nausea, and heat lasting a few seconds, considered side effects related to the drug. Hypersensitivity reactions are rarer but dangerous and are driven by the immune system. To ensure the optimal management of adverse reactions to iodinated contrast media, various types of health specialists, such as radiologists, are looking into how to deal with the problem. While there are many suggestions in the scientific literature on what to do in the case of important reactions during or after radiological examination, unfortunately, there are no studies on primary and secondary prevention and, in particular, on psychophysical and psychophysiological influences. Some inferences could be made by observing the studies about psychophysiological stress and immune-inflammatory processes of allergies. The few studies in the literature on the analysis of processes affecting both psychophysiological stress and allergic responses have been analyzed. Finally, stress measurement methods are proposed that can highlight “hypersensitive” people with physiological characteristics capable of exacerbating or accentuating an allergic reaction to contrast media. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Human Physiology)
12 pages, 1803 KiB  
Review
From Innate Immunity to Inflammation: A Primer on Multiple Facets of NF-κB Signaling in COVID-19
by Ashutosh Pandey and Abhinava K. Mishra
Physiologia 2022, 2(2), 34-45; https://doi.org/10.3390/physiologia2020004 - 17 Jun 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2204
Abstract
Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) induces the expression of many pro-inflammatory genes, including cytokines and chemokines. In the past decades, a wealth of clinical as well as animal model-based studies have demonstrated the association of the deregulated NF-κB signaling pathway with the progression of [...] Read more.
Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) induces the expression of many pro-inflammatory genes, including cytokines and chemokines. In the past decades, a wealth of clinical as well as animal model-based studies have demonstrated the association of the deregulated NF-κB signaling pathway with the progression of various inflammatory diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), multiple sclerosis (MS), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Given the conserved role of the NF-κB pathway as the pivotal regulator of pro-inflammatory gene expression, different components of the NF-κB pathway are proposed as major therapeutic targets against these diseases. The ongoing coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) has posed a significant public health crisis regarding inflammation-related diseases. A robust inflammatory response is associated with COVID-19-infection-related complications, including muti-organ failure and death. This review summarizes the past and current state of knowledge on the role of the NF-κB signaling pathway in the innate immune response and inflammatory diseases with the objective of potential therapeutic use in developing effective treatment options for COVID-19. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Human Physiology)
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Other

13 pages, 728 KiB  
Systematic Review
Bactericidal Effects of Snake Venom Phospholipases A2: A Systematic Review and Analysis of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration
by Zainab Umar Abdullahi, Salihu Sabiu Musa, Hammoda Abu-Odah, Ayman Ahmed, Abdulmalik Ahmad Lawan and Umar Muhammad Bello
Physiologia 2023, 3(1), 30-42; https://doi.org/10.3390/physiologia3010003 - 9 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1718
Abstract
Background: Infections caused by multi-drug resistance (MDR) strains are potentially fatal public health issues worldwide that need pressing attention. Previous reports suggested using snake venom fractions as an effective alternative mechanism to the already available antibacterial drugs. In this study, we conducted a [...] Read more.
Background: Infections caused by multi-drug resistance (MDR) strains are potentially fatal public health issues worldwide that need pressing attention. Previous reports suggested using snake venom fractions as an effective alternative mechanism to the already available antibacterial drugs. In this study, we conducted a systematic review to analyze the bactericidal effects of snake venom phospholipases (PLA2s). Methods: From the beginning through 30 March 2022, we searched the PubMed and Embase databases in accordance with the most recent PRISMA recommendations. We also conducted a manual search to identify relevant reports to improve literature coverage. Results: A total of 24 studies were included based on the selection criteria to compile this review. Of them, 16 studies were obtained from the abovementioned databases and eight through manual searches. The other 8 studies were obtained through the references of the included studies. According to the review, we reported that some PLA2s showed more vigorous bactericidal activity on some Gram-negative and a moderate effect on Gram-negative and Gram-positive. Furthermore, we reported that the presence of p-bromophenacyl bromide (p-BPP) showed a significant decrease in enzymatic and associated antibacterial activities. Moreover, we observed that about 80% of the PLA2s reported in our systematic review study were those from the Viperidae family, whereas 20% came from the Elapidae family. Moreover, some variations were revealed in the current study regarding the mechanism of actions of the snake venom PLA2s (svPLA2s). Conclusion: This systematic review provides a comprehensive overview of the bactericidal effect of snake venom PLA2s and the analysis of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of PLA2s for bacterial strains. Varying bactericidal effects from various snake species and South American rattlesnakes were reported, presenting compelling concepts to the alternative search for therapies against bacterial resistance. Thus, further analysis of the bactericidal effects of other snake venoms PLA2s considering different strains is needed. Moreover, more data are needed to investigate other bacteria of public health priority using peptides and other purified snake toxins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Human Physiology)
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