Direct Laser Writing for Photonic Applications

A special issue of Photonics (ISSN 2304-6732).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2023) | Viewed by 6601

Special Issue Editors

Key Laboratory of Specialty Fiber Optics and Optical Access Networks, School of Communication & Information Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai, China
Interests: two-photon direct laser writing; photonic sensors; fiber-optics
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Key Laboratory of Specialty Fiber Optics and Optical Access Networks, Joint International Research Laboratory of Specialty Fiber Optics and Advanced Communication, Shanghai Institute for Advanced Communication and Data Science, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444, China
Interests: specialty fibers; optical fiber sensors; 3D photonic waveguide
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Mechanical Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, USA
Interests: multifunctional materials and systems; multiscale/multiphase 3D direct laser writing; photonic and ultrasonic sensors; smart structures

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

With the development of photonics and advanced materials, direct laser writing methods are rapidly changing the way engineered systems, ranging from macroscale structures to nanoscale devices, are fabricated. These methods could further broaden the research for applications of photonic devices exhibiting special functional performances. As an additive manufacturing technique, direct laser writing has been demonstrated as a suitable option for truly arbitrary three-dimensional structures, especially for very complicated metastructures. Typically, direct laser writing can fabricate structures with a resolution limited by the voxel size, which can be much smaller than the diffraction-limited spot size. However, some of the optical and mechanical performance characteristics of the fabricated devices are still much lower than those obtained using traditional fabrication techniques. Therefore, it is necessary to explore direct laser writing with new mechanisms, new fabrication strategies, new materials as well as new functional devices for specified applications in optical waveguide communications, sensors, biomedical devices and metamaterials, etc.

This Special Issue will cover all contributions of original research and review articles related to the development and applications of direct laser writing, including but not limited to the following topics:

  • Direct laser writing;
  • Optical and photonic devices;
  • Sensors and actuators;
  • Microfluidics;
  • Metamaterials;
  • Functional materials.

Dr. Heming Wei
Prof. Dr. Fufei Pang
Prof. Dr. Sridhar Krishnaswamy
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Photonics is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • direct laser writing
  • optical and photonic devices
  • sensors and actuators
  • microfluidics
  • metamaterials
  • functional materials

Published Papers (4 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

14 pages, 16445 KiB  
Article
Direct Laser Writing of Diffractive Structures on Bi-Layer Si/Ti Films Coated on Fused Silica Substrates
by Dmitrij A. Belousov, Roman I. Kuts, Konstantin A. Okotrub and Victor P. Korolkov
Photonics 2023, 10(7), 771; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics10070771 - 4 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 847
Abstract
This paper presents the results of an investigation of direct laser writing on a titanium film with an antireflection capping silicon coating. Bi-layer films were deposited on fused silica substrates using an e-beam evaporation system. Modeling predicted that optical absorption for a bi-layer [...] Read more.
This paper presents the results of an investigation of direct laser writing on a titanium film with an antireflection capping silicon coating. Bi-layer films were deposited on fused silica substrates using an e-beam evaporation system. Modeling predicted that optical absorption for a bi-layer Si/Ti material can be increased by a factor of ~2 compared to a single-layer Ti film at 532 nm laser writing beam wavelength. It is experimentally proved that rate of thermochemical laser writing on Si/Ti films is at least 3 times higher than that on a single-layer Ti film with comparable thickness. The silicon layer was found to participate in the thermochemical reaction (silicide formation) under laser beam heating, which allows one to obtain sufficient position-dependent phase change (PDPC) of light reflected from exposed and unexposed areas. This results in much larger profile depth measured with a white light interferometer (up to 150 nm) than with an atomic force microscope (up to 25 nm). During direct laser writing on Si/Ti films, there is a broad range of writing beam power within which the PDPC and reflection coefficient for the exposed areas change insignificantly. The possibility of selective development of a thermochemically written pattern on a Ti film by removing the capping silicon layer on unexposed areas in a hot KOH solution is shown. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Direct Laser Writing for Photonic Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 10853 KiB  
Communication
Fiber-Fed 3D Printing of Germanate Glass Optics
by Zhihan Hong, Tao Luo, Shibin Jiang and Rongguang Liang
Photonics 2023, 10(4), 378; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics10040378 - 29 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1769
Abstract
In recent years, 3D printing glass optics has gained massive attention in industry and academia since glass could be an ideal material to make optical elements, including the lens. However, the limitation of materials and printing methods has prevented 3D printing glass optics [...] Read more.
In recent years, 3D printing glass optics has gained massive attention in industry and academia since glass could be an ideal material to make optical elements, including the lens. However, the limitation of materials and printing methods has prevented 3D printing glass optics progress. Therefore, we have developed a novel printing strategy for germanate glass printing instead of pure silica. Moreover, compared with traditional multi-component quartz glass, germanate glass has unmatched advantages for its mid-infrared (MIR) transparency and outstanding visible light imaging performance. Furthermore, compared with non-oxide glass (fluoride glass and chalcogenide glass), germanate glass has much better mechanical, physical, and chemical properties and a high refractive index. Germanate glass has been widely applied in remote sensing, ranging, environmental detection, and biomedical detection. However, it is difficult to shape, cast, polish, and grind for optical and photonics applications such as imaging optics and laser-collimation optics. These drawbacks have made germanate glass inaccessible to complex optical elements and greatly increased their cost. In this report, we use germanate glass fibers with a diameter of 125 µm based on fiber-fed laser heating technology to fabricate an mm-size optical application. In this paper, we combine the fiber-fed laser heating technology with an optimized temperature control process to manufacture high-precision optical elements. Germanate glass optics can be printed with excellent visible light and IR transparency and a smooth surface with roughness under 4 nm. By optimizing the layer-by-layer 3D printing process and the thermal feedback in the printing process, we avoid cracks and minimize surface deformation. This work shows the possibility of the mm-size glass optical elements 3D printing and widens its application for IR optics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Direct Laser Writing for Photonic Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 4662 KiB  
Communication
Point-by-Point Induced High Birefringence Polymer Optical Fiber Bragg Grating for Strain Measurement
by Shixin Gao, Heng Wang, Yuhang Chen, Heming Wei, Getinet Woyessa, Ole Bang, Rui Min, Hang Qu, Christophe Caucheteur and Xuehao Hu
Photonics 2023, 10(1), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics10010091 - 13 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1677
Abstract
In this paper, the first- and fourth-order fiber Bragg grating (FBG)-based axial strain sensors are proposed. The FBGs are inscribed in step-index polymer optical fibers (POFs) (TOPAS core and ZEONEX cladding) via the point-by-point (PbP) direct-writing technique. A first-order FBG with a single [...] Read more.
In this paper, the first- and fourth-order fiber Bragg grating (FBG)-based axial strain sensors are proposed. The FBGs are inscribed in step-index polymer optical fibers (POFs) (TOPAS core and ZEONEX cladding) via the point-by-point (PbP) direct-writing technique. A first-order FBG with a single peak is obtained with a pulse fluence of 7.16 J/cm2, showing a strain sensitivity of 1.17 pm/με. After that, a fourth-order FBG with seven peaks is obtained with a pulse fluence of 1.81 J/cm2 with a strain sensitivity between 1.249 pm/με and 1.296 pm/με. With a higher fluence of 2.41 J/cm2, a second fourth-order FBG with five peaks is obtained, each of which is split into two peaks due to high birefringence (Hi-Bi) of ~5.4 × 10−4. The two split peaks present a strain sensitivity of ~1.44 pm/με and ~1.55 pm/με, respectively. The peak difference corresponding to Hi-Bi presents a strain sensitivity of ~0.11 pm/με and could potentially be used for simultaneous dual-parameter measurement, such as temperature and strain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Direct Laser Writing for Photonic Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 5285 KiB  
Communication
Generation, Transmission, and Amplification of OAM Modes in the PbSe-Doped Ring-Core Fiber Carrying 3D Printed Spiral Phase Plate
by Yana Shang, Huimei Wei, Hengfei Guo, Na Chen, Zhenyi Chen, Heming Wei, Kemin Wang, Yanhua Dong, Fufei Pang and Tingyun Wang
Photonics 2022, 9(11), 823; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics9110823 - 2 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1537
Abstract
Vortex beams carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) have increasingly attracted attention in the field of optical communication. However, transmission is still an issue due to transmission loss, especially in optical fibers. In this work, we proposed, designed, and fabricated micro spiral phase plates [...] Read more.
Vortex beams carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) have increasingly attracted attention in the field of optical communication. However, transmission is still an issue due to transmission loss, especially in optical fibers. In this work, we proposed, designed, and fabricated micro spiral phase plates (SPPs) directly on an end facet of a piece of PbSe-doped ring-core fiber (RCF) through two-photon polymerization, realizing the integration of OAM beam generation, transmission, and amplification. The prepared RCF comprises a double-clad structure with a core-clad refractive index difference of 2.2% and the fluorescence range is 1150 nm–1700 nm. The intensity distribution of the OAM beam and the spiral interference fringes were obtained, which indicated that the OAM mode (|l|=1, 2, 3, 4) was generated and transmitted directly within the fiber. The small-signal amplification of four OAM modes was accomplished at 1550 nm under a pump power of 634 mW. The on–off gain is >13.2 dB for all modes and the differential mode gain (DMG) is <1.7 dB. The SPP-carrying RCF structure demonstrates the integration of generation, transmission, and amplification of higher-order OAM modes in all-fiber systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Direct Laser Writing for Photonic Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop