Women’s Special Issue Series: Pharmacy

A special issue of Pharmacy (ISSN 2226-4787).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2023) | Viewed by 23257

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
School of Biomedical Science, Charles Sturt University, Locked Bag 883, Orange 2800, Australia
Interests: pharmacy education; allied health; workplace learning; assessment; sustainable practice
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Guest Editor
Faculty of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Alberta, 3-229 Edmonton Clinic Health Academy, Edmonton, AB T6G 1C9, Canada
Interests: geriatrics; geriatric syndromes; falls; attitudes toward older adults; deprescribing; medication appropriateness
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Institute of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tartu, 1 Nooruse Sreeet, 50411 Tartu, Estonia
Interests: pharmaceutical development; pharmacy; drug information; pharmacy education; clinical pharmacy; drug safety; hospital pharmacy; therapeutic drug monitoring; herbal medicine; patient safety
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

To celebrate and highlight the achievements of women in pharmacy academic research, this Special Issue, entitled “Women’s Special Issue Series: Pharmacy”, will present related work in pharmacy education and practice from female scientists. We also hope that this Special Issue will further encourage and promote the scientific contributions of female researchers in this field.

A “Women in Pharmacy Award” will be launched and granted to the best paper published in this Special Issue. Each award nominee will be assessed on her paper’s originality, quality, and contribution to the field by the Evaluation Committee. The winner will receive a certificate, a monetary award, and an invitation for another submission to Pharmacy.

We cordially invite researchers to submit their work on topics across all areas of Pharmacy Education and Practice. Review articles, original research papers, and communications are all welcome.

Articles where women are lead or senior authors are encouraged. We welcome submissions from all authors, irrespective of gender.

Dr. Maree Donna Simpson
Dr. Cheryl A. Sadowski
Dr. Daisy Volmer
Guest Editors

Women’s Special Issue Series

This Special Issue is part of Pharmacy's Women’s Special Issue Series, hosted by women editors for women researchers. The Series advocates the advancement of women in science. We invite contributions to the Special Issue whose lead authors identify as women. The submission of articles with all-women authorship is especially encouraged. However, we do welcome articles from all authors, irrespective of gender.

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Pharmacy is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

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Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

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19 pages, 466 KiB  
Article
Development of a Questionnaire to Measure Public Perceptions of the Role of Community Pharmacy in Public Health (PubPharmQ)
by Delyth H. James, Rose Rapado, Sarah L. Brown, Joanne Kember, Karen L. Hodson and Amie-Louise Prior
Pharmacy 2023, 11(5), 141; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy11050141 - 08 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1520
Abstract
Background: Community pharmacies are well placed to provide public-health interventions within primary care settings. This study aimed to establish the general public’s perceptions of community pharmacy-based public-health services in the UK by designing a structured questionnaire to assess the barriers and facilitators to [...] Read more.
Background: Community pharmacies are well placed to provide public-health interventions within primary care settings. This study aimed to establish the general public’s perceptions of community pharmacy-based public-health services in the UK by designing a structured questionnaire to assess the barriers and facilitators to optimizing this role. Methods: A standardized questionnaire was developed informed by the literature, additional semi-structured interviews, and synthesis of key findings with the authors’ previous research based on data generated from eight focus groups. The original 42-item questionnaire was distributed online from May to June 2021 via social media platforms to capture the views of non-regular pharmacy users. Following exploratory factor analysis, and Cronbach’s alpha analysis, total Likert scale response scores were calculated. Results: Of the 306 responders, 76.8% were female with a mean age of 34.5 years (SD = 15.09). The most prevalent pharmacy use reported was 1–2 times a year (28.1%). Exploratory factor analysis revealed four scales: Expertise, Role in Public Health, Privacy, and Relationship (18 items) with acceptable internal consistency and good face and content validity. Awareness of well-established pharmacy services was high; however, responders demonstrated poor awareness of public-health-related services and low recognition of pharmacy expertise for this role. A lack of an established relationship with community pharmacies and privacy concerns were also perceived barriers. Conclusions: Based on these findings, considerable effort is needed to increase public awareness and address these concerns if strategic plans to utilize community pharmacy in the delivery of public-health policy are to be successful. The PubPharmQ provides a novel, structured questionnaire to measure the public’s perceptions of community pharmacy’s role in public health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Women’s Special Issue Series: Pharmacy)
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17 pages, 304 KiB  
Article
Objective Assessment of Adherence and Inhaler Technique among Asthma and COPD Patients in London: A Study in Community Pharmacies Using an Electronic Monitoring Device
by Iman Hesso, Shereen Nabhani-Gebara and Reem Kayyali
Pharmacy 2023, 11(3), 94; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy11030094 - 04 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2104
Abstract
Background: The INhaler Compliance Assessment (INCATM) device is an electronic monitoring device (EMD) that assesses both patient’s adherence and inhaler technique (IT). This study aimed, first, to assess the value of using the INCATM device as an objective measure during [...] Read more.
Background: The INhaler Compliance Assessment (INCATM) device is an electronic monitoring device (EMD) that assesses both patient’s adherence and inhaler technique (IT). This study aimed, first, to assess the value of using the INCATM device as an objective measure during medicine use review (MUR) consultations provided by community pharmacists (CPs) on patients’ adherence and IT. Second, we aimed to explore patients’ perceptions about the INCATM device. Methods: A mixed methods approach was used, involving two phases. Phase one was a service evaluation in independent community pharmacies in London with a before-and-after study design. The service included provision of an MUR consultation to asthma and COPD patients using objective feedback about adherence and IT generated with the INCATM device. Descriptive and inferential statistics were performed using SPSS. Phase two involved semi-structured interviews with respiratory patients. Thematic analysis was performed to generate key findings. Main findings: Eighteen patients participated in the study (12 COPD and 6 asthma). The results showed significant improvement in the INCATM actual adherence from 30% to 68% (p = 0.001) and significant reduction in IT error rate from 51% to 12% (p = 0.002) after conducting the service. Analysis of the interviews revealed patients’ positive attitudes in terms of the perceived benefits of the technology and a desire for future use and recommendation for others. Patients had also positive attitudes towards the consultations provided. Conclusion: Embedding an objective measure about adherence and IT during CPs’ consultations showed a significant improvement in patients’ adherence and IT and was accepted by patients as well. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Women’s Special Issue Series: Pharmacy)
17 pages, 275 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Fracture Identification Using Different Definitions in Healthcare Administrative (Claims) Data
by Natalia Konstantelos, Andrea M. Burden, Angela M. Cheung, Sandra Kim, Paul Grootendorst and Suzanne M. Cadarette
Pharmacy 2023, 11(2), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy11020053 - 14 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1372
Abstract
We identified inconsistency in fracture definitions in a prior review of studies that utilized claims data. Here, we aimed to compare fracture rates estimated using thirteen hip and seven radius/ulna fracture definitions. Our primary analysis compared results in a cohort of 120,363 older [...] Read more.
We identified inconsistency in fracture definitions in a prior review of studies that utilized claims data. Here, we aimed to compare fracture rates estimated using thirteen hip and seven radius/ulna fracture definitions. Our primary analysis compared results in a cohort of 120,363 older adults treated with oral bisphosphonates for ≥3 years. The most inclusive definition (hip: inpatient or emergency diagnosis; radius/ulna: inpatient, emergency, or outpatient diagnosis) served as a referent to compare the number and proportion of fractures captured. In sensitivity analyses, we considered a 180-day washout, excluded fractures associated with trauma; and hip only, excluded: (1) subtrochanteric fractures, and (2) hip replacement procedures. Hip fractures varied by definition in number (52–8058) and incidence (0.7–111.8/10,000 person-years). The second most inclusive definition required one inpatient diagnosis and identified 8% fewer hip fractures than the referent. Excluding hip replacements missed 33% of hip fractures relative to the primary analysis. Radius/ulna fractures also ranged in number (1589–6797) and incidence (22.0–94.3/10,000 person-years). Outpatient data were important, when restricted to inpatient or emergency data, only 78% of radius/ulna fractures were identified. Other than hip replacement procedures, sensitivity analyses had minimal impact on fracture identification. Analyses were replicated in a cohort of patients treated with long-term glucocorticoids. This study highlights the importance and impact of coding decisions on fracture outcome definitions. Further research is warranted to inform best practice in fracture outcome identification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Women’s Special Issue Series: Pharmacy)
9 pages, 369 KiB  
Article
Assessing Learner Engagement and the Impact on Academic Performance within a Virtual Learning Environment
by Suzanne Galal, Deepti Vyas, Martha Ndung’u, Guangyu Wu and Mason Webber
Pharmacy 2023, 11(1), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy11010036 - 15 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1875
Abstract
Background: The objective of this pilot study was to examine student engagement with weekly self-paced learning materials in a virtual therapeutics course, and how sub-factors in the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) may have influenced academic performance. Methods: Students within a diabetes [...] Read more.
Background: The objective of this pilot study was to examine student engagement with weekly self-paced learning materials in a virtual therapeutics course, and how sub-factors in the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) may have influenced academic performance. Methods: Students within a diabetes module of a therapeutics course were provided with weekly asynchronous optional self-directed learning activities. Student submissions, on-time rates, self-reported weekly study time, and exam performance were collected. Students completed the MSLQ at the completion of the study. Data was evaluated using various correlation analyses to determine the predictive ability of the MSLQ and its 5 subscales. Results: In total, 173 students completed the study. Students’ self-efficacy score on the MSLQ subscale and case submission on-time rate have the strongest positive correlation with the exam score, while the test anxiety as reported on the MSLQ test anxiety subscale had the strongest negative correlation with the exam score. Conclusions: Study results proved the MSLQ to be an effective predictive tool in students’ self-regulation skills. Results can be used to develop intentional interventions aimed at improving self-regulation skills while providing opportunities to enhance student learning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Women’s Special Issue Series: Pharmacy)
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17 pages, 1768 KiB  
Article
Characterizing Pharmacist Perspectives on Utilizing a Personalized Family Medication Safety Plan for Opioid Education with Adolescents and Parents
by Olufunmilola Abraham, Joanne Peters and Kourtney A. Peterson
Pharmacy 2023, 11(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy11010022 - 24 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2612
Abstract
Background: Exposure to prescription opioids during adolescence is associated with an increased risk of future opioid misuse. The pervasive and growing impact of the opioid epidemic requires evidence-based, co-designed interventions targeted at adolescents. MedSMA℞T Families is an intervention tailored to educate adolescents and [...] Read more.
Background: Exposure to prescription opioids during adolescence is associated with an increased risk of future opioid misuse. The pervasive and growing impact of the opioid epidemic requires evidence-based, co-designed interventions targeted at adolescents. MedSMA℞T Families is an intervention tailored to educate adolescents and their families about opioid misuse prevention and consists of two parts: the MedSMA℞T: Adventures in PharmaCity videogame and the family medication safety plan (FMSP). Objective: This study sought to explore pharmacists’ perceptions of using the family medication safety plan to facilitate opioid education among parents and their adolescents. The purpose of this project was to also gather information for iterative adaptations to improve implementation and dissemination of the FMSP in pharmacy settings. Methods: Pharmacists were recruited from Pharmacy Practice Enhancement and Action Research Link (PearlRx) and the Pharmacy Society of Wisconsin (PSW). Twenty-one pharmacist interviews were conducted between September 2021 and March 2022. Consenting pharmacists reviewed the FMSP. Then, semi-structured interviews were conducted, recorded, and transcribed. Inductive thematic analyses were performed using NVivo software. Results: Four prevalent themes emerged: (1) the purpose of FMSP as a communication tool, (2) instructions to clarify how to use FMSP, (3) barriers to using FMSP, and (4) suggestions to improve FMSP format. Most pharmacists described the FMSP as a tool to encourage interactive opioid conversations between adolescents, families, and pharmacists. Pharmacists suggested creating multiple customizable formats and incorporating instructions on how to use the FMSP. Conclusions: Pharmacists noted that the FMSP was an interactive and engaging communication tool to tailor opioid consultations with adolescents and their families. Patients might use the FMSP as a visual cue to help think of what question(s) they should ask pharmacists. Pharmacists stated that the FMSP could facilitate tailored opioid safety communication and medication consultations. Insights will inform future medication misuse prevention interventions as well as adaptation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Women’s Special Issue Series: Pharmacy)
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19 pages, 1306 KiB  
Article
Exploring the Value of Real-Time Medication Adherence Monitoring: A Qualitative Study
by Sadaf Faisal, Jessica Ivo, Sarah Abu Fadaleh and Tejal Patel
Pharmacy 2023, 11(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy11010018 - 18 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2401
Abstract
Smart adherence products enable the monitoring of medication intake in real-time. However, the value of real-time medication intake monitoring to different stakeholders such as patients, their caregivers, clinicians, and insurers is not elucidated. The aim of this study was to explore the value [...] Read more.
Smart adherence products enable the monitoring of medication intake in real-time. However, the value of real-time medication intake monitoring to different stakeholders such as patients, their caregivers, clinicians, and insurers is not elucidated. The aim of this study was to explore the value different stakeholders place on the availability of smart adherence products and access to real-time medication intake data. A qualitative study design using semi-structured one-on-one virtual interviews was utilized. Schwartz’s theory of values provided the foundation for the interview questions, data were analyzed using Braun and Clark’s thematic analysis framework, and findings were mapped back to the constructs of Schwartz’s theory of values. A total of 31 interviews with patients, caregivers, healthcare providers, and representatives of private or public insurance providers were conducted. Three themes and ten subthemes were identified. Themes included perceptions of integrating smart medication adherence technologies and real-time monitoring, technology adoption factors and data management. Stakeholders place different values based on the motivators and goals that can drive product use for daily medication management. Stakeholders valued the availability of real-time medication taking data that allow clinicians to make timely data-driven recommendations to their patients that may improve medication management for patients and reduce the caregiver burden. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Women’s Special Issue Series: Pharmacy)
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9 pages, 410 KiB  
Article
Retrospective Study of Appropriate Primary Prevention in Postmenopausal Women Presenting with a Major Adverse Cardiovascular Endpoint (MACE)
by Nicole E. Cieri-Hutcherson, Aleksandra Lomakina and Maya R. Chilbert
Pharmacy 2022, 10(5), 105; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy10050105 - 26 Aug 2022
Viewed by 1553
Abstract
Background: Postmenopausal women may be at an increased risk for cardiovascular events. The postmenopausal transition represents a key time for implementation of preventative strategies to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. The objective of this study was to evaluate the appropriate use of [...] Read more.
Background: Postmenopausal women may be at an increased risk for cardiovascular events. The postmenopausal transition represents a key time for implementation of preventative strategies to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. The objective of this study was to evaluate the appropriate use of primary prophylaxis of cardiovascular disease in this population and to determine if an opportunity exists for improvement in primary prevention prescribing. Methods: A single-center, retrospective study was conducted of postmenopausal women aged 45–60 years between 1 October 2019 and 30 April 2021 with a diagnosis of a new major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE). This study was approved by the University at Buffalo Institutional Review Board. Results: After application of inclusion and exclusion criteria, 231 patients were included and analyzed. Median age was 55 years; 66.6% white; median body mass index was 30.11 kg/m2; 30.3% history of diabetes; 51.1% current smokers; 82.3% with a primary care provider (PCP); 97.6% insured. Patients with diabetes, current smokers, and those without a PCP were more likely to have inappropriate primary prevention use than patients without diabetes, non-smokers, and with a PCP, respectively (78.7% vs. 51.3%, p = 0.0002; 57.6% vs. 42.4%, p = 0.0177; 73.7% vs. 56.0%, p = 0.0474). Specifically, current smokers, and those with diabetes had significantly more inappropriate use of aspirin and statins for primary prevention than non-smokers and patients without diabetes. Conclusions: This study observed the use of appropriate primary prevention therapies in postmenopausal women and found that an opportunity may exist to improve prescribing appropriate primary prevention therapies for certain groups, most notably in postmenopausal women with diabetes, smokers, uninsured, and those without a PCP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Women’s Special Issue Series: Pharmacy)
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Review

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21 pages, 2370 KiB  
Review
Women of Color in the Health Professions: A Scoping Review of the Literature
by Olihe Okoro, Omolayo Umaru and Meghana Ray
Pharmacy 2024, 12(1), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy12010029 - 07 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1325
Abstract
Women of color (WoC) in the health professions encounter challenges in advancement to higher positions, disparities in wages, discrimination, lack of expectation to achieve leadership positions, and absence of extensive support networks. Articles in the literature have addressed race and/or gender in the [...] Read more.
Women of color (WoC) in the health professions encounter challenges in advancement to higher positions, disparities in wages, discrimination, lack of expectation to achieve leadership positions, and absence of extensive support networks. Articles in the literature have addressed race and/or gender in the context of professional development. However, applying an intersectional lens or framework to better understand the contextual issues of professional development for WoC remains to be addressed. Thus, this scoping review aimed to (i) identify health professions literature that addresses disparities affecting WoC, and (ii) describe strategies and approaches to support WoC in the health professions. Methods: The literature searches were conducted in multiple databases, including PubMed and MEDLINE (Ovid); and Google and Google Scholar were used to “hand search” further articles including gray literature. Three independent reviewers reviewed and screened articles for inclusion in accordance with a guide. Search included articles on pharmacy or healthcare professions, published in English, and which met three content criteria: racial disparities/inequities, professional development/career advancement, and women or gender disparities Results: A total of 31 articles were included—medicine (17), nursing (1), pharmacy (7), other (4), and multiple health professions (2). Key findings included underrepresentation of women and minority groups, inequities in professional advancement and leadership positions for WoC, and greater dissatisfaction and attrition among minority and women professionals. Conclusion: WoC face unique and distinct challenges and barriers in their professional careers resulting from the intersectionality of not only race and gender, but also lived experiences and opportunities. Strategies to improve diversity and representation should include an intersectional framework or lens and be critically evaluated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Women’s Special Issue Series: Pharmacy)
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26 pages, 782 KiB  
Review
Pharmacists’ Experiences, Perceptions, and Attitudes towards Suicide and Suicide Prevention: A Scoping Review
by Lujain Kamal and Sabrina Anne Jacob
Pharmacy 2023, 11(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy11010025 - 30 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1761
Abstract
It is important to understand pharmacists’ experiences, stigmas, trainings, and attitudes to suicide, as they can affect the way pharmacists interact with at-risk individuals and influence outcomes. The aim of this scoping review is to explore pharmacists’ willingness, experiences, and attitudes towards suicide [...] Read more.
It is important to understand pharmacists’ experiences, stigmas, trainings, and attitudes to suicide, as they can affect the way pharmacists interact with at-risk individuals and influence outcomes. The aim of this scoping review is to explore pharmacists’ willingness, experiences, and attitudes towards suicide prevention, as well as to examine the impact of suicide prevention training programs. A systemic search was conducted using the following databases: PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Studies included were from database inception to 31 August 2022, in English, with full-text available. A total of 13 studies were included. Training was a key factor which had an impact on pharmacists’ attitudes, experiences, and preparedness to participate in suicide care, with studies revealing the lack of training and the call for more training by pharmacists. Another key factor was closeness to mental illness, which also impacted pharmacists’ attitudes and experiences with at-risk patients. More research is needed worldwide to understand the different barriers and facilitators to pharmacist involvement in suicide care. Targeted training programs should also be developed to not only increase knowledge and competence, but also to address stigma related to suicide. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Women’s Special Issue Series: Pharmacy)
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16 pages, 923 KiB  
Review
Inequity of Access: Scoping the Barriers to Assisted Reproductive Technologies
by Amanda Mackay, Selina Taylor and Beverley Glass
Pharmacy 2023, 11(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy11010017 - 16 Jan 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3157
Abstract
Infertility impacts millions of people of reproductive age worldwide, with approximately 10–15% of couples affected. When infertility is present, there are many potential barriers to treatment, leading to inequity of access. Assisted reproductive technologies (ART) are the mainstay of medical treatment for infertility [...] Read more.
Infertility impacts millions of people of reproductive age worldwide, with approximately 10–15% of couples affected. When infertility is present, there are many potential barriers to treatment, leading to inequity of access. Assisted reproductive technologies (ART) are the mainstay of medical treatment for infertility and include procedures such as in vitro fertilisation. This scoping review aims to explore the barriers to accessing assisted reproductive technologies to highlight a potential role for the pharmacist in addressing these barriers. Five databases, including CINAHL, Emcare, Medline, Scopus, and Web of Science, were searched using keywords that resulted in 19 studies that explored barriers to initially accessing or continuing ART. Studies identified more than one barrier to accessing ART, with the most mentioned barrier being the geographic location of the patient, with others themed as psychological, financial, minority groups, educational level, and the age of the patient. Recommendations were made to address barriers to accessing ART, which included changes to government regulations to increase health education and promotion of infertility. Pharmacists’ accessibility, even in geographically remote locations, places them in an ideal position to address many of the challenges experienced by people accessing infertility treatment to improve outcomes for these people. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Women’s Special Issue Series: Pharmacy)
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Other

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14 pages, 736 KiB  
Systematic Review
Systematic Review of Evening Primrose (Oenothera biennis) Preparations for the Facilitation of Parturition
by Timothy C. Hutcherson, Nicole E. Cieri-Hutcherson, Maggie M. Lycouras, Dharmista Koehler, Madison Mortimer, Christina J. Schaefer, Olivia S. Costa, Ashley L. Bohlmann and Mudit K. Singhal
Pharmacy 2022, 10(6), 172; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy10060172 - 10 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2038
Abstract
Background: The objective of this systematic review was to characterize the efficacy and safety of evening primrose (EP) for facilitation of parturition in peripartum persons. Methods: This search sought records related to the efficacy and safety of EP preparations to facilitate parturition. Eligibility [...] Read more.
Background: The objective of this systematic review was to characterize the efficacy and safety of evening primrose (EP) for facilitation of parturition in peripartum persons. Methods: This search sought records related to the efficacy and safety of EP preparations to facilitate parturition. Eligibility criteria were primary literature with efficacy or safety outcomes reported; studied in peripartum persons; and available in English. Records were excluded if they were available as abstracts only. Data was synthesized by study characteristics, patient demographics, and outcomes. The RoB2 and ROBINS-I were used to assess risk of bias. Results: A total of 11 studies met inclusion criteria: seven randomized placebo-controlled trials, one randomized non placebo-controlled trial, one case study, one observational retrospective study, and one quasi-experimental cross-sectional study. Efficacy outcomes included Bishop scores and duration of labor during the different phases. Reported adverse events were generally mild and included increased blood pressure, decreased heart rate, pain, bleeding, nausea, and vomiting. Important risks of bias exist across the literature reviewed. Conclusions: The use of EP for parturition in peripartum individuals is not recommended. Further research is warranted before use during parturition or the peripartum period. Other: The authors deny conflicts of interest. The study was neither registered nor funded. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Women’s Special Issue Series: Pharmacy)
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