The 10th Anniversary of Pharmacy—Advances in Pharmacy Education and Practice

A special issue of Pharmacy (ISSN 2226-4787).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2023) | Viewed by 82794

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Medical Education, Geisinger Commonwealth School of Medicine, Scranton, PA 18509, USA
Interests: opioids; cannabinoids; stimulants; controlled substances; medical education

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Guest Editor
Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP, UK
Interests: medicines management; adverse drug reactions / nurse-led monitoring; pharmaco-epidemiology and breastfeeding

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This year, 2023, marks the 10th anniversary of Pharmacy, an international, scientific, peer-reviewed, open access journal covering pharmacy education and practice.

Since 2013, when the inaugural issue of Pharmacy was launched, we have published more than 1100 papers from nearly 4000 authors. More than 1500 reviewers have submitted at least one review report. We sincerely appreciate and value the contributions made by authors, reviewers and academic editors, which have led to the continued success of our journal.

To celebrate the 10th anniversary of Pharmacy, we are currently organizing a Special Issue entitled “The 10th Anniversary of Pharmacy—Advances in Pharmacy Education and Practice” to commemorate this important milestone.

This Special Issue will comprise high-quality papers falling under the broad scope of Pharmacy. We would like to invite you to contribute an original research paper or a comprehensive review article on a trending or hot topic for peer review and possible publication.

We look forward to receiving your valued contributions.

Dr. Brian J. Piper
Prof. Dr. Sue Jordan
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Pharmacy is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (32 papers)

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15 pages, 250 KiB  
Article
Closing the Tobacco Treatment Gap: A Qualitative Study of Tobacco Cessation Service Implementation in Community Pharmacies
by Katy Ellis Hilts, Nervana Elkhadragy, Robin L. Corelli, Micah Hata, Elisa K. Tong, Francis M. Vitale and Karen Suchanek Hudmon
Pharmacy 2024, 12(2), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy12020059 - 28 Mar 2024
Viewed by 974
Abstract
Tobacco use remains a leading preventable cause of morbidity and mortality, with pharmacotherapy and counseling recognized as effective cessation aids. Yet, the potential role of pharmacists and pharmacy technicians in tobacco cessation services is underutilized. This study explores the integration of such services [...] Read more.
Tobacco use remains a leading preventable cause of morbidity and mortality, with pharmacotherapy and counseling recognized as effective cessation aids. Yet, the potential role of pharmacists and pharmacy technicians in tobacco cessation services is underutilized. This study explores the integration of such services in community pharmacies, identifying facilitators and barriers to their implementation. A qualitative study was conducted across seven community pharmacies in California that were affiliated with the Community Pharmacy Enhanced Services Network. Participants included 22 pharmacists and 26 pharmacy technicians/clerks who completed tobacco cessation training. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews, focusing on experiences with implementing cessation services. The analysis was guided by Rogers’ Diffusion of Innovations Theory. MAXQDA software was used for data management and thematic analysis. Sixteen pharmacy personnel participated in the study, highlighting key themes around the integration of cessation services. Compatibility with existing workflows, the importance of staff buy-in, and the crucial role of pharmacy technicians emerged as significant facilitators. Challenges included the complexity of billing for services, software limitations for documenting tobacco use and cessation interventions, and gaps in training for handling complex patient cases. Despite these barriers, pharmacies successfully initiated cessation services, with variations in service delivery and follow-up practices. Community pharmacies represent viable settings for delivering tobacco cessation services, with pharmacists and technicians playing pivotal roles. However, systemic changes are needed to address challenges related to billing, documentation, and training. Enhancing the integration of cessation services in community pharmacies could significantly impact public health by increasing access to effective cessation support. Full article
13 pages, 1681 KiB  
Article
Decreases and Pronounced Geographic Variability in Antibiotic Prescribing in Medicaid
by Alexia G. Aguilar, Priscilla C. Canals, Maria Tian, Kimberly A. Miller and Brian J. Piper
Pharmacy 2024, 12(2), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy12020046 - 01 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1071
Abstract
Antibiotic resistance is a persistent and growing concern. Our objective was to analyze antibiotic prescribing in the United States (US) in the Medical Expenditure Panel System (MEPS) and to Medicaid patients. We obtained MEPS prescriptions for eight antibiotics from 2013 to 2020. We [...] Read more.
Antibiotic resistance is a persistent and growing concern. Our objective was to analyze antibiotic prescribing in the United States (US) in the Medical Expenditure Panel System (MEPS) and to Medicaid patients. We obtained MEPS prescriptions for eight antibiotics from 2013 to 2020. We extracted prescribing rates per 1000 Medicaid enrollees for two years, 2018 and 2019, for four broad-spectrum (azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, and moxifloxacin) and four narrow-spectrum (amoxicillin, cephalexin, doxycycline, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole) antibiotics. Antibiotic prescriptions in MEPS decreased from 2013 to 2020 by 38.7%, with a larger decline for the broad (−53.7%) than narrow (−23.5%) spectrum antibiotics. Antibiotic prescriptions in Medicaid decreased by 6.7%. Amoxicillin was the predominant antibiotic, followed by azithromycin, cephalexin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, doxycycline, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, and moxifloxacin. Substantial geographic variation in prescribing existed, with a 2.8-fold difference between the highest (Kentucky = 855/1000) and lowest (Oregon = 299) states. The South prescribed 52.2% more antibiotics (580/1000) than the West (381/1000). There were significant correlations across states (r = 0.81 for azithromycin and amoxicillin). This study identified sizable disparities by geography in the prescribing rates of eight antibiotics with over three-fold state-level differences. Areas with high prescribing rates, particularly for outpatients, may benefit from stewardship programs to reduce potentially unnecessary prescribing. Full article
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14 pages, 2253 KiB  
Article
Development of a Prediction Model to Identify the Risk of Clostridioides difficile Infection in Hospitalized Patients Receiving at Least One Dose of Antibiotics
by Abdulrahman Alamri, AlHanoof Bin Abbas, Ekram Al Hassan and Yasser Almogbel
Pharmacy 2024, 12(1), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy12010037 - 19 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1336
Abstract
Objective: This study’s objective was to develop a risk-prediction model to identify hospitalized patients at risk of Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) who had received at least one dose of systemic antibiotics in a large tertiary hospital. Patients and methods: This was a retrospective [...] Read more.
Objective: This study’s objective was to develop a risk-prediction model to identify hospitalized patients at risk of Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) who had received at least one dose of systemic antibiotics in a large tertiary hospital. Patients and methods: This was a retrospective case–control study that included patients hospitalized for more than 2 days who received antibiotic therapy during hospitalization. The study included two groups: patients diagnosed with hospital CDI and controls without hospital CDI. Cases were matched 1:3 with assigned controls by age and sex. Descriptive statistics were used to identify the study population by comparing cases with controls. Continuous variables were stated as the means and standard deviations. A multivariate analysis was built to identify the significantly associated covariates between cases and controls for CDI. Results: A total of 364 patients were included and distributed between the two groups. The control group included 273 patients, and the case group included 91 patients. The risk factors for CDI were investigated, with only significant risks identified and included in the risk assessment model: age older than 70 years (p = 0.034), chronic kidney disease (p = 0.043), solid organ transplantation (p = 0.021), and lymphoma or leukemia (p = 0.019). A risk score of ≥2 showed the best sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 78.02%, 45.42%, and 78.02, respectively, with an area under the curve of 0.6172. Conclusion: We identified four associated risk factors in the risk-prediction model. The tool showed good discrimination that might help predict, identify, and evaluate hospitalized patients at risk of developing CDI. Full article
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13 pages, 986 KiB  
Article
Evaluating the Effectiveness of Videos for Teaching Pharmaceutical Calculations to Pharmacy Students
by Heba Ghazal, Marrium Haq, Philip Crilly, Nicola Harrap and Reem Kayyali
Pharmacy 2024, 12(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy12010022 - 25 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1301
Abstract
Performing pharmaceutical calculations accurately is a fundamental aspect of the pharmacy profession, ensuring treatment efficacy and patient safety. Incorporating videos in teaching can enhance visualisation and reinforce learning. The current study utilised videos to teach calculations and assessed how these affected students’ performance. [...] Read more.
Performing pharmaceutical calculations accurately is a fundamental aspect of the pharmacy profession, ensuring treatment efficacy and patient safety. Incorporating videos in teaching can enhance visualisation and reinforce learning. The current study utilised videos to teach calculations and assessed how these affected students’ performance. Initially, pharmacy students were surveyed at one UK University to identify calculation topics they found most challenging, and then two prototype videos were created based on these topics. Feedback was gathered through a follow-up survey on these prototypes, leading to the development of five additional videos. To evaluate the impact of these videos, students were given quizzes before and after watching them. The data were analysed in Microsoft Excel and included paired t-tests to compare mean scores, with significance set at p < 0.05. The survey was completed by 98/130 (75% response rate), with 58% expressing average or low confidence in calculations. A majority (78%) believed that videos would aid their comprehension of calculation concepts. In the subsequent phase, most respondents (92%, 80/87) agreed that the prototype videos improved their understanding of the two topics, but this increase was not statistically significant. However, quiz performance evaluation revealed a significant increase in average scores. This study affirms that videos can boost students’ performance in calculations by allowing them to visualise the relevant practical scenarios. Full article
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11 pages, 273 KiB  
Article
Empowering Sustainable Growth and Workforce: Unveiling Challenges and Strategies for Retaining Community Pharmacists in Malaysia
by Khim Lynn Ooi, Kingston Rajiah, Mari Kannan Maharajan and Pe Sei Wong
Pharmacy 2023, 11(5), 163; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy11050163 - 12 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1535
Abstract
Background: Community pharmacists face challenges in job retention due to compensation, work–life balance, and career growth concerns. With pharmacists’ evolving roles in healthcare, retaining them becomes crucial for maintaining quality service. Addressing their needs is vital for a skilled healthcare workforce. This study [...] Read more.
Background: Community pharmacists face challenges in job retention due to compensation, work–life balance, and career growth concerns. With pharmacists’ evolving roles in healthcare, retaining them becomes crucial for maintaining quality service. Addressing their needs is vital for a skilled healthcare workforce. This study evaluates job retention among community pharmacists, considering various workforce management domains and demographic characteristics. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was employed with a self-administered questionnaire among community pharmacists in Kuala Lumpur and Selangor, Malaysia. Spearman’s correlations and ordinal logistic regression analysed job retention relationships with workforce domains and predicted the demographic characteristics. Results: A total of 414 participants attempted the survey, of which 311 completed the study. Strong correlations linked job retention with value, trust, and work–life balance. Female pharmacists had higher retention odds, while younger pharmacists had lower retention odds. Pharmacists with over 10 years of experience showed higher retention odds. Discussion: ‘Value and trust’ and ‘work–life balance’ were pivotal for the job retention of community pharmacists. Strategies boosting value, trust, and work–life balance was vital. Gender, age, and experience also predicted job retention. Conclusions: Cultivating trust, valuing contributions, and providing a work–life balance can enhance job retention and commitment. Full article
14 pages, 2179 KiB  
Article
Development of a Self-Assessment Audit Instrument to Support Climate-Conscious Community Pharmacy Practice and Education
by Stella Fisher, Annalise Mathers and Zubin Austin
Pharmacy 2023, 11(5), 158; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy11050158 - 29 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1420
Abstract
Climate breakdown continues to occur at an alarming pace, and the need for all citizens and professionals to respond has never been so urgent. Healthcare work contributes significantly to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, representing an opportunity and responsibility for pharmacists to engage in [...] Read more.
Climate breakdown continues to occur at an alarming pace, and the need for all citizens and professionals to respond has never been so urgent. Healthcare work contributes significantly to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, representing an opportunity and responsibility for pharmacists to engage in more climate-conscious practices. A key informant interview-based qualitative research method was undertaken to identify options and strategies for community pharmacists to contribute positively to achieving climate-related carbon footprint reduction goals. A total of 10 thought leaders in climate-conscious pharmacy practice were interviewed using a semi-structured protocol, and a constant comparative data analysis method was used to identify common themes and priorities. A self-assessment audit instrument (SAAI) was identified as a positive first step to build awareness, knowledge, skills, and confidence amongst community pharmacists regarding actionable climate-conscious community pharmacy practice. The SAAI supported both self-reflection and self-assessment, while signposting additional resources that could be accessed by pharmacists to continue their learning and professional development. Further work in this area is required if community pharmacy is to contribute positively to climate reduction targets locally and globally. Full article
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12 pages, 246 KiB  
Article
Consumer Likelihood to Seek Information on OTC Medicines
by Jeffrey G. Taylor, Oluwasola S. Ayosanmi, Sujit S. Sansgiry and Jason P. Perepelkin
Pharmacy 2023, 11(4), 128; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy11040128 - 11 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1190
Abstract
There is concern as to whether the public use OTC (over-the-counter) medicines with due diligence. The objective was to quantify the likelihood and extent people would seek information on OTC medicines in relation to 10 non-medicine products as a surrogate of the importance [...] Read more.
There is concern as to whether the public use OTC (over-the-counter) medicines with due diligence. The objective was to quantify the likelihood and extent people would seek information on OTC medicines in relation to 10 non-medicine products as a surrogate of the importance consumers place on them. Citizens of one Canadian province estimated the likelihood and extent (scale of 1 to 10) they would search for information when considering a purchase. The survey had two lists—a MIXED products list (5 OTC medicine categories and 10 non-medicine products) and an OTC MEDICINES list (15 categories). Five hundred and seventy-five surveys were obtained (response rate 19.2 percent). The average age was 63.0 years and 61.6 percent were female. The mean search likelihood for the 15 products on the MIXED list ranged from 2.2 to 7.4. There was more intention to search for information involving OTC medicines (mean = 5.0) than non-medicine products (mean = 4.1). There was a weak positive correlation in search likelihood relative to OTC medicine familiarity. This study revealed that the likelihood of searching for information prior to purchase is not particularly robust. With a plethora of information currently available to consumers, motivation to access it is what may need attention. Full article
12 pages, 817 KiB  
Article
Pharmacy Students’ Perceptions of Remote versus Face-to-Face Learning Experience
by Jenna M. Mills, Celeste N. VanAtta, Racheal S. Hendershot and Shantanu Rao
Pharmacy 2023, 11(3), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy11030097 - 08 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1285
Abstract
During the COVID-19 pandemic, there was a large shift from face-to-face (FTF) to remote learning. Evaluating students’ perceptions of remote learning provides educators with opportunity to inform their instructional methods. This study sought to evaluate pharmacy students’ self-perceived (1) confidence, (2) preparedness, (3) [...] Read more.
During the COVID-19 pandemic, there was a large shift from face-to-face (FTF) to remote learning. Evaluating students’ perceptions of remote learning provides educators with opportunity to inform their instructional methods. This study sought to evaluate pharmacy students’ self-perceived (1) confidence, (2) preparedness, (3) satisfaction, and (4) motivation following remote vs. FTF classes. An electronic survey was distributed to six pharmacy student cohorts enrolled in the University of Findlay College of Pharmacy during April 2021 to measure the objectives. The Kruskal–Wallis, Mann–Whitney U, and Spearman’s rank correlation tests were used to analyze the data (alpha = 0.05). A total of 151 students completed the survey. While the responses differed among the cohorts, first-professional year students reported lower motivation to study (p = 0.008), engage (p = 0.008), satisfaction with content presentation (p = 0.05), preparedness for exams (p < 0.001), and confidence to communicate (p = 0.008) and succeed in a career (p < 0.001) when studying remotely vs. taking FTF classes compared to fourth-professional year students. Positive correlations were observed between students who felt motivated to engage and study (ρ = 0.501, p < 0.001), motivated to study and exam preparedness (ρ = 0.511, p < 0.001), satisfied with course material presentation and professor accessibility (ρ = 0.688, p < 0.001), and exam preparedness (ρ = 0.521, p < 0.001), and felt prepared for exams and able to succeed in a pharmacy career (ρ = 0.573, p < 0.001). Taking the above results into consideration, pharmacy educators may designate more time and instructional support to first-professional year students in an effort to improve students’ perceptions of motivation, satisfaction, confidence, and preparedness. Full article
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16 pages, 319 KiB  
Article
Perceptions of and Preparedness for the Application of Pharmacoeconomics in Practice, among Final Year Bachelor of Pharmacy Students in South Africa: A National Cross-Sectional Study
by Carlien Schmidt, Moliehi Matlala, Brian Godman, Amanj Kurdi and Johanna C. Meyer
Pharmacy 2023, 11(2), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy11020054 - 14 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1356
Abstract
For the improvement of access to health, many countries including South Africa, have adopted universal healthcare. However, this requires skills to apply health technology assessments for the facilitation of investment decisions. This study aimed to ascertain final year Bachelor of Pharmacy (BPharm) students’ [...] Read more.
For the improvement of access to health, many countries including South Africa, have adopted universal healthcare. However, this requires skills to apply health technology assessments for the facilitation of investment decisions. This study aimed to ascertain final year Bachelor of Pharmacy (BPharm) students’ perceptions of the relevance of pharmacoeconomics in pharmacy practice, and their level of preparedness to apply pharmacoeconomic principles, using a quantitative, cross-sectional, and descriptive design. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire over 12 months, and included student demographics, knowledge about pharmacoeconomics and its applicability in practice, as well as students’ satisfaction with the appropriateness of the curriculum content. Five of nine universities offering pharmacy education took part. The overallstudent response rate was 38.1% (189/496), with 26.2% (45/172) of students signifying a good understanding of basic pharmacoeconomic concepts. Pharmacoeconomics application in South Africa was perceived to be relevant by 87.5% (140/160); however, 47.0% (79/168) felt they were not prepared to apply pharmacoeconomic principles in medicine management, and 86.7% (137/158) wanted to acquire additional pharmacoeconomic knowledge. Whilst students’ perceptions of the relevance of pharmacoeconomics were positive, results indicated a gap in knowledge, understanding, and application. Addressing this gap may increase students’ preparedness to apply pharmacoeconomic principles and better equip them for the practical application of pharmacoeconomics post qualification. Consequently, we have started this process. Full article
10 pages, 220 KiB  
Article
Pharmacy Technician Efficacies and Workforce Planning: A Consensus Building Study on Expanded Pharmacy Technician Roles
by Wesley Sparkmon, Marie Barnard, Meagen Rosenthal, Shane Desselle, Jordan Marie Ballou and Erin Holmes
Pharmacy 2023, 11(1), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy11010028 - 03 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1551
Abstract
The expansion of pharmacy technician scope of practice in recent years, though remaining somewhat contentious, has afforded multiple opportunities for pharmacy technicians to provide additional assistance within the pharmacy. However, much of the research examining this growth has focused on specific tasks, which [...] Read more.
The expansion of pharmacy technician scope of practice in recent years, though remaining somewhat contentious, has afforded multiple opportunities for pharmacy technicians to provide additional assistance within the pharmacy. However, much of the research examining this growth has focused on specific tasks, which were determined by either the researchers themselves or the respective state boards of pharmacy. This study aimed to gain a better understanding of what expanded tasks pharmacists believe technicians should have an increased role in performing. A consensus-building research methodology was used to survey practicing pharmacists to determine which tasks those pharmacists believed technicians should take an increased role in performing. This study used modified Delphi techniques to build consensus among panels of both hospital and community pharmacists regarding 20 setting-specific technician tasks. Results of our study indicated that both hospital and community pharmacists believed technicians should have an increased involvement in performing tasks which are more related to the operations of the pharmacy rather than tasks which are more clinical in nature. This finding illustrates a belief among a segment of pharmacists that expanded roles for technicians should do more to alleviate the managerial and operational burden placed on pharmacists, potentially allowing pharmacists to take on increased clinical roles. Full article
9 pages, 6243 KiB  
Article
Promoting Cultural Humility by Integrating Health Equity Literature into the Pharmacy Curriculum
by Vincent J. Venditto and Kristie Colón
Pharmacy 2022, 10(5), 116; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy10050116 - 21 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1681
Abstract
Strategies that introduce students to unconscious bias and social determinants of health (SDOH) are critical to develop them as effective health care providers. We developed a semester-long activity that utilizes disease-relevant scientific literature to implement cultural humility training in a second-year rheumatology pharmacy [...] Read more.
Strategies that introduce students to unconscious bias and social determinants of health (SDOH) are critical to develop them as effective health care providers. We developed a semester-long activity that utilizes disease-relevant scientific literature to implement cultural humility training in a second-year rheumatology pharmacy course. Students were first re-introduced to implicit bias and then completed an anonymous survey at the beginning and conclusion of the course using a 5-point Likert scale to assess their perceptions of the role of biases and SDOH in patient care. Throughout the semester, five journal articles were assigned that relate to course material and focus on one characteristic (e.g., gout—gender). Students’ evolved perceptions of SDOH were compared to baseline data and characteristics of assigned articles indicate an improved understanding of SDOH including race/ethnicity (3.0 to 4.4, p < 0.0001); gender (2.8 to 4.0, p < 0.0001); and religion (2.3 to 2.9, p < 0.01). Among characteristics that were not directly discussed in the assignments, only education showed a significant increase (3.0 to 3.6, p < 0.01). Scientific articles that focus on health inequities relevant to course-specific diseases provide a strategy to integrate discussions that help students evaluate their biases and SDOH with the goal of improving patient care. Full article
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12 pages, 245 KiB  
Article
Exploring the Experiences of Pharmacy Students and Their Transition to Online Learning during COVID-19
by Aleisha C Morling, Shou-Yu Wang and M. Joy Spark
Pharmacy 2022, 10(5), 110; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy10050110 - 02 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2636
Abstract
Due to the heavy focus on development of communication skills, compounding laboratories and many practical workshops, undertaking a registerable pharmacist qualification in an online format is typically not an option for students. COVID-19 presented on-campus pharmacy students with the opportunity to experience online [...] Read more.
Due to the heavy focus on development of communication skills, compounding laboratories and many practical workshops, undertaking a registerable pharmacist qualification in an online format is typically not an option for students. COVID-19 presented on-campus pharmacy students with the opportunity to experience online learning. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of on-campus pharmacy students who were required to move their studies to online learning during the COVID-19 pandemic. An interpretive phenomenological methodology was adopted, and semi-structured interviews were conducted with pharmacy students who were originally enrolled in on-campus learning and had to transition to online learning. Data were analyzed using a hermeneutic phenomenological approach whereby themes were identified to aid in the development of the phenomena guided by ‘lived experience’. Seven interviews were conducted with pharmacy students. Four emergent themes resulted from the interviews: (1) life as an on-campus pharmacy student, (2) preconceived ideas of online learning, (3) learning differences as an online pharmacy student and (4) the future of online pharmacy programs. Students were initially hesitant to transition to online learning due to preconceived ideas and expectations that may have tainted their overall experience. Pharmacy students preferred face-to-face learning due to their sociable personality and heavy dependence on peer and teacher support. All participants reported that they preferred face-to-face learning and acknowledged that fully online programs were not suited to their learning style or to the discipline of pharmacy. After their experience of online learning, participants believed that there was a place for online learning components in pharmacy courses. Lectures and some discussion workshops could be delivered online, but some aspects, such as compounding; dispensing; counselling; and demonstration of medication delivery devices, such as asthma inhalers and injectable diabetes products, should be delivered on campus. Full article
11 pages, 520 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Pharmacist-Led Medication Management Services on the Quality of Life and Adverse Drug Reaction Occurrence
by Andrea Brajković, Lucija Ana Bićanić, Marija Strgačić, Helena Orehovački, Djenane Ramalho-de-Oliveira and Iva Mucalo
Pharmacy 2022, 10(5), 102; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy10050102 - 25 Aug 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2149
Abstract
The aim of this research was to assess the impact of comprehensive medication management (CMM) services on patients’ health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and frequency of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in older patients with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). A prospective, pre- and post-intervention study [...] Read more.
The aim of this research was to assess the impact of comprehensive medication management (CMM) services on patients’ health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and frequency of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in older patients with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). A prospective, pre- and post-intervention study with a one-year follow-up was conducted at the Health Care Centre Zagreb—Centre (HCZC). The Euro-Quality of Life Questionnaire 5 Dimensions 5 Levels (EQ-5D-5L) was used to measure the HRQoL at baseline (initial visit at the HCZC) and 12 months following CMM services. The ADRs collected at the initial assessment of the CMM services and throughout follow-up consultations were analyzed according to the occurrence mechanism, seriousness, expectedness and distribution of the Preferred Term according to the System Organ Class. Following the CMM intervention, 65 patients reported significant improvement in dimensions “self-care” (p = 0.011) and “usual activities” (p = 0.003), whereas no significant change was found in the “mobility” (p = 0.203), “pain/discomfort” (p = 0.173) and “anxiety/depression” (p = 0.083) dimensions and the self-rated VAS scale (p = 0.781). A total of 596 suspected ADR reports were found, the majority at patients’ initial assessment (67.3%), with a mean ± SD of 9.2 ± 16.9 per patient. The CMM services significantly reduced the rate of suspected ADRs, namely 2.7 ± 1.7 ADRs per patient at the initial assessment vs. 1.0 ± 1.5 ADRs per patient at the last consultation (p < 0.001). The obtained results indicate that CMM services may improve patients’ HRQoL. Additionally, as CMM services diminished the proportion of ADRs following 1-year patient follow-up, they may serve as a viable solution for safety management. Full article
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12 pages, 240 KiB  
Article
Primary Care Wound Clinics: A Qualitative Descriptive Study of Patient Experiences in Community Pharmacies
by Lusi Sheehan, Sheldon Dias, Michael Joseph, Sahil Mungroo, Jake Pantinople and Kenneth Lee
Pharmacy 2022, 10(4), 99; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy10040099 - 17 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2699
Abstract
The expansion of primary care wound services serves to alleviate secondary and tertiary care utilization. However, patient satisfaction is required to ensure service uptake. In recent years, various community pharmacies in Australia have begun to offer dedicated wound clinics; however, evaluations of patient [...] Read more.
The expansion of primary care wound services serves to alleviate secondary and tertiary care utilization. However, patient satisfaction is required to ensure service uptake. In recent years, various community pharmacies in Australia have begun to offer dedicated wound clinics; however, evaluations of patient experiences have yet to be conducted. Thus, the present study seeks to explore: (1) the experiences and satisfaction of patients who have received wound care consultations for their acute wounds in a community pharmacy setting; and (2) how current pharmacy-based wound services can be improved. Semi-structured individual interviews were conducted with patients across five pharmacy-based wound care clinics in Western Australia. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and imported into QSR NVivo 12 Plus. Interview transcripts were coded and thematically analyzed using the framework method. Twelve interviews were required to reach data saturation. Five key themes emerged: the accessibility of wound services, the comprehensiveness of wound care services, confidence in wound care consultants, the awareness and promotion of wound services, and the expansion of wound care services. Overall, participants were satisfied with the accessibility and comprehensiveness of pharmacy-based wound service delivery, trusted the health care providers, and wanted the service to be expanded. The reported patient satisfaction, confidence in the health care provider, and desire to expand the service suggests there is potential for the service to grow in Australia. Due to the growing costs of wound care globally, there is scope to further evaluate and expand wound care services in the primary care setting on an international level. Full article
14 pages, 399 KiB  
Article
Competency-Based Assessment in Experiential Learning in Undergraduate Pharmacy Programmes: Qualitative Exploration of Facilitators’ Views and Needs (ACTp Study)
by Sabrina Anne Jacob, Ailsa Power, Jane Portlock, Tesnime Jebara, Scott Cunningham and Anne C. Boyter
Pharmacy 2022, 10(4), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy10040090 - 26 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2457
Abstract
Newly registered pharmacists will need to possess higher-level competencies and, in Great Britain, there is an expectation that assessments are undertaken during experiential learning (EL). The aim of this study was to explore the perceptions and educational needs of practice-based EL facilitators of [...] Read more.
Newly registered pharmacists will need to possess higher-level competencies and, in Great Britain, there is an expectation that assessments are undertaken during experiential learning (EL). The aim of this study was to explore the perceptions and educational needs of practice-based EL facilitators of student pharmacists, undertaking competency-based assessments during EL. Semi-structured one-on-one interviews were conducted with EL facilitators working in the community, hospital, and primary-care pharmacies. Data were thematically analysed. Fifteen facilitators were interviewed, and there were five from each site. There was general support for this role, but also anxiety due to the lack of knowledge about assessments and the repercussions on students. Benefits were that students would receive real-time feedback from workplace-based practitioners and facilitators would benefit from self-development. Challenges included additional workload and lack of consistency in marking. The majority agreed that clinical, professional, and communication skills could be assessed; however, a consensus was not reached regarding the tools, methods, and grading of assessments. The need for training and support were highlighted. A co-design method was proposed to ensure that the assessment methods and processes are accepted by all stakeholders. Training and resources should be tailored to the needs of facilitators. Full article
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17 pages, 448 KiB  
Article
Development and Validation of Comprehensive Healthcare Providers’ Opinions, Preferences, and Attitudes towards Deprescribing (CHOPPED Questionnaire)
by Iva Bužančić and Maja Ortner Hadžiabdić
Pharmacy 2022, 10(4), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy10040076 - 01 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2583
Abstract
Successful implementation of deprescribing requires exploring healthcare professionals’ opinions, preferences, and attitudes towards deprescribing. The aim of this study was to develop and validate the questionnaire exploring healthcare providers’ opinions preferences and attitudes towards deprescribing (CHOPPED questionnaire). This was a cross-sectional on-line survey. [...] Read more.
Successful implementation of deprescribing requires exploring healthcare professionals’ opinions, preferences, and attitudes towards deprescribing. The aim of this study was to develop and validate the questionnaire exploring healthcare providers’ opinions preferences and attitudes towards deprescribing (CHOPPED questionnaire). This was a cross-sectional on-line survey. A comprehensive 58-item questionnaire, in two versions (for pharmacists and physicians), was developed through an extensive literature review and interviews with experts. The questionnaire was validated, and its reliability was assessed through data collected from 356 pharmacists and 109 physicians. Exploratory factor analysis was performed, and 37- and 35-item questionnaires were developed. Ten factors were identified: knowledge, awareness, patient barriers and facilitators, competencies barriers and facilitators, collaboration barriers and facilitators, and healthcare system barriers and facilitators. The CHOPPED tool has satisfactory face, content (CVR > 0.62) (content validity ratio), construct, and criterion validity. The reliability statistics of all factors in both versions was acceptable with Cronbach’s alpha > 0.6. Test–retest reliability analysis showed that gamma rank correlations of total factor scores were strong and very strong (between 0.519 and 0.938). The CHOPPED tool can be used as a valid and reliable tool to explore healthcare providers’ opinions and attitudes toward discontinuing medications in the primary care setting in Croatia. Full article
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11 pages, 253 KiB  
Article
Development and Pilot Testing of a Dispensing Protocol on Emergency Contraceptive Pills for Community Pharmacists in Belgium
by Michael Ceulemans, Marieke Brughmans, Laura-Lien Poortmans, Ellen Spreuwers, Julie Willekens, Nele Roose, Isabelle De Wulf and Veerle Foulon
Pharmacy 2022, 10(3), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy10030058 - 01 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2420
Abstract
Community pharmacists in Belgium frequently dispense emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs). However, variable and insufficient counseling practices exist across pharmacies, highlighting the need for standardization and quality improvement strategies. The aim of this project was to develop and test an ECP dispensing protocol for [...] Read more.
Community pharmacists in Belgium frequently dispense emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs). However, variable and insufficient counseling practices exist across pharmacies, highlighting the need for standardization and quality improvement strategies. The aim of this project was to develop and test an ECP dispensing protocol for pharmacists. An ‘experience-based’ co-design approach involving academic and practicing pharmacists was applied, followed by a 4-month test period and interviews to assess users’ experiences. In total, eight geographically dispersed pharmacies participated. Pharmacists (n = 15) reached a consensus on most items to be included in the protocol, which was subsequently tested in seven pharmacies, with overall 97 registered ECP conversations. Pharmacists considered the protocol complete but felt that not all items should be mentioned/questioned during all conversations. They suggested only subtle modifications to be made prior to delivering a final protocol ready for nationwide distribution. Despite attributing positive effects to having a protocol, no single pharmacist ‘actively’ used it at-the-counter but used it instead as a ‘checklist’ after the encounter. Pharmacists found that the paper-based format of the protocol hindered protocol-based dispensing. Future research is needed to provide evidence on the actual benefits of protocol application, as well as to identify factors influencing the implementation of ECP dispensing using a software-integrated protocol. Full article
9 pages, 220 KiB  
Article
Digital Storytelling Review in a Pharmacy Self-Care Course
by Jenna M. Mills, Jason W. Guy and Julie H. Oestreich
Pharmacy 2022, 10(2), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy10020045 - 15 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2366
Abstract
Digital storytelling is a type of active learning that allows instructors to simulate real-life situations through a series of connected videos. While this technique has been used in other healthcare education disciplines, its use in pharmacy has not been well documented. A digital [...] Read more.
Digital storytelling is a type of active learning that allows instructors to simulate real-life situations through a series of connected videos. While this technique has been used in other healthcare education disciplines, its use in pharmacy has not been well documented. A digital storytelling model was incorporated in a required self-care pharmacy course to assess if the technique was helpful to improve the knowledge, confidence, and satisfaction of students. Due to a shift in online learning, the self-care course offered a remote exam review session containing a digital storytelling model, and this approach was compared to an in-person exam review that followed a lecture-based model held earlier in the course. Pre- and post-knowledge assessments were given to determine the impact of the digital storytelling review. There were 50 students involved in both sessions and there was a 70% response rate in the digital storytelling group and a 90% response rate in the lecture-based group. Students’ knowledge numerically improved, but not to a statistically significant level for most questions. Nonetheless, students reported more confidence (p < 0.05) in their ability to pass the upcoming exam following the digital storytelling review. Thematic analysis revealed that the digital storytelling session was engaging and interactive, though time-management and breakout rooms could be further optimized. Based on these results, exam review in a required self-care pharmacy course using a digital storytelling format may be a suitable method for students to apply course content and may particularly be of utility in online or hybrid courses. Full article
13 pages, 1416 KiB  
Article
Impact of a Prepharmacy Program on Students’ Self-Awareness of Pharmacist Professional Identity: Comparison between Virtual and In-Person Settings
by Ashim Malhotra, Eugene Kreys and Xiaodong Feng
Pharmacy 2022, 10(2), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy10020044 - 09 Apr 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2403
Abstract
Ensuring an adequate preparation for undergraduate students transitioning to pharmacy school is challenging. A significant barrier is changing from a subordinate to a critical thinking mindset while self-identifying as a professional. Here, we aimed to (1) determine whether our prepharmacy program called “ [...] Read more.
Ensuring an adequate preparation for undergraduate students transitioning to pharmacy school is challenging. A significant barrier is changing from a subordinate to a critical thinking mindset while self-identifying as a professional. Here, we aimed to (1) determine whether our prepharmacy program called “Professional Identity and Me” (PRIME) could enhance learners’ self-awareness of their professional identity and (2) compare the effectiveness of the in-person and online versions of PRIME. PRIME introduced prepharmacy students to aspects of pharmacists’ professional identity including community, hospital, and interprofessional work, as well as mental health, wellness, and time and stress management skills, Top-200 drugs, prerequisite foundational sciences, and calculations. Concepts of professionalism, graduate writing, and ownership were also presented. Bridging exercises were introduced to exemplify application. We used a mixed-methods approach to assess the outcomes. The average performance in knowledge-based assessments increased before and after the PRIME program from 53.8 to 74.6% and from 47.7 to 75.9%, while the difference in the test scores was statistically significant, with a 21% increase (p < 0.001, 95% CI 15–26%) and a 28% improvement (p < 0.001, 95% CI 23–34%) for face-to-face versus virtual PRIME. The results of a student perception survey revealed PRIME was equally effective as a virtual program during the COVID-19 pandemic, suggesting transferability to other pharmacy programs. Full article
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9 pages, 213 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Current Community Pharmacist Practice in Saudi Arabia—A Cross-Sectional Study from Pharmacists’ Perspective (Part II)
by Mohammad Alhazmi, Abdulmajeed Bajuayfir, Ejaz Cheema, Mahmoud Elrggal and Majid Ali
Pharmacy 2022, 10(2), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy10020038 - 10 Mar 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3353
Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate the current practice of community pharmacists from patients’ and pharmacists’ perspectives in Saudi Arabia. This paper presents the pharmacist’s perspective. A cross-sectional self-administered online survey was designed to collect responses from community pharmacists in Saudi Arabia from February [...] Read more.
This study aimed to evaluate the current practice of community pharmacists from patients’ and pharmacists’ perspectives in Saudi Arabia. This paper presents the pharmacist’s perspective. A cross-sectional self-administered online survey was designed to collect responses from community pharmacists in Saudi Arabia from February to April 2021. The questionnaire consisted of several statements related to best practice in community pharmacy. Pharmacists’ responses to each statement were scored using a 5-point Likert scale. Higher scores represented a greater extent to which they adhered to best practice in the community pharmacy setting and vice versa. Data of 164 participants were included in the analysis. The minimum median score was related to the statement: Pharmacist explains the main side effects. The maximum median score was related to the statement: Pharmacist explains dosage regimen. Pharmacists aged 30 years or above and non-Saudi pharmacists had significantly higher median scores compared with pharmacists less than 30 years of age (p = 0.016) and Saudi pharmacists, respectively (p = 0.001). A gap between best practice and current practice of community pharmacists was observed. Policymakers can utilize these findings to provide targeted professional development opportunities for the practicing community pharmacists in order to improve the overall service and care for patients. Full article
12 pages, 236 KiB  
Article
Expanded Pharmacy Practice Implementation: Lessons from Remote Practice
by Selina Taylor, Alice Cairns and Beverley Glass
Pharmacy 2022, 10(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy10010015 - 12 Jan 2022
Viewed by 2347
Abstract
Aim: The aim of this study is to explore pharmacist perspectives of the implementation of a community pharmacy-based ear health service in rural communities. Method: A community pharmacy-based health service model was designed and developed to provide an accessible ear care service (LISTEN [...] Read more.
Aim: The aim of this study is to explore pharmacist perspectives of the implementation of a community pharmacy-based ear health service in rural communities. Method: A community pharmacy-based health service model was designed and developed to provide an accessible ear care service (LISTEN UP—Locally Integrated Screening and Testing Ear aNd aUral Program) and pharmacist’s perspectives of the implementation of LISTEN UP were explored. Thematic analysis was conducted and data coded according to the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research. Results: A total of 20 interviews were conducted with 10 pharmacists, averaging 30 min. Visualistion of the ear canal was reported as the greatest advantage of the service, whilst the time required for documentation reported as a complexity. The number of pharmacists working at one time and the availability of a private consultation room were identified as the two limiting factors for execution. On reflection, the need for government funding for service viability and sustainability was highlighted. Discussion/Conclusion: Expanded pharmacy practice is emerging for the Australian pharmacy profession. Rural community pharmacists are recognised as integral members of healthcare teams, providing accessible medication supply and health advice to seven million people in Australia who call rural and remote regions home. However, there are no structured models supporting them to provide expanded services to improve health outcomes in their communities. This study provides lessons learnt to guide future design and development of expanded models of pharmacy practice. Full article
20 pages, 28925 KiB  
Article
Evaluating the Effectiveness of the Computer-Based Education Platform, Pharmacy5in5, on Pharmacists’ Knowledge of Anticholinergic Toxicity Using a Randomized Controlled Trial
by Rand Hussein, Zhoushanyue He, Julia Bareham, Tejal Patel, Rosemary Killeen and Kelly Grindrod
Pharmacy 2022, 10(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy10010008 - 01 Jan 2022
Viewed by 2475
Abstract
Background: Computer-based education has been widely implemented in healthcare professional development education. However, there has been little examination of the potential for computer-based education to enhance pharmacists’ knowledge. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of computer-based education on improving pharmacists’ knowledge compared [...] Read more.
Background: Computer-based education has been widely implemented in healthcare professional development education. However, there has been little examination of the potential for computer-based education to enhance pharmacists’ knowledge. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of computer-based education on improving pharmacists’ knowledge compared to printed education material. Methods: This study was a web-based randomized controlled trial. Participants were randomly allocated to either an intervention group where they had access to the computer-based education module on Pharmacy5in5.ca or to a control group where they had access to printed educational material. Knowledge gain was assessed using a pre- and post-knowledge test. Results: A total of 120 pharmacists were recruited and 101 completed the post-knowledge test (50/60 in the intervention group; 51/60 in the control group). Both groups showed a significant increase in knowledge gain (intervention group: pre-test mean score 19.35 ± 3.56, post-test mean score 22.42 ± 3.812, p value < 0.001; control group pre-test mean score 19.22 ± 3.45, post-test mean score 23.29 ± 3.087, p value < 0.001). However, the difference in knowledge change was not significant between the two groups (22.42 vs. 23.29, p value = 0.333). Conclusions: In this study, a computer-based education module enhanced pharmacists’ knowledge to a similar degree to printed education material. Efforts should be made to provide computer-based education as an option to support pharmacists’ professional development. Full article
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14 pages, 463 KiB  
Article
Self-Assessment of Cultural Competence and Social Determinants of Health within a First-Year Required Pharmacy Course
by Ulyana Kucherepa and Mary Beth O’Connell
Pharmacy 2022, 10(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy10010006 - 28 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3054
Abstract
As social determinants of health (SDOH) and health disparities are integrated with cultural competence in healthcare education, tools assessing multiple topics are needed. The Self-Assessment of Perceived Level of Cultural Competence (SAPLCC) survey is validated in student pharmacists and includes SDOH. The research [...] Read more.
As social determinants of health (SDOH) and health disparities are integrated with cultural competence in healthcare education, tools assessing multiple topics are needed. The Self-Assessment of Perceived Level of Cultural Competence (SAPLCC) survey is validated in student pharmacists and includes SDOH. The research objective was to determine if the SAPLCC survey can quantify cultural competence and SDOH course learning. First-year student pharmacists (N = 87) completed the SAPLCC survey anonymously before and after a social and administrative sciences course. The survey had 75 items with 1–4 Likert scales (4 high, total 300 points). All items were summed for the total score. Each item was assigned to a domain and factor. Factors were assigned to domains. The baseline total score was 190 ± 29 points, increasing by 63 ± 33 points post-course. All domains (i.e., knowledge, skills, attitudes, encounters, abilities, awareness), 13 of 14 factors, and total scores statistically increased. The SAPLCC tool captured student pharmacists’ self-reported changes in cultural competence and SDOH. Full article
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12 pages, 999 KiB  
Article
Remote Learning in Transnational Education: Relationship between Virtual Learning Engagement and Student Academic Performance in BSc Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
by Taher Hatahet, Ahmed A.Raouf Mohamed, Maryam Malekigorji and Emma K. Kerry
Pharmacy 2022, 10(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy10010004 - 27 Dec 2021
Viewed by 3642
Abstract
The 21st century has seen dramatic changes to education delivery which have widened the scope of transnational education and remote learning via various virtual learning environments (VLEs). Efficient remote teaching activities require students to be engaged with taught materials and academic staff, and [...] Read more.
The 21st century has seen dramatic changes to education delivery which have widened the scope of transnational education and remote learning via various virtual learning environments (VLEs). Efficient remote teaching activities require students to be engaged with taught materials and academic staff, and for educators to be able to track and improve student engagement. This article describes the generation of a predictive mathematical model for students’ exam performance using VLE engagement indicators and coursework marks together to enable the creation of a model with a correlation coefficient of 0.724. This article examines the relationship of each of these variables with final exam marks, as well as the addition of personal related variable X on the generated model’s accuracy. The generated models show that each variable had a different impact on the prediction of the final exam mark. The results’ analysis suggests that coursework marks and total VLE page views were the major attributes, while personal factors were also found to greatly impact model accuracy. Considering the case of outliers, who were students with low VLE engagement achieving high exam marks, it is proposed that personal factors, such as behavioural factors and study style, also have a significant effect on student academic attainment. The generated model can be used by students to improve self-efficacy by adjusting their study style and by educators to provide early interventions to support disengaged students. This model can be replicated in different remote learning settings and transnational education, and the findings might be insightful for courses with remote learning strategies to investigate the key educational, personal and engagement parameters for students’ overall success. Full article
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7 pages, 618 KiB  
Article
Impact of a Regional Campus on the Placements of Students at Rural Pharmacy Experiential Sites
by Stephanie Kiser, Elizabeth Ramsaur and Charlene R. Williams
Pharmacy 2021, 9(4), 195; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy9040195 - 07 Dec 2021
Viewed by 2173
Abstract
Pharmacist shortages in rural communities underscore the need to focus on increasing the pipeline of pharmacists practicing rurally. Experiential placement in rural communities is one method to approach this challenge. Regional pharmacy campuses may facilitate rural experiential placements. The objective of this study [...] Read more.
Pharmacist shortages in rural communities underscore the need to focus on increasing the pipeline of pharmacists practicing rurally. Experiential placement in rural communities is one method to approach this challenge. Regional pharmacy campuses may facilitate rural experiential placements. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of a regional campus on the number of rural experiential placements. This retrospective analysis compared experiential student placements in the five-year periods before and after the addition of a regional school of pharmacy campus. Experiential placements in the designated time periods were compared with respect to numbers of overall pharmacy practice experiences, experiences in rural locations, and rural counties with rotation sites. The average distance to rural sites was also compared. Differences in rural experiential placements were not statistically different. The number of rural counties with pharmacy experiential placements grew from eight to twelve, and driving distance increased. While institution of a regional campus contributed to an increase in the number of rural counties with experiential placements, overall rural experiential placements did not statistically differ versus suburban placements. Additional inquiry into factors that affect rural placement is needed to influence strategies to develop and maintain rural experiential sites and consistently place students at those sites. Full article
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Review

Jump to: Research, Other

14 pages, 613 KiB  
Review
Potential Barriers to the Implementation of Computer-Based Simulation in Pharmacy Education: A Systematic Review
by Ahmed M. Gharib, Gregory M. Peterson, Ivan K. Bindoff and Mohammed S. Salahudeen
Pharmacy 2023, 11(3), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy11030086 - 17 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1772
Abstract
Computer-based simulation (CBS) is an interactive pedagogical training method that has seen increased interest, especially in recent years. There is some evidence that CBS in pharmacy education is not as widely adopted compared to other healthcare disciplines. Pharmacy education literature to date has [...] Read more.
Computer-based simulation (CBS) is an interactive pedagogical training method that has seen increased interest, especially in recent years. There is some evidence that CBS in pharmacy education is not as widely adopted compared to other healthcare disciplines. Pharmacy education literature to date has not specifically discussed the potential barriers which may cause this uptake challenge. In this systematic narrative review, we attempted to explore and discuss potential barriers that may impact the integration of CBS in pharmacy practice education and provide our suggestions to overcome them. We searched five major databases and used the AACODS checklist for grey literature assessment. We identified 42 studies and four grey literature reports, published between 1 January 2000 and 31 August 2022, which met the inclusion criteria. Then, the specific approach of Braun and Clarke for thematic analysis was followed. The majority of the included articles were from Europe, North America, and Australasia. Although none of the included articles had a specific focus on barriers to implementation, thematic analysis was used to extract and discuss several potential barriers, such as resistance to change, cost, time, usability of software, meeting accreditation standards, motivating and engaging students, faculty experience, and curriculum constraints. Ad- dressing academic, process, and cultural barriers can be considered the first step in providing guidance for future implementation research for CBS in pharmacy education. The analysis suggests that to effectively overcome any possible barriers to implementing CBS, different stakeholders must engage in careful planning, collaboration, and investment in resources and training. The review indicates that additional research is required to offer evidence-based approach and strategies to prevent overwhelming or disengaging users from either learning or teaching process. It also guides further research into exploring potential barriers in different institutional cultures and regions. Full article
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15 pages, 437 KiB  
Review
Online Pharmacies Selling Prescription Drugs: Systematic Review
by Chiau Soon Long, Harshily Kumaran, Khang Wen Goh, Faizah Safina Bakrin, Long Chiau Ming, Inayat Ur Rehman, Jagjit Singh Dhaliwal, Muhammad Abdul Hadi, Yee Wai Sim and Ching Siang Tan
Pharmacy 2022, 10(2), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy10020042 - 01 Apr 2022
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 14388
Abstract
Introduction: The patronage of online pharmacies is rapidly growing, driven by the convenience and cheaper costs of purchasing prescription drugs electronically, especially under the lockdown situation. However, there are issues regarding the quality of the prescription drugs sold online and the legitimacy [...] Read more.
Introduction: The patronage of online pharmacies is rapidly growing, driven by the convenience and cheaper costs of purchasing prescription drugs electronically, especially under the lockdown situation. However, there are issues regarding the quality of the prescription drugs sold online and the legitimacy of online pharmacies. The use of prescription drugs without the supervision of a licensed health care practitioner may potentially harm consumers. Objectives: This systematic review was conducted to improve the body of knowledge on three main aspects of online pharmacies: (1) type and characteristics of the online pharmacies selling drugs; (2) the quality of pharmaceutical drugs purchased online; and (3) the characteristics of consumers of online pharmacies. Methods: Based on a pre-defined search strategy, PubMed and Scopus were utilised to search articles written in the English language published between January 2009 and February 2020. Studies focusing on the sale of prescription drugs were included. The terms used for the literature search were “online pharmacy”, “internet pharmacy”, “e-pharmacy”, “prescription”, “quality”, “medication safety”, and “counterfeit medicine”. These terms were used alone and in combination with Boolean operators. The institutional webpages including the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) were also examined for any additional studies. No methodological limitations in terms of study design were applied. A standardised data collection form was used to compile the data. Results: Based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria, a total of 46 articles were eligible and included in the final analysis. There were 27 articles on types and characteristic of online pharmacies, 13 articles on the quality of prescription drugs sold from online pharmacies, and 11 articles on consumers purchasing prescription drugs from online pharmacies. Readers should note that five articles discussed both the types and characteristics of online pharmacies, and the quality of the drugs sold from the outlets. The response rate (products received out of the number of orders) ranged from 20% to 100%, whereas the proportion of consumers buying prescription drugs online ranged from 2.3% to 13%. Reasons for online purchase of prescription drugs include the difficulty of obtaining a prescription for certain medications such as opioid analgesics, cheaper cost, since the costs associated with seeing a physician to obtain a prescription are reduced, and the need to obtain drugs such as opioid analgesics and benzodiazepine for misuse. Conclusions: Almost half of the online pharmacies are not properly regulated and fraudulent issues were uncovered. To address this issue, stricter regulation by World Health Organization and implementation should be carried out together with frequent monitoring of the licensure system and pharmacy verification on every online pharmacy, this would reduce the number of illegal or illegitimate online pharmacy. Full article
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Other

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8 pages, 419 KiB  
Brief Report
A Pharmacy Drug Knowledge Assessment Pilot: Who Will Fly Farthest and What Downs the Plane?
by Laura K. Sjoquist, Suzanne M. Surowiec and Jason W. Guy
Pharmacy 2023, 11(3), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy11030085 - 13 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1336
Abstract
Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of a sequenced drug knowledge pilot in third professional year students in a capstone course. Methods: A three-phase drug knowledge pilot was conducted in spring 2022. Students completed a total of thirteen assessments, including nine low-stakes quizzes, three [...] Read more.
Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of a sequenced drug knowledge pilot in third professional year students in a capstone course. Methods: A three-phase drug knowledge pilot was conducted in spring 2022. Students completed a total of thirteen assessments, including nine low-stakes quizzes, three formative tests, and a final summative comprehensive exam. Results from the previous year’s cohort (historical control) who only completed a summative comprehensive exam were compared to the pilot (test group) results to assess effectiveness. The faculty spent over 300 h developing content for the test group. Results: The pilot group had a mean score of 80.9% on the final competency exam, which was one percent lower than the control group who had a less rigorous intervention. A sub-analysis was conducted that removed the students who failed (<73%) the final competency exam, and no significant difference in the exam score was found. One practice drug exam was found to be moderately correlated and significant (r = 0.62) with the final knowledge exam performance in the control. The number of attempts on the low-stakes assessments had a low correlation with the final exam score in the test group compared to the control (r = 0.24). Conclusion: The results of this study suggest a need to further investigate the best practices for knowledge-based drug characteristic assessments. Full article
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18 pages, 13212 KiB  
Perspective
Comparison of the University Pharmacy Education Programs in Germany and Vietnam
by Daniel Baecker, Do Thi Mai Dung, Hai Pham-The and Nguyen Hai-Nam
Pharmacy 2022, 10(6), 146; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy10060146 - 02 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2946
Abstract
During the global COVID pandemic, the importance of professionals in the health care sector has been put in a new light, including pharmacists. In this context, the focus is also on how pharmacists are trained in different countries. Through an exchange of pharmacy [...] Read more.
During the global COVID pandemic, the importance of professionals in the health care sector has been put in a new light, including pharmacists. In this context, the focus is also on how pharmacists are trained in different countries. Through an exchange of pharmacy teaching staff from a German to a Vietnamese university, the pharmacy education programs in both countries were compared. Aspects such as access to studies, structure of studies, and further training opportunities were considered. Differences and similarities emerged. In both countries, students first acquire basic knowledge and then delve deeper into pharmaceutical content in main studies. There is, expectedly, a great overlap in the content of the courses. Overall, the education at Vietnamese universities seems to be more practice-oriented due to a large number of placements. This also allows a specialization, which can be pursued in Germany with self-interest after graduation. There, the preparation for everyday work in the community pharmacy is separated from the university by a mandatory practical year. For the future, efforts are being made in both countries to strengthen the importance of clinical pharmacy in the curriculum. To this end, the Vietnamese are taking their inspiration from abroad in many cases, including Germany. Full article
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7 pages, 440 KiB  
Commentary
Guidelines for Assessing and Enhancing the Organizational Vitality of Pharmacy Educational Programs: A Call to Action!
by Ashim Malhotra, Jeremy Hughes and David G. Fuentes
Pharmacy 2022, 10(5), 128; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy10050128 - 08 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1663
Abstract
Organizational vitality encompasses organizational mission and identity, organizational purpose and values, and employee engagement, cohesiveness, anxiety, and information sharing. Using the organizational vitality framework consisting of the following five pillars: (1) human, (2) knowledge, (3) intellectual, (4) financial capital, and (5) market value, [...] Read more.
Organizational vitality encompasses organizational mission and identity, organizational purpose and values, and employee engagement, cohesiveness, anxiety, and information sharing. Using the organizational vitality framework consisting of the following five pillars: (1) human, (2) knowledge, (3) intellectual, (4) financial capital, and (5) market value, we propose a reflection guide and specific calls to action for academic leaders including deans, department chairs, assistant/associate deans, and others within pharmacy and healthcare education systems. Our overall aim is to provide a blueprint for academic leaders to assess and enhance the organizational health, vitality, resiliency, and sustainability of their pharmacy educational programs using an established organizational vitality framework. This guide can help academic leaders at all levels to reflect on their organization’s vitality and use the steps outlined here to renew conversations about faculty life, identities as leaders, the global pharmacy Academy’s core mission and values, and the pursuit of work-life harmony in the context of their pharmacy schools’ organizational vitality. All leaders within pharmacy educational programs should identify and embrace a holistic and guided framework that emphasizes organizational vitality. Full article
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13 pages, 909 KiB  
Study Protocol
Clinical Impact of Implementing a Nurse-Led Adverse Drug Reaction Profile in Older Adults Prescribed Multiple Medicines in UK Primary Care: A Study Protocol for a Cluster-Randomised Controlled Trial
by Vera Logan, Alexander Bamsey, Neil Carter, David Hughes, Adam Turner and Sue Jordan
Pharmacy 2022, 10(3), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy10030052 - 28 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2583
Abstract
(1) Aims: Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) particularly affect older people prescribed multiple medicines. The professional bodies of nursing, medicine and pharmacy have issued guidelines on identification and management of ADRs; however, ADRs continue to account for ~10% unplanned hospital admissions in the UK. [...] Read more.
(1) Aims: Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) particularly affect older people prescribed multiple medicines. The professional bodies of nursing, medicine and pharmacy have issued guidelines on identification and management of ADRs; however, ADRs continue to account for ~10% unplanned hospital admissions in the UK. Current methods of ADR identification and management could be improved by multidisciplinary collaboration involving nurses. The aim of this study is to examine the impact of implementing the nurse-led Adverse Drug Reaction (ADRe) Profile in UK primary care. (2) Design: A pragmatic cluster-randomised controlled trial (RCT) followed by qualitative interviews in a sequential mixed-methods study. (3) Methods: For the cluster RCT, 60 patients aged ≥65 prescribed ≥5 regular medicines for long-term conditions will be recruited, 10 in each of 6 general practices. The intervention arm (n = 30) will complete the ADRe Profile, whilst the control participants (n = 30) continue to receive usual, standard care. Primary outcomes will include clinical impact on patients, benefit and prescription changes. On completion of the RCT, participants will be invited to semi-structured qualitative interviews, to evaluate the impact of the ADRe Profile from stakeholders’ perspectives, and to describe the contextual factors relevant to ADRe implementation. (4) Results: The findings of this study will evaluate the effectiveness of the ADRe Profile in identifying and resolving potential ADRs in primary care. Trial registration: This study was registered in ClinicalTrials.gov, registration number NCT04663360, date of registration—29 November 2021 (date of initial registration: 26 November 2020), protocol version 2, dated 8 January 2021. Full article
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20 pages, 1045 KiB  
Systematic Review
Perceptions of Pharmacy Students on the E-Learning Strategies Adopted during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Systematic Review
by Carla Pires
Pharmacy 2022, 10(1), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy10010031 - 15 Feb 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 4000
Abstract
Background: E-learning strategies were globally adopted by academies because of the COVID-19 pandemic. The characterization of students’ perception of online learning is fundamental to design appropriate models for pharmacy curricula. The study aim was to carry out a systematic review about the perception [...] Read more.
Background: E-learning strategies were globally adopted by academies because of the COVID-19 pandemic. The characterization of students’ perception of online learning is fundamental to design appropriate models for pharmacy curricula. The study aim was to carry out a systematic review about the perception of pharmacy students on the e-learning strategies adopted during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) checklist was followed. PICOS criteria were applied. Five databases were screened: PubMed, Cochrane Library, DOAJ—Directory of Open Access Journals, SciELO—Scientific Electronic Library Online and b-on—Online Library of knowledge (Biblioteca do conhecimento online). Keywords: “pharmacy and (distant or remote or e-learning or online or zoom or education or training or digital) and (COVID or SARS and (student or undergraduate) and (opinion or satisfaction or perception or attitude)”. Results: 23 out of 176 papers were selected (28 duplicated and 125 excluded). Selected papers were classified, as follows: studies exclusively involving pharmacy students (n = 8); studies simultaneously involving pharmacy students and other healthcare students (n = 6); and studies related to the involvement of pharmacy students in specific courses (n = 9). Conclusions: In general, the perception of pharmacy students on e-learning strategies adopted during the COVID-19 pandemic was positive. However, an expressive proportion of undergraduates reported negative issues about online education, which seems to support the necessity of optimizing e-learning strategies in the future. Full article
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