Pharmacists’ Role in the Management of Kidney Disease

A special issue of Pharmacy (ISSN 2226-4787). This special issue belongs to the section "Pharmacy Practice and Practice-Based Research".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2023) | Viewed by 21501

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Arnold & Marie Schwartz College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Long Island University, Brooklyn, NY, USA
Interests: pharmacy education; kidney disease; nephrology; dialysis; clinical pharmacology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Kidney disease is common and rising steadily. The kidneys have major functions in the body, such as removing wastes and toxins, stimulating red blood cell production, controlling blood pressure, maintaining proper bone health, and many others. Kidney disease patients have multiple comorbidities and take many medications. They are at greater risk of medication-related issues, as many medications are eliminated by the kidneys. It is also important to properly manage kidney disease’s many complications, such as anemia, electrolyte abnormalities, and mineral and bone disorders. Kidney patients have complex medication regimens, and so extensive monitoring is required.

Pharmacists play major roles as part of a kidney patient’s healthcare team across different settings, with expertise in recognizing potential drug interactions, laboratory monitoring, determining drug dosage adjustment, developing monitoring plans, avoiding nephrotoxic drugs, managing complications of kidney disease, patient education, and establishing effective medication management programs. The optimal care of kidney disease patients requires comprehensive interdisciplinary care, often including nephrologists, nurses, health educators, dietitians, social workers, pharmacists, and support staff. Pharmacists represent an essential component of the team through their medication expertise in pharmacotherapy, helping to manage comorbid conditions, slow kidney disease progression, and provide a positive impact on improving the care of kidney patients.

This Special Issue of Pharmacy is inviting contributions from clinicians in all kidney practice settings to address advances in the pharmacist’s role in the management of CKD. This may include any of the following with pharmacists involved in kidney care:

  • Inpatient and outpatient services;
  • Dialysis services;
  • Ambulatory settings;
  • Other research topics: trials involving pharmacists as part of the kidney team; observational studies; retrospective studies; expert opinions on pharmacists’ roles in CKD; narrative reviews; systematic reviews; meta-analysis reviews; case studies; and other related topics.

Prof. Dr. Timothy Nguyen
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • nephrology/renal/kidney pharmacist
  • kidney disease
  • dialysis
  • chronic kidney disease
  • acute kidney disease
  • medication therapy management
  • pharmacotherapy specialist
  • clinical pharmacist

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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12 pages, 541 KiB  
Article
The Value of Pharmacogenomics for White and Indigenous Americans after Kidney Transplantation
by Alexandra Brady, Suman Misra, Mina Abdelmalek, Adrijana Kekic, Katie Kunze, Elisabeth Lim, Nicholas Jakob, Girish Mour and Mira T. Keddis
Pharmacy 2023, 11(4), 125; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy11040125 - 8 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1167
Abstract
Background: There is a paucity of evidence to inform the value of pharmacogenomic (PGx) results in patients after kidney transplant and how these results differ between Indigenous Americans and Whites. This study aims to identify the frequency of recommended medication changes based on [...] Read more.
Background: There is a paucity of evidence to inform the value of pharmacogenomic (PGx) results in patients after kidney transplant and how these results differ between Indigenous Americans and Whites. This study aims to identify the frequency of recommended medication changes based on PGx results and compare the pharmacogenomic (PGx) results and patients’ perceptions of the findings between a cohort of Indigenous American and White kidney transplant recipients. Methods: Thirty-one Indigenous Americans and fifty White kidney transplant recipients were studied prospectively. Genetic variants were identified using the OneOme RightMed PGx test of 27 genes. PGx pharmacist generated a report of the genetic variation and recommended changes. Pre- and post-qualitative patient surveys were obtained. Results: White and Indigenous American subjects had a similar mean number of medications at the time of PGx testing (mean 13 (SD 4.5)). In the entire cohort, 53% received beta blockers, 30% received antidepressants, 16% anticoagulation, 47% pain medication, and 25% statin therapy. Drug–gene interactions that warranted a clinical action were present in 21.5% of patients. In 12.7%, monitoring was recommended. Compared to the Whites, the Indigenous American patients had more normal CYP2C19 (p = 0.012) and CYP2D6 (p = 0.012) activities. The Indigenous American patients had more normal CYP4F2 (p = 0.004) and lower VKORC (p = 0.041) activities, phenotypes for warfarin drug dosing, and efficacy compared to the Whites. SLC6A4, which affects antidepressant metabolism, showed statistical differences between the two cohorts (p = 0.017); specifically, SLC6A4 had reduced expression in 45% of the Indigenous American patients compared to 20% of the White patients. There was no significant difference in patient perception before and after PGx. Conclusions: Kidney transplant recipients had several drug–gene interactions that were clinically actionable; over one-third of patients were likely to benefit from changes in medications or drug doses based on the PGx results. The Indigenous American patients differed in the expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters from the White patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacists’ Role in the Management of Kidney Disease)
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10 pages, 1171 KiB  
Article
Identification of Prescribing Patterns in Hemodialysis Outpatients Taking Multiple Medications
by Hiroyuki Nagano, Koji Tomori, Mano Koiwa, Shotaro Kobayashi, Masahiro Takahashi, Hideki Makabe, Hirokazu Okada and Akifumi Kushiyama
Pharmacy 2023, 11(2), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy11020043 - 23 Feb 2023
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Abstract
We investigated the relationship between multidrug administration and the characteristics, pathophysiology, and drug class in outpatients with hemodialysis. A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted at Saitama Medical University Hospital in October 2018. Multidrug administration was defined as receiving either more than six drugs [...] Read more.
We investigated the relationship between multidrug administration and the characteristics, pathophysiology, and drug class in outpatients with hemodialysis. A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted at Saitama Medical University Hospital in October 2018. Multidrug administration was defined as receiving either more than six drugs or more than the median number of drugs. The drugs used were represented by their anatomical classification codes in the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemistry Classification System (ATC classification). A latent class analysis (LCA) was used to identify clusters at risk of receiving multiple medications. A stepwise logistic regression analysis was performed to select ATC classifications prone to being involved in multidrug administration. As of October 2018, 98 outpatients with hemodialysis were enrolled in the study. In the LCA, when diabetes was the main primary disease, oral hypoglycemic agents available to dialysis patients were limited, but the number of drugs administered was large. Old age, poor nourishment, a long history of dialysis, and chronic nephritis were associated with multidrug administration among nondiabetic patients. In the second level of the ATC classification, the drugs frequently used were coded A02 (drugs for acid-related disorders), A07 (antidiarrheal agents, intestinal anti-inflammatory/anti-infective agents), B01 (antithrombotic agents), and N05 (psycholeptics). The prescribing patterns for either diabetic patients or nondiabetic elderly patients were identified in outpatients with hemodialysis taking multiple medications, and drugs for acid-related disorders, antidiarrheal agents, intestinal anti-inflammatory/anti-infective agents, antithrombotic agents, and psycholeptics are frequently used in those patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacists’ Role in the Management of Kidney Disease)
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10 pages, 1029 KiB  
Article
Efficacy of Lanthanum Carbonate and Sevelamer Carbonate as Phosphate Binders in Chronic Kidney Disease—A Comparative Clinical Study
by Parminder Nain, Narendra Nayak, Mary C. Maj, Rohit Kumar Singh, Jaspreet Kaur, Yujin Jeong, Sabyasachi Maity, Reetuparna Nath, Robert H. Hilgers, Shreya Nauhria and Samal Nauhria
Pharmacy 2023, 11(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy11010027 - 2 Feb 2023
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Abstract
(1) Background: Hyperphosphatemia is correlated with an increased rate of mortality and morbidity due to cardiovascular diseases in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. It can be improved by restricting dietary intake of phosphate and oral phosphate binders, such as lanthanum carbonate and sevelamer [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Hyperphosphatemia is correlated with an increased rate of mortality and morbidity due to cardiovascular diseases in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. It can be improved by restricting dietary intake of phosphate and oral phosphate binders, such as lanthanum carbonate and sevelamer carbonate. (2) Objective: To evaluate the clinical efficacy of sevelamer carbonate in comparison to lanthanum carbonate as phosphate binders for the treatment of hyperphosphatemia in CKD patients. (3) Methods: A randomized control comparative clinical study was conducted for one year on 150 CKD patients associated with hyperphosphatemia, divided into two groups, i.e., Group 1 (n = 75) treated with sevelamer carbonate 800 mg thrice daily and Group 2 (n = 75) treated with lanthanum carbonate 500 mg thrice daily. The patients were assessed at the time of enrollment in the study, after three months and after six months from baseline for different parameters, i.e., complete blood count, liver function tests, renal function tests, electrolytes, and serum phosphate level. (4) Results: 150 CKD patients aged 51–60 participated in the study. The mean age of patients was 54 ± 4.6 years, and males (55.71%) were more common than females (44.29%). Hypertension was the common comorbidity in both groups with chronic kidney disease. After six months of treatment, the mean serum phosphate level was significantly decreased from 8.31 ± 0.09 mg/dL to 5.11 ± 0.18 (38%) in Group 1 and from 8.79 ± 0.28 mg/dl to 4.02 ± 0.12 (54%; p < 0.05) in Group 2, respectively. In both groups, no significant difference was found in other parameters such as parathyroid hormone, calcium, uric acid, LFT, RFT, CBC, etc. (5) Conclusion: Lanthanum carbonate is more efficacious in lowering serum phosphate concentrations and effectively managing hyperphosphatemia as compared to sevelamer carbonate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacists’ Role in the Management of Kidney Disease)
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12 pages, 1332 KiB  
Article
Telephone versus In-Person Pharmacist-Led Medication Reviews in Home Dialysis Patients: Evaluating Quality of Care and Patient Satisfaction
by Kelsey Allen, Andrew J. Flewelling, Lauren Munro and Heather Naylor
Pharmacy 2023, 11(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy11010001 - 21 Dec 2022
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Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic required pharmacists in a provincial Home Dialysis Clinic to adapt from in-person to telephone-based medication reviews. Studies have shown that in-person pharmacist interventions in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) lead to a reduction of drug therapy problems (DTPs), however, [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic required pharmacists in a provincial Home Dialysis Clinic to adapt from in-person to telephone-based medication reviews. Studies have shown that in-person pharmacist interventions in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) lead to a reduction of drug therapy problems (DTPs), however, it’s unknown if telephone interventions provide similar outcomes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether differences in quality of care exist between in-person vs. telephone medication reviews in home dialysis patients and to evaluate patient satisfaction with telephone medication reviews. Data from the two most recent in-person medication reviews was compared with the two most recent telephone medication reviews for each patient (n = 46). There were no statistically significant differences in DTPs identified between in-person and telephone medication reviews (p = 0.431). Physician acceptance of pharmacist recommendations was higher for in-person medication reviews (p = 0.009). Patients were satisfied with the care they received with pharmacist-led telephone medication reviews, however, 29% (n = 7) would prefer an in-person medication review once per year with telephone medication reviews the rest of the time. Overall, patients were satisfied with the care they received from telephone medication reviews. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacists’ Role in the Management of Kidney Disease)
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9 pages, 241 KiB  
Article
Long-Term Evaluation of Changes in Kidney Function after Switching from Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate to Tenofovir Alafenamide in Patients Living with HIV
by Jared M. Gilbert, Kirsten Vest and Troy D. Kish
Pharmacy 2022, 10(6), 164; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy10060164 - 30 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1892
Abstract
Tenofovir is one of the most widely used medications for HIV treatment and is administered as either tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) or tenofovir alafenamide (TAF). Use of TAF is preferred as it is associated with fewer negative impacts on renal function; however, long-term [...] Read more.
Tenofovir is one of the most widely used medications for HIV treatment and is administered as either tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) or tenofovir alafenamide (TAF). Use of TAF is preferred as it is associated with fewer negative impacts on renal function; however, long-term follow-up beyond 96 weeks is limited. A retrospective chart review of patients ≥18 years who received TDF-containing anti-retroviral therapy (ART) for ≥6 months and then switched to a TAF-containing regimen between 1 December 2015 and 1 January 2020 is presented. The primary objective was to evaluate changes in kidney function as measured by eGFR and Scr. The secondary objective was to evaluate changes in lipids. Among the 142 patients identified, the median age was 66 years old with a median follow-up of 3.6 years. The change in kidney function was a median increase in Scr of 0.1 mg/dL and a decrease in eGFR of −8 mL/min/1.73 m2. The change in lipid panels at the end of the medication use evaluation endpoint was a decrease in total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, and triglycerides of −2.5, −0.1, −0.6, and −9 mmol/L, respectively. There was no clinically meaningful difference in kidney function as measured by eGFR or Scr, nor was there any clinically meaningful difference in lipid panels in patients switched from TDF to TAF-containing ART. Our observations suggest that the favorable impact of TAF on kidney function is sustained for at least 44 months after conversion from TDF. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacists’ Role in the Management of Kidney Disease)
11 pages, 1633 KiB  
Article
Creating a Machine Learning Tool to Predict Acute Kidney Injury in African American Hospitalized Patients
by Sasha Pierre-Paul, Xiang S. Wang, Constance Mere and Dhakrit Rungkitwattanakul
Pharmacy 2022, 10(4), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy10040068 - 22 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2049
Abstract
Machine learning (ML) has been used to build high-performance prediction models in the past without considering race. African Americans (AA) are vulnerable to acute kidney injury (AKI) at a higher eGFR level than Caucasians. AKI increases mortality, length of hospital stays, and incidence [...] Read more.
Machine learning (ML) has been used to build high-performance prediction models in the past without considering race. African Americans (AA) are vulnerable to acute kidney injury (AKI) at a higher eGFR level than Caucasians. AKI increases mortality, length of hospital stays, and incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). We aimed to establish an ML-based prediction model for the early identification of AKI in hospitalized AA patients by utilizing patient-specific factors in an ML algorithm to create a predictor tool. This is a single-center, retrospective chart review. We included participants 18 years or older and admitted to an urban academic medical center. Two hundred participants were included in the study. Our ML training set provided a result of 77% accuracy for the prediction of AKI given the attributes collected. For the test set, AKI was accurately predicted in 71% of participants. The clinical significance of this model can lead to great advancements in the care of AA patients and provide practitioners avenues to optimize their therapy of choice in AAs when given AKI risk ahead of time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacists’ Role in the Management of Kidney Disease)
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Review

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11 pages, 866 KiB  
Review
The Pharmacist’s Role in Managing COVID-19 in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients: A Review of Existing Strategies and Future Implications
by Mohammed Salim Karattuthodi, Shabeer Ali Thorakkattil, Suhaj Abdulsalim, Sathvik Belagodu Sridhar, Sainul Abideen Parakkal, Savera Arain, Hafees Madathil, Ajmal Karumbaru Kuzhiyil, Mamdouh Mohammed Ahmed Ageeli and Mazhuvanchery Kesavan Unnikrishnan
Pharmacy 2022, 10(4), 94; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy10040094 - 5 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3116
Abstract
The global burden of the COVID-19 pandemic has not only disrupted healthcare delivery but has also compromised patients’ access to healthcare on account of the scarcity of medications and trained healthcare professionals. COVID-19 has been particularly challenging for patient subpopulations constituting immunocompromised individuals, [...] Read more.
The global burden of the COVID-19 pandemic has not only disrupted healthcare delivery but has also compromised patients’ access to healthcare on account of the scarcity of medications and trained healthcare professionals. COVID-19 has been particularly challenging for patient subpopulations constituting immunocompromised individuals, geriatric patients, and those afflicted by chronic ailments. Reports indicate that diminished kidney function in chronic kidney disease (CKD) renders patients highly susceptible to complications during COVID-19 treatment. Pharmacists, being medication experts, have a significant role in making treatment decisions during COVID-19 infection. This article describes pharmacists’ interventions for monitoring and managing COVID-19 in patients with CKD. Given the massive increase in off-label use of medications to treat COVID-19, pharmacists can contribute substantially towards dosing decisions, reporting adverse medication events, and managing drug–drug interactions in COVID-19 patients suffering from CKD. In addition to traditional methods of delivering their services, the pharmacist should also adopt innovative tele-health systems to optimize patient care and ensure that patients receive safe and effective therapy during the pandemic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacists’ Role in the Management of Kidney Disease)
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10 pages, 608 KiB  
Review
Kidney Function Assessment in African American Patients: A Narrative Review for Pharmacists
by Dhakrit Rungkitwattanakul, Weerachai Chaijamorn, Eunice Han and Mohammed Aldhaeefi
Pharmacy 2022, 10(3), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy10030065 - 20 Jun 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2144
Abstract
Recent recognitions of longstanding societal inequity in kidney function assessments have prompted the call to eliminate race as part of the algorithm to assess estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Previous equations for eGFR estimation adopted race as part of the calculation. Incorporating race [...] Read more.
Recent recognitions of longstanding societal inequity in kidney function assessments have prompted the call to eliminate race as part of the algorithm to assess estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Previous equations for eGFR estimation adopted race as part of the calculation. Incorporating race within eGFR equations results in overestimating and underestimating Black and nonblack patients, respectively. The inclusion of race is controversial. In September 2021, the National Kidney Foundation (NKF) and the American Society of Nephrology (ASN) combined task force recommended estimating the kidney function without using a race variable. The task force endorsed race-free creatinine-cystatin C equations to be more accurate than the creatinine-only equations. Before the application of NKF-ASN revised recommendations, major healthcare disparities influenced daily clinical practice. Those disparities include the delay in initiating medications that have reanl or cardio-protective effects, such as sodium-glucose cotransporter–2 inhibitors (SGLT-2i) and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs). Clinical judgment should be employed when dose adjusting medications. Combining the eGFR with other clinical assessment tools such as urinary output, the expanded use of confirmatory tests, and the eGFR trend is suggested for a better kidney function assessment. Additionally, creatinine-cystatin C is recommended when feasible, and when institutions have the laboratory abilities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacists’ Role in the Management of Kidney Disease)
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