Addiction and Mental Health in Pharmacy

A special issue of Pharmacy (ISSN 2226-4787). This special issue belongs to the section "Pharmacy Practice and Practice-Based Research".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (22 February 2023) | Viewed by 43057

Special Issue Editor


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 2S1, Canada
2. Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 2S1, Canada
Interests: clinical research program focuses on addictions; mental health medications and pharmacy practice

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Mental health disorders, including addictions, contribute significantly to the global burden of disease. Around the world, pharmacists are making significant contributions towards addressing this burden. Pharmacists encounter patients with mental health disorders in all areas of practice, and these disorders can be an important component of their clinical care needs, whether they are the reason for seeking care or not. Therefore, the role of the pharmacist can take many forms across a variety of settings, for example, primary care, hospitals, specialty clinics, government, health organizations, etc. This Special Issue invites research papers that address pharmacists’ roles, services, and impacts in any setting across the spectrum of mental health and addiction conditions. This can include, but is not limited to:

  • Pharmacotherapy assessments, recommendations, monitoring
  • Medication adherence
  • Therapeutic drug monitoring
  • Prevention, detection, management of medication use disorders (e.g., opioids, benzodiazepines, gabapentinoids, stimulants, etc.)
  • Pharmacy models of care for opioid use disorder
  • Therapeutic use of cannabis
  • Pharmacists’ educational needs; novel training approaches
  • Addressing stigma, advocacy roles
  • Innovations in practice, optimizing or advancing scope
  • Pharmacists with mental health or substance use disorders
  • Identification of research needs

The goal is to collate and highlight pharmacy practice impacts on the global burden of addiction and mental health disorders.

Prof. Dr. Beth Sproule
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Pharmacy is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Mental health
  • Addiction
  • Pharmacist
  • Pharmacy practice

Published Papers (12 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review, Other

14 pages, 293 KiB  
Article
Metabolic Syndrome in Adults Receiving Clozapine; The Need for Pharmacist Support
by Kathleen Hurley, Sinead O’Brien, Ciaran Halleran, Derina Byrne, Erin Foley, Jessica Cunningham, Fionnuala Hoctor and Laura J. Sahm
Pharmacy 2023, 11(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy11010023 - 24 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3569
Abstract
People who are diagnosed with treatment resistant schizophrenia (TRS) are likely to have clozapine as a therapeutic management option. There is a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients receiving clozapine. To mitigate against this, monitoring of weight, waist circumference, lipid profile, glycated [...] Read more.
People who are diagnosed with treatment resistant schizophrenia (TRS) are likely to have clozapine as a therapeutic management option. There is a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients receiving clozapine. To mitigate against this, monitoring of weight, waist circumference, lipid profile, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting blood glucose (FBG) and blood pressure (BP) is recommended. The aims of this study were to examine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and whether any variables were correlated with its development, and to highlight any opportunities for the pharmacist to offer support. This study was conducted in an urban hospital and its associated Clozapine Clinic in Cork, Ireland. A retrospective audit assessed the prevalence of metabolic syndrome using the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. Patients were eligible for inclusion if they were aged 18 years or more, registered with the Clozapine Clinic, and had the capacity to provide informed consent. All data were entered into Microsoft® Excel ® (Microsoft Corporation) and further statistical analysis was undertaken using R, t-tests, Fisher’s Exact Test and Mann–Whitney U tests as appropriate, and p ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Of 145 patients (32% female; mean age (SD) 45.3 (±11.7) years; 86.2% living independently/in family home), nearly two thirds (n = 86, 59.3%) were diagnosed with metabolic syndrome. The mean age of participants with metabolic syndrome was 44.4 years (SD = 10.8), similar to the 46.6 years (SD = 12.8) for those without. Variables that were identified to be statistically significantly associated with metabolic syndrome included waist circumference, weight, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), BP, FBG and HbA1c. The high incidence of metabolic syndrome in this patient population highlights the need for continued physical health monitoring of these patients to ameliorate the risk of developing metabolic syndrome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Addiction and Mental Health in Pharmacy)
15 pages, 275 KiB  
Article
Public Perceptions of Community Pharmacy-Based Naloxone Services: A National Cross-Sectional Survey
by Lindsey A. Hohmann, Zach Krauss, Jitisha Patel and Grace T. Marley
Pharmacy 2022, 10(6), 171; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy10060171 - 9 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1380
Abstract
Little is known about the general public’s perceptions regarding community pharmacist-delivered naloxone services at the national level. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to describe the US general public’s awareness, knowledge, beliefs, comfort, perceived barriers, abilities, and communication preferences related to community [...] Read more.
Little is known about the general public’s perceptions regarding community pharmacist-delivered naloxone services at the national level. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to describe the US general public’s awareness, knowledge, beliefs, comfort, perceived barriers, abilities, and communication preferences related to community pharmacy-based naloxone services. A national, online cross-sectional survey was conducted in September 2021 among US adults ≥18 years recruited via Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk). Primary outcome measures were assessed via 5-point Likert-type scales, including: (1) naloxone awareness and knowledge; (2) naloxone beliefs; (3) comfort with pharmacist-provided naloxone; (4) perceived barriers to pharmacy-based naloxone; (5) opioid overdose competencies, concerns, and readiness; and (6) preferred pharmacist-patient naloxone communication strategy. Analyses included descriptive statistics and logistic regression models to assess predictors of preferred communication strategies. Of 301 respondents, 82.1% were White, 48.8% female, and mean 43 years. Eighty-five percent were unaware of pharmacy-provided naloxone and mean [SD] knowledge score was low (29.3% [16.8]). Mean [SD] beliefs (3.78 [0.61]) and comfort (3.70 [0.54]) were positive, while perceived barriers were low/neutral (2.93 [0.78]). For communication, 54% preferred general advertisement, 32.9% universal offer, and 13.3% targeted offer. The odds of preferring a general advertisement or universal offer over a targeted offer increased with greater awareness (AOR:4.52; p = 0.003) and comfort (AOR:3.79; p = 0.003), and decreased with greater competence (AOR:0.35; p = 0.001). Although awareness and knowledge regarding community pharmacy-based naloxone services was low, beliefs and comfort were positive and perceived barriers were low/neutral. General or universal offers of naloxone were preferred over targeted approaches. Future studies should test the impact of communication strategies on naloxone uptake. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Addiction and Mental Health in Pharmacy)
13 pages, 427 KiB  
Article
Podcasts as a Method to Deliver Education on Stigma Surrounding Opioid Use Disorder
by Logan M. Kissell, Kim C. Coley, Alyssa S. Khieu, Elizabeth J. Bunk, Sophia M. C. Herbert and Joni C. Carroll
Pharmacy 2022, 10(6), 161; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy10060161 - 29 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2273
Abstract
The objective of this research was to evaluate the effectiveness of a podcast miniseries to reduce stigma surrounding opioid use disorder (OUD) among student pharmacists. Students in their second and third professional years from two schools of pharmacy listened to five, 10–23 min [...] Read more.
The objective of this research was to evaluate the effectiveness of a podcast miniseries to reduce stigma surrounding opioid use disorder (OUD) among student pharmacists. Students in their second and third professional years from two schools of pharmacy listened to five, 10–23 min podcasts incorporated into their coursework. The podcasts highlighted: (1) interviews with OUD professionals and those with lived experiences; (2) types of stigma and how it affects health outcomes; (3) OUD disease state processes, and (4) harm reduction strategies. Surveys assessed changes in perception of OUD and its associated stigma and included free-response and Likert scale questions. Subjects (n = 121) who completed a pre- and post-podcast survey were included. Paired t-tests assessed changes in survey responses from baseline and a content analysis was performed on all free-responses. There was a statistically significant change from baseline for each survey question, demonstrating a decrease in stigma towards OUD. Free-responses were categorized into four learning domains: (1) Impact of stigma on access to care; (2) Compassion and empathy; (3) Resources and support; and (4) Call to action. Podcasts can be an effective tool to reduce student pharmacist stigma associated with OUD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Addiction and Mental Health in Pharmacy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 279 KiB  
Article
A Need for Benzodiazepine Deprescribing in the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Cohort Study
by Iva Bužančić, Tajana Iva Pejaković and Maja Ortner Hadžiabdić
Pharmacy 2022, 10(5), 120; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy10050120 - 23 Sep 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2114
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic has had a negative impact on patients’ mental health. The aim of this study was to explore whether the pandemic influenced the use and prescription of benzodiazepines and increased the need for community pharmacist involvement in counselling on deprescribing. Electronic [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic has had a negative impact on patients’ mental health. The aim of this study was to explore whether the pandemic influenced the use and prescription of benzodiazepines and increased the need for community pharmacist involvement in counselling on deprescribing. Electronic prescription-related data from one pharmacy in Croatia were retrospectively collected for the COVID-19 period (April 2020 to March 2021) and compared with pre-COVID-19 (April 2019 to March 2020) data. Data were collected for patients diagnosed with anxiety disorders who filled out more than one prescription for benzodiazepines, and included age, sex, number of medicines, benzodiazepines, and comorbidities. A total of 1290 benzodiazepine users were identified; of these, 32.87% started using benzodiazepines during the COVID-19 period, while 35.2% continued with benzodiazepine use. More than half of all benzodiazepine users were identified as potential deprescribing candidates (dispensed more than three prescriptions). Women, older patients, multimorbid individuals, and patients with polypharmacy were more likely to use benzodiazepines for a prolonged period. The results show a negative trend of benzodiazepine usage among community-dwelling patients during the pandemic. Community pharmacists can identify potential candidates for deprescribing and initiate a process that ensures more rational use of benzodiazepines and increases the safety of treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Addiction and Mental Health in Pharmacy)
18 pages, 611 KiB  
Article
Discordance in Addressing Opioid Crisis in Rural Communities: Patient and Provider Perspectives
by Bonyan Qudah, Martha A. Maurer, David A. Mott and Michelle A. Chui
Pharmacy 2022, 10(4), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy10040091 - 27 Jul 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3165
Abstract
Providing patient-centered care to manage chronic pain and opioid use disorder (OUD) is associated with improved health outcomes. However, adopting a holistic approach to providing care is often challenging in rural communities. This study aims to identify and contrast challenges to providing patient-centered [...] Read more.
Providing patient-centered care to manage chronic pain and opioid use disorder (OUD) is associated with improved health outcomes. However, adopting a holistic approach to providing care is often challenging in rural communities. This study aims to identify and contrast challenges to providing patient-centered care from the perspective of patients and providers. A participatory design approach was adopted to elicit the perceptions of providers and patients with lived experiences of chronic pain and/or OUD in Jefferson County, Wisconsin. Two focus groups were conducted with each stakeholder group to identify problems that participants face with respect to chronic pain management and OUD and possible solutions. Four interviews were conducted with providers experienced in chronic pain management. Analysis of focus group sessions and interviews show consensus among patients and providers that lack of behavioral health and recovery resources create barriers to effectively manage OUD and chronic pain. However, there was discordance among the two groups about other barriers such as patient and provider attitudes, tapering approach, and access to medications for OUD. This tension among patients and providers can influence patients’ retention in therapy. More efforts are needed to mitigate stigma among providers in rural communities and support psychosocial needs of patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Addiction and Mental Health in Pharmacy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 267 KiB  
Article
Australian Community Pharmacy Harm-Minimisation Services: Scope for Service Expansion to Improve Healthcare Access
by Sara S. McMillan, Hidy Chan and Laetitia H. Hattingh
Pharmacy 2021, 9(2), 95; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy9020095 - 26 Apr 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 4984
Abstract
Community pharmacies are well positioned to participate in harm-minimisation services to reduce harms caused by both licit and illicit substances. Considering developments in pharmacist practices and the introduction of new professional pharmacy services, we identified a need to explore the contemporary role of [...] Read more.
Community pharmacies are well positioned to participate in harm-minimisation services to reduce harms caused by both licit and illicit substances. Considering developments in pharmacist practices and the introduction of new professional pharmacy services, we identified a need to explore the contemporary role of community pharmacy in harm minimisation. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken to explore the opinions of stakeholders, pharmacy staff, and clients about the role of community pharmacy in harm minimisation, including provision of current services, experiences, and expectations. Participants (n = 28) included 5 stakeholders, 9 consumers, and 14 staff members from seven community pharmacies. Three over-arching themes were identified across the three participants groups: (i) scope and provision, (ii) complexity, and (iii) importance of person-centred advice and support in relation to community pharmacy harm minimisation services. Community pharmacies are valuable healthcare destinations for delivery of harm minimisation services, with scope for service expansion. Further education, support, and remuneration are needed, as well as linkage to other sector providers, in order to ensure that pharmacists and pharmacy staff are well equipped to provide a range of harm minimisation services. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Addiction and Mental Health in Pharmacy)
9 pages, 222 KiB  
Article
Knowledge and Attitude of Pharmacy Students toward People with Mental Illnesses and Help-Seeking: A Cross-Sectional Study from Saudi Arabia
by Saud Alsahali
Pharmacy 2021, 9(2), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy9020082 - 16 Apr 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3323
Abstract
People with mental illnesses (MIs) face several challenges in addition to their disease. People’s negative views of those with MIs impact patients’ decisions to seek professional help. The aims of this study were to assess pharmacy students’ attitudes toward people with MIs and [...] Read more.
People with mental illnesses (MIs) face several challenges in addition to their disease. People’s negative views of those with MIs impact patients’ decisions to seek professional help. The aims of this study were to assess pharmacy students’ attitudes toward people with MIs and seeking help for mental health, as well as their knowledge about the causes of MIs. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on pharmacy students at Unaizah College of Pharmacy, Qassim University, Saudi Arabia. Out of the 460 distributed questionnaires, 330 complete questionnaires were received, giving a response rate of 71.7%. Overall, the mean total score for attitude towards people with MIs was 60.16 ± 10.48 (maximum attainable score: 105). In this study, 51.12% believed that people with MIs are more likely to harm others than a person without MIs and 66.9% mentioned that they did not trust the work of a mentally ill person as part of their work team. However, only 35.45% believed that it is difficult for mentally ill individuals to follow social rules. In terms of attitudes toward help-seeking, the mean total score of was 12.83 ± 3.16 out of the maximum score of 25. In addition, the mean total score for knowledge about causes of mental illness was 2.92 ± 1.76 out of the maximum score of 8. The participants reported that MIs could be due to genetic inheritance (56%), substance abuse (54.5%), or brain disease (66.1%). The findings showed that there are some negative attitudes toward people with MIs and negative attitudes towards seeking help for mental health. In addition, some misconceptions about the causes of MIs are prevalent. Consequently, the incorporation of more topics concerning mental health in pharmacy curricula could help improve the awareness of and knowledge about mental health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Addiction and Mental Health in Pharmacy)
16 pages, 271 KiB  
Article
Simulated Patient Role-Plays with Consumers with Lived Experience of Mental Illness Post-Mental Health First Aid Training: Interrater and Test Re-Test Reliability of an Observed Behavioral Assessment Rubric
by Sarira El-Den, Rebekah J. Moles, Randi Zhang and Claire L. O’Reilly
Pharmacy 2021, 9(1), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy9010028 - 24 Jan 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3044
Abstract
Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) training teaches participants how to assist people experiencing mental health problems and crises. Observed behavioral assessments, post-training, are lacking, and the literature largely focuses on self-reported measurement of behaviors and confidence. This study explores the reliability of an [...] Read more.
Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) training teaches participants how to assist people experiencing mental health problems and crises. Observed behavioral assessments, post-training, are lacking, and the literature largely focuses on self-reported measurement of behaviors and confidence. This study explores the reliability of an observed behavioral assessment rubric used to assess pharmacy students during simulated patient (SP) role-play assessments with mental health consumers. Post-MHFA training, pharmacy students (n = 528) participated in SP role-play assessments (n = 96) of six mental health cases enacted by consumers with lived experience of mental illness. Each assessment was marked by the tutor, participating student, and consumer (three raters). Non-parametric tests were used to compare raters’ means scores and pass/fail categories. Interrater reliability analyses were conducted for overall scores, as well as pass/fail categories using intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) and Fleiss’ Kappa, respectively. Test re-test reliability analyses were conducted using Pearson’s correlation. For interrater reliability analyses, the intra-class correlation coefficient varied from poor-to-good to moderate-to-excellent for individual cases but was moderate-to-excellent for combined cases (0.70; CI 0.58–0.80). Fleiss’ Kappa varied across cases but was fair-to-good for combined cases (0.57, p < 0.001). For test re-test reliability analyses, Pearson’s correlation was strong for individual and combined cases (0.87; p < 0.001). Recommended modifications to the rubric, including the addition of barrier items, scoring guides, and specific examples, as well as the creation of new case-specific rubric versions, may improve reliability. The rubric can be used to facilitate the measurement of actual, observed behaviors post-MHFA training in pharmacy and other health care curricula. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Addiction and Mental Health in Pharmacy)

Review

Jump to: Research, Other

16 pages, 659 KiB  
Review
Pharmacist Administration of Long-Acting Injectable Antipsychotics to Community-Dwelling Patients: A Scoping Review
by Andrea L. Murphy, Sowon Suh, Louise Gillis, Jason Morrison and David M. Gardner
Pharmacy 2023, 11(2), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy11020045 - 27 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2154
Abstract
Long-acting injectable antipsychotics (LAIAs) have demonstrated positive outcomes for people with serious mental illnesses. They are underused, and access to LAIAs can be challenging. Pharmacies could serve as suitable environments for LAIA injection by pharmacists. To map and characterize the literature regarding the [...] Read more.
Long-acting injectable antipsychotics (LAIAs) have demonstrated positive outcomes for people with serious mental illnesses. They are underused, and access to LAIAs can be challenging. Pharmacies could serve as suitable environments for LAIA injection by pharmacists. To map and characterize the literature regarding the administration of LAIAs by pharmacists, a scoping review was conducted. Electronic-database searches (e.g., PsycINFO, Ovid Medline, Scopus, and Embase) and others including ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global and Google, were conducted. Citation lists and cited-reference searches were completed. Zotero was used as the reference-management database. Covidence was used for overall review management. Two authors independently screened articles and performed full-text abstractions. From all sources, 292 studies were imported, and 124 duplicates were removed. After screening, 13 studies were included for abstraction. Most articles were published in the US since 2010. Seven studies used database and survey methods, with adherence and patient satisfaction as the main patient-outcomes assessed. Reporting of pharmacists’ and patients’ perspectives surrounding LAIA administration was minimal and largely anecdotal. Financial analyses for services were also limited. The published literature surrounding pharmacist administration of LAIAs is limited, providing little-to-no guidance for the development and implementation of this service by others. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Addiction and Mental Health in Pharmacy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

32 pages, 727 KiB  
Review
What Is Known about Community Pharmacy-Based Take-Home Naloxone Programs and Program Interventions? A Scoping Review
by Ashley Cid, George Daskalakis, Kelly Grindrod and Michael A. Beazely
Pharmacy 2021, 9(1), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy9010030 - 2 Feb 2021
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 6327
Abstract
A variety of new sources describing community pharmacy-based take-home naloxone (THN) programs have emerged recently in the literature. There is a need to define the types of take-home naloxone programs being offered to support future research designs in implementing and evaluating standardized programs [...] Read more.
A variety of new sources describing community pharmacy-based take-home naloxone (THN) programs have emerged recently in the literature. There is a need to define the types of take-home naloxone programs being offered to support future research designs in implementing and evaluating standardized programs that fill pharmacist and patient knowledge gaps and lift current barriers for optimal community pharmacy naloxone provision. The objective of this paper is to summarize the literature on community pharmacy-based THN programs, including specific program interventions used to increase naloxone dispensing, naloxone availability and dispensing patterns, facilitators and barriers for the THN programs, and knowledge gaps. Online databases such as PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (IPA) and a search of the grey literature were used to identify eligible sources. Sources were screened by two reviewers for eligibility in COVIDENCE software. Both reviewers compared screening results and resolved conflicts through discussion. A data extraction form for all identified full texts was completed by both reviewers and results were compiled through reviewer discussion. Fifty-two sources met the eligibility criteria. The top three barriers identified were: cost/coverage of naloxone, stigma, and education/training for pharmacists. THN program interventions included screening tools, checklists, pocket cards, patient brochures, and utilizing the pharmacy management system to flag eligible patients. Patient knowledge gaps included naloxone misinformation and lack of awareness, while pharmacists demonstrated administrative, clinical, and counselling knowledge gaps. Naloxone availability was found to be highly variable, where independent and rural pharmacies were less likely to stock or dispense naloxone. Further, pharmacies located in districts with higher rates of opioid overdose deaths and lower household income were also less likely to have naloxone available. This review identified multiple new programs, showcasing that the implementation and evaluation of THN programs are an expanding area of research. Future research should focus on implementing and evaluating a THN program through a randomized controlled trial design that incorporates solutions for the barriers and knowledge gaps identified in this study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Addiction and Mental Health in Pharmacy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Other

Jump to: Research, Review

5 pages, 190 KiB  
Case Report
Exercise and Worsening of Extrapyramidal Symptoms during Treatment with Long-Acting Injectable Antipsychotics
by David D. Kim, Donna J. Lang, Darren E. R. Warburton, Alasdair M. Barr, Randall F. White, William G. Honer and Ric M. Procyshyn
Pharmacy 2021, 9(3), 123; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy9030123 - 3 Jul 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 4311
Abstract
Second-generation antipsychotic medications are used to treat schizophrenia and a range of other psychotic disorders, although adverse effects, including cardiovascular and metabolic abnormalities and extrapyramidal symptoms, are often inevitable. Studies have shown that exercise, as an adjunct therapy, can be effective in reducing [...] Read more.
Second-generation antipsychotic medications are used to treat schizophrenia and a range of other psychotic disorders, although adverse effects, including cardiovascular and metabolic abnormalities and extrapyramidal symptoms, are often inevitable. Studies have shown that exercise, as an adjunct therapy, can be effective in reducing the core symptoms of schizophrenia as well as ameliorating intrinsic and antipsychotic-induced cardiometabolic abnormalities. However, it is noteworthy that exercise may need to be implemented with caution in some individuals receiving certain antipsychotic treatment regimens. We report here two cases of exercise-associated worsening of extrapyramidal symptoms in two individuals with schizoaffective disorder treated with a long-acting injectable antipsychotic medication over the course of a 12-week exercise program. This worsening of extrapyramidal symptoms can be attributed to an increase in blood flow to the site of injection during exercise, accelerating the rate of absorption and bioavailability of the antipsychotic medication and subsequently increasing dopamine D2 receptor blockade. When monitoring drug therapy for patients receiving long-acting injectable antipsychotic medications, pharmacists and other healthcare professionals need to consider exercise as a contributing factor for the emergence of extrapyramidal symptoms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Addiction and Mental Health in Pharmacy)
9 pages, 247 KiB  
Perspective
Role of the Pharmacist in Managing Treatment-Resistant Depression: A Focus on Ketamine
by Linda Xing Yu Liu, Marina Golts and Virginia Fernandes
Pharmacy 2021, 9(3), 118; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy9030118 - 25 Jun 2021
Viewed by 4284
Abstract
The impact of depression is well described in the literature, and it is most prominent in patients who have trialed multiple treatments. Treatment-resistant depression (TRD) is particularly debilitating, and it is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Despite this, there seems to be [...] Read more.
The impact of depression is well described in the literature, and it is most prominent in patients who have trialed multiple treatments. Treatment-resistant depression (TRD) is particularly debilitating, and it is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Despite this, there seems to be therapeutic inertia in adopting novel therapies in current practice. Ketamine is an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist and anesthetic agent which has recently been shown to be effective in the management of TRD when administered intravenously or intranasally. The treatments, however, are not easily accessible due to restrictions in prescribing and dispensing, high costs, and the slow uptake of evidence-based practice involving ketamine within the Canadian healthcare system. Given the limited treatment options for TRD, novel approaches should be considered and adopted into practice, and facilitated by a multi-disciplinary approach. Pharmacists play a critical role in ensuring access to quality care. This includes dissemination of evidence supporting pharmacological treatments and facilitating translation into current practice. Pharmacists are uniquely positioned to collaborate with prescribers and assess novel treatment options, such as ketamine, address modifiable barriers to treatment, and triage access to medications during transitions of care. Extending the reach of these novel psychiatric treatments in both tertiary and primary care settings creates an emerging role for pharmacists in the collaborative effort to better manage treatment-resistant depression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Addiction and Mental Health in Pharmacy)
Back to TopTop