Technology-Enhanced Pharmacy Teaching and Learning Strategies III

A special issue of Pharmacy (ISSN 2226-4787). This special issue belongs to the section "Pharmacy Education and Student/Practitioner Training".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2022) | Viewed by 10528

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne 3052, Australia
Interests: pharmacy education; teaching and Learning; simulation; osces; mydispense; community pharmacy
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Pharmacy Practice and Science, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536, USA
Interests: pharmacy education; teaching and learning; community/ambulatory pharmacy; self-care; health literacy
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The use of technology to enhance and facilitate learning in pharmacy education is on the rise. Technology is often used to either improve student engagement or to support flexible learning anytime and anywhere. The use of technology in a virtual environment also provides a safe space for students to make mistakes without the potentially life-threatening consequences of a real-world error.

Furthermore, many pharmacy schools have had to move towards remote learning and online education in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. To facilitate learning during the pandemic, faculties have used innovative technology-based solutions that may impact education for the foreseeable future.

We invite you to share your research concerning implementation, evaluation, and teaching experience in the use of technology to enhance pharmacy teaching and learning, including innovative methods used to realize remote and online learning during the COVID-19 outbreak.

Dr. Vivienne Mak
Dr. Clark Kebodeaux
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Pharmacy is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • pharmacy education
  • OSCE 
  • virtual
  • simulation
  • global 
  • technology
  • pharmacy learning
  • educational strategies
  • COVID-19
  • remote learning
  • online education

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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11 pages, 241 KiB  
Article
Enabling Access to Pharmacy Law Teaching during COVID-19: Student Perceptions of MyDispense and Assessment Outcomes
by Natasha Slater, Thuy Mason, Ricarda Micallef, Madhvee Ramkhelawon and Leanne May
Pharmacy 2023, 11(2), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy11020044 - 24 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1195
Abstract
During the COVID-19 pandemic, it was not always possible to teach pharmacy practice and practical dispensing skills in person. Second-year pharmacy students (n = 147) were given access to a virtual simulation tool, MyDispense, to supplement their learning. This software enabled students [...] Read more.
During the COVID-19 pandemic, it was not always possible to teach pharmacy practice and practical dispensing skills in person. Second-year pharmacy students (n = 147) were given access to a virtual simulation tool, MyDispense, to supplement their learning. This software enabled students to work remotely and access exercises in a ‘safe’ community pharmacy setting. This study evaluated second-year pharmacy students’ perceptions of MyDispense, and the impact on assessment performance in the pharmacy law and ethics module. Students were able to access 22 MyDispense activities throughout the academic year (2020/2021). Exercise completion rates and assessment marks were analysed, along with findings from a cross-sectional survey about user experience. MyDispense data were available for all students (n = 147), and 76.1% (n = 115) completed the survey. The mean number of MyDispense exercises completed was nine. Higher levels of MyDispense exercise completion were associated with higher pass rates and mean scores (no exercises completed versus 1–10 activities completed: mean score 77.1 versus 83.1, respectively) and a statistically significant association between exercise usage and in-class assessed prescription scores. Overall, 46.1% (n = 53/115), 33.0% (n = 38/115) and 33.9% (n = 39/115) of students felt that MyDispense had helped them to prepare for their assessed prescriptions, mid-module test, and final exam, respectively. MyDispense has provided an accessible alternative to in-person teaching for students during the COVID-19 pandemic, and results showed a positive association with assessment performance in pharmacy law and ethics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Technology-Enhanced Pharmacy Teaching and Learning Strategies III)
11 pages, 231 KiB  
Article
Expansion of MyDispense: A Descriptive Report of Simulation Activities and Assessment in a Certified Pharmacy Technician Training Program
by Cassandra R. Doyno, Lisa M. Holle, Renee Puente, Sharee Parker, Lauren M. Caldas and Barbara Exum
Pharmacy 2023, 11(1), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy11010038 - 16 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1359
Abstract
Background: Yale New Haven Health (YNHH) implemented a pharmacy technician training program in 2016. The curriculum includes 14 weeks of combined didactic and simulation hours (280 h in total), followed by 360 h of experiential learning. MyDispense, an online pharmacy simulation, allows students [...] Read more.
Background: Yale New Haven Health (YNHH) implemented a pharmacy technician training program in 2016. The curriculum includes 14 weeks of combined didactic and simulation hours (280 h in total), followed by 360 h of experiential learning. MyDispense, an online pharmacy simulation, allows students to develop and practice their dispensing skills in a safe environment with minimal consequences for mistakes. We describe a novel innovation, expanding the functionality of MyDispense to the training of pharmacy technicians. Methods: Technician training coordinator, supervisor, faculty members with experience in MyDispense, and experiential pharmacy students created cases within the MyDispense software that were targeted towards pharmacy technician activities. Activities were aligned with current American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP)-Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE) Accreditation Standards for pharmacy technician education and training programs. Results: A total of 14 cases were developed to be utilized in student technician training, and account for approximately 14 h of simulation. Conclusions: MyDispense is an innovative software that could allow students to access and complete exercises, and to continue developing dispensing skills in a safe, remote environment. We identified similarities between activities performed by student pharmacists and student pharmacy technicians, expanding MyDispense to a new learner group to practice, develop and be assessed on dispensing skills within their scope, as part of a formal technician training program and in preparation for the Pharmacy Technician Certification Examination (PTCE). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Technology-Enhanced Pharmacy Teaching and Learning Strategies III)
11 pages, 228 KiB  
Article
Successful Development and Implementation of a Large Virtual Interprofessional Education Activity Applying the Social Determinants of Health
by Karl R. Kodweis, Elizabeth A. Hall, Chelsea P. Renfro, Neena Thomas-Gosain, Robin Lennon-Dearing, Jonathon K. Walker and Tyler M. Kiles
Pharmacy 2022, 10(6), 157; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy10060157 - 23 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1777
Abstract
Interprofessional education (IPE) activities provide students insight into healthcare teams, shared decision-making, and social determinants of health (SDOH). Virtual IPE activities with large student populations or across multicampus have not been evaluated. The study aimed to explore the interprofessional competency growth in students, [...] Read more.
Interprofessional education (IPE) activities provide students insight into healthcare teams, shared decision-making, and social determinants of health (SDOH). Virtual IPE activities with large student populations or across multicampus have not been evaluated. The study aimed to explore the interprofessional competency growth in students, across several disciplines, following participation in a large-scale, virtual IPE activity. Students from pharmacy, medicine, social work, and physician assistant programs across Tennessee participated in an IPE patient case and SDOH in fall 2020 and fall 2021. Pre- and postsurveys included Likert ranking of 16 statements based on the 2011 Interprofessional Education Collaborative (IPEC) framework. A total of 607 students completed surveys (overall response rate, 76%). Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were performed on the pre-/postsurvey data, in aggregate and by discipline. Significant increases in all IPEC competency statements were seen, both in aggregate (100% of statements with p < 0.001) and in pharmacy (100% of statements with p < 0.001) and medicine subgroups (94% of statements with p < 0.001). Implementing large virtual IPE activities involving a complex patient case and SDOH significantly increased student IPEC competency outcomes for participating students, whether in aggregate or on a discipline-specific basis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Technology-Enhanced Pharmacy Teaching and Learning Strategies III)

Review

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15 pages, 699 KiB  
Review
Computer-Based Simulators in Pharmacy Practice Education: A Systematic Narrative Review
by Ahmed M. Gharib, Ivan K. Bindoff, Gregory M. Peterson and Mohammed S. Salahudeen
Pharmacy 2023, 11(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy11010008 - 02 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2689
Abstract
Computer-based simulations may represent an innovative, flexible, and cost-efficient training approach that has been underutilised in pharmacy practice education. This may need to change, with increasing pressure on clinical placement availability, COVID-19 restrictions, and economic pressures to improve teaching efficiency. This systematic narrative [...] Read more.
Computer-based simulations may represent an innovative, flexible, and cost-efficient training approach that has been underutilised in pharmacy practice education. This may need to change, with increasing pressure on clinical placement availability, COVID-19 restrictions, and economic pressures to improve teaching efficiency. This systematic narrative review summarises various computer-based simulations described in the pharmacy practice education literature, identifies the currently available products, and highlights key characteristics. Five major databases were searched (Medline, CINAHL, ERIC, Education Source and Embase). Authors also manually reviewed the publication section of major pharmacy simulator websites and performed a citation analysis. We identified 49 studies describing 29 unique simulators, which met the inclusion criteria. Only eight of these simulators were found to be currently available. The characteristics of these eight simulators were examined through the lens of eight main criteria (feedback type, grading, user play mode, cost, operational requirement, community/hospital setting, scenario sharing option, and interaction elements). Although a number of systems have been developed and trialled, relatively few are available on the market, and each comes with benefits and drawbacks. Educators are encouraged to consider their own institutional, professional and curriculum needs, and determine which product best aligns with their teaching goals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Technology-Enhanced Pharmacy Teaching and Learning Strategies III)
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8 pages, 230 KiB  
Opinion
Technology Personalities in the Classroom: A New Classification System of TechTypes from Expert to Techy Turtle
by Julie H. Oestreich and Jason W. Guy
Pharmacy 2023, 11(3), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy11030091 - 26 May 2023
Viewed by 1134
Abstract
The incorporation of technology in higher education has increased rapidly in recent years to allow for remote work and to promote active learning. Technology use could align with personality type and adopter status as defined by the diffusion of innovations theory. A review [...] Read more.
The incorporation of technology in higher education has increased rapidly in recent years to allow for remote work and to promote active learning. Technology use could align with personality type and adopter status as defined by the diffusion of innovations theory. A review of the literature was conducted using PubMed with 106 articles found, and 2 articles meeting the inclusion criteria of the study. Search terms included “technology AND education”, “pharmacy AND personality”, “technology AND faculty AND personality”, and “technology AND health educators AND personality”. This paper highlights the current literature and introduces a new classification system to describe the technology personalities of instructors. The proposed personality types (TechTypes) include expert, budding guru, adventurer, cautious optimist, and techy turtle. Awareness of the advantages and disadvantages of each personality type—as well as one’s own technology personality—may guide the selection of collaborators and tailor technology training for future growth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Technology-Enhanced Pharmacy Teaching and Learning Strategies III)
8 pages, 207 KiB  
Brief Report
Pharmacist Knowledge and Perceptions of Homeopathy: A Survey of Recent Pharmacy Graduates in Practice
by Jordin Millward, Kasidy McKay, John T. Holmes and Christopher T. Owens
Pharmacy 2022, 10(5), 130; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy10050130 - 09 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1668
Abstract
Homeopathic products are available over the counter in many pharmacies in the United States and are popular among consumers, although there is no conclusive evidence of their therapeutic effects. Pharmacists are obligated to provide well-informed, evidence-based information on these products, but many graduates [...] Read more.
Homeopathic products are available over the counter in many pharmacies in the United States and are popular among consumers, although there is no conclusive evidence of their therapeutic effects. Pharmacists are obligated to provide well-informed, evidence-based information on these products, but many graduates may not be receiving adequate training in this area. This report outlines the results of a survey assessing whether taking a focused elective course in complementary and integrative health (CIH) affects knowledge and perceptions regarding homeopathy. A 22-question survey was developed and distributed to graduates of Idaho State University College of Pharmacy. Responses on survey items were compared between those who had reported taking the CIH elective course and those who had not. Of the 475 pharmacists, 89 completed the survey (response rate of 18.7%). Pharmacists who had taken the CIH elective course reported being more comfortable answering patient questions (82% vs. 44%, p < 0.001), felt more able to make recommendations (75% vs. 36%, p < 0.001), and felt they could explain the proposed mechanism of action of homeopathic remedies to their patients (87% vs. 61%, p = 0.002). Those who took the elective course were also more likely to say that any benefits of homeopathy were due to the placebo effect (82% vs. 64%, p = 0.007). A significantly higher portion of respondents who had not taken the elective course indicated that they could benefit from further training on CIH topics when compared with those who had taken the elective course (85% vs. 51%, p = 0.02). There was no significant difference between groups with respect to their use of reliable resources (e.g., PubMed and Natural Medicines) vs. unreliable sources (other internet searches or personal anecdotes) when addressing CIH-related questions. These findings indicate that pharmacists with more focused training in CIH are more comfortable, confident, and knowledgeable when discussing homeopathy. Such education should be provided more broadly to students in colleges of pharmacy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Technology-Enhanced Pharmacy Teaching and Learning Strategies III)
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