Medicinal Plants Discovery Targeting Cardiovascular Diseases

A special issue of Pharmaceutics (ISSN 1999-4923). This special issue belongs to the section "Drug Targeting and Design".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 October 2021) | Viewed by 7210

Special Issue Editors


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Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Cardiology, Cardiocentro Ticino Foundation, Lugano, Switzerland
Interests: pathophysiological mechanisms; cardiovascular diseases; novel exosomes-based approach; cardioprotection
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Laboratory of Cardiovascular Pharmacology (LaFaC), Federal University of Grande Dourados (UFGD), Rodovia Dourados-Itahum, km 12, P.O. Box 533, Dourados 79804-970, MS, Brazil
Interests: antihypertensive; antiatherogenic; cardioprotective; diuretic; lipid-lowering; vasodilator
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Laboratory of Natural Products and Mass Spectrometry (LaPNEM), Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Food and Nutrition (FACFAN), Federal University of Mato Grosso Do Sul, Campo Grande, MS, Brazil
Interests: organic chemistry; natural products; mass spectrometry; pharmacognosy; traditional medicinal plants

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Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas, Núcleo de Investigações Químico-Farmacêuticas (NIQFAR), Universidade do Vale do Itajaí (UNIVALI), Campus Itajaí, Rua Uruguai 458, Centro, Santa Catarina CEP 88302-901, Brazil
Interests: natural products; bioactive compounds; kidney disease; hypertension; cardiovascular disease
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the leading causes of mortality and incapacity worldwide. CVD is a broad terminology for ailments affecting the heart or blood vessels, typically correlated with fatty accumulations within the arteries (atherosclerosis) and an enhanced probability of blood clot formation. It can also be related to injury to arteries in vital organs beyond the heart, such as the brain and kidneys. Lifestyle change is essential in both the treatment and prevention of all CVDs, and the medication therapy option will vary depending on the particular type of CVD. However, despite all the knowledge, there are still countless refractory patients and patients intolerant to the therapeutic options available. On this premise, the emerging need for new drug options is highlighted, where those obtained from medicinal plants stand out, which are immeasurable sources of thousands of secondary metabolites with significant therapeutic potential.

This Special Issue will summarize the benefits of the plant-based treatments currently studied for CVD and present potential candidates for new pharmaceutical development.

Dr. Lucio Barile
Dr. Arquimedes Gasparotto Junior
Dr. Denise Brentan da Silva
Dr. Priscila de Souza
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • isolated compounds
  • plant extracts
  • hypertension
  • kidney disease
  • dyslipidemia
  • atherosclerosis
  • myocardial infarction
  • stroke

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

19 pages, 2647 KiB  
Article
Prolonged Administration of Rudgea viburnoides (Cham.) Benth. Prevents Impairment of Redox Status, Renal Dysfunction, and Cardiovascular Damage in 2K1C-Hypertensive Rats by Inhibiting ACE Activity and NO-GMPC Pathway Activation
by Fernanda Viana Paulin, Rhanany Alan Calloi Palozi, Bethânia Rosa Lorençone, Arthur Ladeira Macedo, Lucas Pires Guarnier, Cleide Adriane Signor Tirloni, Paulo Vitor Moreira Romão, Arquimedes Gasparotto Junior and Denise Brentan Silva
Pharmaceutics 2021, 13(10), 1579; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13101579 - 28 Sep 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1754
Abstract
Rudgea viburnoides is widely found in the Brazilian Cerrado, and commonly used in Brazilian folk medicine. In this study, we evaluated the effects of prolonged administration of the aqueous extract from R. viburnoides leaves (AERV) on impaired redox status, renal dysfunction, and cardiovascular [...] Read more.
Rudgea viburnoides is widely found in the Brazilian Cerrado, and commonly used in Brazilian folk medicine. In this study, we evaluated the effects of prolonged administration of the aqueous extract from R. viburnoides leaves (AERV) on impaired redox status, renal dysfunction, and cardiovascular damage in 2K1C hypertensive rats, as well as its chemical composition by LC-DAD-MS. Renal hypertension (two kidney, one-clip model) was surgically induced in male Wistar rats and AERV (30, 100 and 300 mg/kg) was administered orally five weeks after surgery for 28 days. Renal function was assessed and urinary electrolytes, pH, and density were measured. Electrocardiography, blood pressure and heart rate were recorded. Cardiac and mesenteric vascular beds were isolated for cardiac morphometry and evaluation of vascular reactivity, and aortic rings were also isolated for measurement of cyclic guanosine monophosphate levels, and the redox status was assessed. Prolonged treatment with AERV preserved urine excretion and electrolyte levels (Na+, K+, Ca2+ and Cl), reversed electrocardiographic changes, left ventricular hypertrophy and changes in vascular reactivity induced by hypertension, and reduced blood pressure and heart rate. This effect was associated with a positive modulation of tissue redox state, activation of the NO/cGMP pathway, and inhibition of the angiotensin-converting enzyme. Glycosylated iridoids, chlorogenic acids, glycosylated triterpenes, O-glycosylated flavonols, and triterpenoid saponins were annotated. AERV showed no acute toxicity in female Wistar rats. Therefore, AERV treatment reduced the progression of cardiorenal disease in 2K1C hypertensive rats, which can be involved with an important attenuation of oxidative stress, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition, and activation of the NO/cGMP pathway. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medicinal Plants Discovery Targeting Cardiovascular Diseases)
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25 pages, 3196 KiB  
Article
Phytochemicals and Amino Acids Profiles of Selected sub-Saharan African Medicinal Plants’ Parts Used for Cardiovascular Diseases’ Treatment
by Johnson Oluwaseun Odukoya, Julianah Olayemi Odukoya, Edwin Mpoh Mmutlane and Derek Tantoh Ndinteh
Pharmaceutics 2021, 13(9), 1367; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13091367 - 31 Aug 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2423
Abstract
For years, the focus on the lipid–atherosclerosis relationship has limited the consideration of the possible contribution of other key dietary components, such as amino acids (AAs), to cardiovascular disease (CVD) development. Notwithstanding, the potential of plant-based diets, some AAs and phytochemicals to reduce [...] Read more.
For years, the focus on the lipid–atherosclerosis relationship has limited the consideration of the possible contribution of other key dietary components, such as amino acids (AAs), to cardiovascular disease (CVD) development. Notwithstanding, the potential of plant-based diets, some AAs and phytochemicals to reduce CVDs’ risk has been reported. Therefore, in this study, the phytochemical and AA profiles of different medicinal plants’ (MPs) parts used for CVDs’ treatment in sub-Saharan Africa were investigated. Fourier-transform infrared analysis confirmed the presence of hydroxyl, amino and other bioactive compounds’ functional groups in the samples. In most of them, glutamic and aspartic acids were the most abundant AAs, while lysine was the most limiting. P. biglobosa leaf, had the richest total branched-chain AAs (BCAAs) level, followed by A. cepa bulb. However, A. cepa bulb had the highest total AAs content and an encouraging nutraceutical use for adults based on its amino acid score. Principal component analysis revealed no sharp distinction between the AAs composition of MPs that have found food applications and those only used medicinally. Overall, the presence of medicinally important phytochemicals and AAs levels in the selected MPs’ parts support their use for CVDs treatment as they might not add to the AAs (e.g., the BCAAs) burden in the human body. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medicinal Plants Discovery Targeting Cardiovascular Diseases)
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20 pages, 2692 KiB  
Article
Ethyl Acetate Fraction and Isolated Phenolics Derivatives from Mandevilla moricandiana Identified by UHPLC-DAD-ESI-MSn with Pharmacological Potential for the Improvement of Obesity-Induced Endothelial Dysfunction
by Leticia L. D. M. Ferreira, Valéria de F. Leão, Cinthya M. de Melo, Thelma de B. Machado, Ana Claudia F. Amaral, Leandro L. da Silva, Naomi K. Simas, Michelle F. Muzitano, Ivana C. R. Leal and Juliana M. Raimundo
Pharmaceutics 2021, 13(8), 1173; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13081173 - 29 Jul 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2122
Abstract
Endothelial dysfunction in obesity plays a key role in the development of cardiovascular diseases, and it is characterized by increased vascular tonus and oxidative stress. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the vasodilatory and antioxidant activities of Mandevilla moricandiana ethyl acetate fraction and [...] Read more.
Endothelial dysfunction in obesity plays a key role in the development of cardiovascular diseases, and it is characterized by increased vascular tonus and oxidative stress. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the vasodilatory and antioxidant activities of Mandevilla moricandiana ethyl acetate fraction and subfractions. Vascular effects were investigated on aorta isolated from control and monosodium glutamate (MSG) induced-obese Wistar rats, and antioxidant activity was assessed by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) methods. The ethyl acetate fraction (MMEAF) induced a concentration-dependent vasodilation on aortic rings through the NO pathway, with the involvement of histamine H1 and estrogen ERα receptors and showed potent antioxidant activity. In aorta of MSG obese rats, maximal relaxation to acetylcholine was increased in the presence of MMEAF (3 µg/mL), indicating that MMEAF ameliorated obesity-induced endothelial dysfunction. Quercetin and kaempferol aglycones and their correspondent glycosides, as well as caffeoylquinic acid derivatives, A-type procyanidin trimer, ursolic and oleanolic triterpenoid acids were identified in subfractions from MMEAF and seem to be the metabolites responsible for the vascular and antioxidant activities of this fraction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medicinal Plants Discovery Targeting Cardiovascular Diseases)
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