Pharmaceutical Applications of Plant Extracts

A special issue of Pharmaceutics (ISSN 1999-4923). This special issue belongs to the section "Biopharmaceutics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2023) | Viewed by 90407

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Pharmacology, Wroclaw Medical University, J. Mikulicza-Radeckiego 2, 50-345 Wroclaw, Poland
Interests: plant extracts’ bioactivity; functional food; bone metabolism; inflammation; aging; animal models
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Guest Editor
Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Wroclaw Medical University, Borowska 211, 50-556 Wroclaw, Poland
Interests: plant biotechnology; plant in vitro cultures; plant physiology (oxidative stress, bio-elicitor response); molecular biology (gene expression level, elucidation of plant biosynthetic pathways); phytochemistry
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Plant extracts are complex matrices with a rich composition of specialized metabolites. These compounds exhibit many different biological activities and are therefore used in the prevention and treatment of various diseases and disorders.

Recently, research on the recognition of natural structures responsible for individual bioactivities has intensified, mainly due to the various reports on the overlapping activities of compounds contained in plant extracts.

It is for this reason that we are proposing this Special Issue, which will serve as a platform for research based on the bioactivity of plant extracts and natural compounds. Authors are invited to submit original research articles and reviews including reports of antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-infectious activity of natural products, as well as studies assessing the influence of plant extracts and functional foods on age-related disorders, osteoporosis, and metabolic syndrome in vitro and in vivo.

Dr. Beata Nowak
Dr. Sylwia Zielińska
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • plant extract
  • natural compounds
  • biopharmaceutics
  • synergistic effect
  • antimicrobial activity
  • antifungal activity
  • antiviral activity
  • anti-inflammatory activity
  • biodiversity
  • metabolic syndrome
  • age-related disorders
  • bone metabolism
  • polyphenolics
  • alkaloids
  • saponins
  • essential oils
  • terpenoids
  • betalains
  • tanshinones

Published Papers (21 papers)

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Research

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14 pages, 3134 KiB  
Article
Efficacy of FRO on Acne Vulgaris Pathogenesis
by Jung-Eun Kim, Hengmin Han, Yinzhu Xu, Min-Ho Lee and Hyo-Jeong Lee
Pharmaceutics 2023, 15(7), 1885; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics15071885 - 4 Jul 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2321
Abstract
Acne vulgaris is a common skin disease characterized by increased sebum production, inflammation, and Cutibacterium acnes (CA: formerly Propionibacterium acnes) hyperproliferation in pilosebaceous follicles. This study evaluated the efficacy of FRO, a formula composed of fermented Rhus verniciflua Stokes and Orostachys japonicus [...] Read more.
Acne vulgaris is a common skin disease characterized by increased sebum production, inflammation, and Cutibacterium acnes (CA: formerly Propionibacterium acnes) hyperproliferation in pilosebaceous follicles. This study evaluated the efficacy of FRO, a formula composed of fermented Rhus verniciflua Stokes and Orostachys japonicus, against acne pathogenesis via antimicrobial assessment and an in vitro analysis. Stimulated model cells treated with hormones, CA, or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were designed based on the characteristics of acne pathogenesis, including inflammation and sebum hypersecretion. High-performance liquid chromatography, disc diffusion, MTS, and western blotting assays were used to examine potential anti-acne effects. FRO was determined to contain phenolics such as gallic acid, fisetin, quercetin, and kaempferol. FRO exerted antimicrobial activity against CA and inhibited reactive oxygen species production that was otherwise increased by LPS or CA in HaCaT cells. Additionally, FRO exerted anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting iNOS, TNF-α, IL-6, p-STAT-3, and p-NF-κB, which were previously upregulated by LPS or CA in THP-1 and HaCaT cells. FRO inhibited lipogenesis induced by steroid hormones and CA by decreasing FAS and SREBP-1 levels in sebocytes. Additionally, FRO down-regulated the androgen receptor, 5α-reductase, SREBP-1, and FAS levels, which were upregulated by steroid hormone in LNCaP cells. Taken together, our findings suggest that FRO alleviates acne by inhibiting the growth of CA, inflammation, and excess sebum and could be used for functional cosmetics or acne treatments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmaceutical Applications of Plant Extracts)
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26 pages, 7363 KiB  
Article
Design, Preparation, and Physicochemical Characterisation of Alginate-Based Honey-Loaded Topical Formulations
by Md Lokman Hossain, Lee Yong Lim, Katherine Hammer, Dhanushka Hettiarachchi and Cornelia Locher
Pharmaceutics 2023, 15(5), 1483; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics15051483 - 12 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1950
Abstract
Honey has widespread use as a nutritional supplement and flavouring agent. Its diverse bioactivities, including antioxidant, antimicrobial, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer properties, have also made it an aspirant natural product for therapeutic applications. Honey is highly viscous and very sticky, and its acceptance [...] Read more.
Honey has widespread use as a nutritional supplement and flavouring agent. Its diverse bioactivities, including antioxidant, antimicrobial, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer properties, have also made it an aspirant natural product for therapeutic applications. Honey is highly viscous and very sticky, and its acceptance as a medicinal product will require formulation into products that are not only effective but also convenient for consumers to use. This study presents the design, preparation, and physicochemical characterisation of three types of alginate-based topical formulations incorporating a honey. The honeys applied were from Western Australia, comprising a Jarrah honey, two types of Manuka honeys, and a Coastal Peppermint honey. A New Zealand Manuka honey served as comparator honey. The three formulations were a pre-gel solution consisting of 2–3% (w/v) sodium alginate solution with 70% (w/v) honey, as well as a wet sheet and a dry sheet. The latter two formulations were obtained by further processing the respective pre-gel solutions. Physical properties of the different honey-loaded pre-gel solutions (i.e., pH, colour profile, moisture content, spreadability, and viscosity), wet sheets (i.e., dimension, morphology, and tensile strength) and dry sheets (i.e., dimension, morphology, tensile strength, and swelling index) were determined. High-Performance Thin-Layer Chromatography was applied to analyse selected non-sugar honey constituents to assess the impacts of formulation on the honey chemical composition. This study demonstrates that, irrespective of the honey type utilised, the developed manufacturing techniques yielded topical formulations with high honey content while preserving the integrity of the honey constituents. A storage stability study was conducted on formulations containing the WA Jarrah or Manuka 2 honey. The samples, appropriately packaged and stored over 6 months at 5, 30, and 40 °C, were shown to retain all physical characteristics with no loss of integrity of the monitored honey constituents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmaceutical Applications of Plant Extracts)
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16 pages, 2630 KiB  
Article
Chemical Constituents from the Roots of Angelica reflexa That Improve Glucose-Stimulated Insulin Secretion by Regulating Pancreatic β-Cell Metabolism
by Hyo-Seon Kim, Dahae Lee, Young-Hye Seo, Seung-Mok Ryu, A-Yeong Lee, Byeong-Cheol Moon, Wook-Jin Kim, Ki-Sung Kang and Jun Lee
Pharmaceutics 2023, 15(4), 1239; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics15041239 - 13 Apr 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1747
Abstract
The aim of this study was to discover bioactive constituents of Angelica reflexa that improve glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in pancreatic β-cells. Herein, three new compounds, namely, koseonolin A (1), koseonolin B (2), and isohydroxylomatin (3), along [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to discover bioactive constituents of Angelica reflexa that improve glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in pancreatic β-cells. Herein, three new compounds, namely, koseonolin A (1), koseonolin B (2), and isohydroxylomatin (3), along with 28 compounds (431) were isolated from the roots of A. reflexa by chromatographic methods. The chemical structures of new compounds (13) were elucidated through spectroscopic/spectrometric methods such as NMR and HRESIMS. In particular, the absolute configuration of the new compounds (1 and 3) was performed by electronic circular dichroism (ECD) studies. The effects of the root extract of A. reflexa (KH2E) and isolated compounds (131) on GSIS were detected by GSIS assay, ADP/ATP ratio assay, and Western blot assay. We observed that KH2E enhanced GSIS. Among the compounds 131, isohydroxylomatin (3), (−)-marmesin (17), and marmesinin (19) increased GSIS. In particular, marmesinin (19) was the most effective; this effect was superior to treatment with gliclazide. GSI values were: 13.21 ± 0.12 and 7.02 ± 0.32 for marmesinin (19) and gliclazide at a same concentration of 10 μM, respectively. Gliclazide is often performed in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). KH2E and marmesinin (19) enhanced the protein expressions associated with pancreatic β-cell metabolism such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1, and insulin receptor substrate-2. The effect of marmesinin (19) on GSIS was improved by an L-type Ca2+ channel agonist and K+ channel blocker and was inhibited by an L-type Ca2+ channel blocker and K+ channel activator. Marmesinin (19) may improve hyperglycemia by enhancing GSIS in pancreatic β-cells. Thus, marmesinin (19) may have potential use in developing novel anti-T2D therapy. These findings promote the potential application of marmesinin (19) toward the management of hyperglycemia in T2D. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmaceutical Applications of Plant Extracts)
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20 pages, 982 KiB  
Article
Comparative HPLC–DAD–ESI-QTOF/MS/MS Analysis of Bioactive Phenolic Compounds Content in the Methanolic Extracts from Flowering Herbs of Monarda Species and Their Free Radical Scavenging and Antimicrobial Activities
by Małgorzata Kozyra, Anna Biernasiuk, Magdalena Wiktor, Wirginia Kukula-Koch and Anna Malm
Pharmaceutics 2023, 15(3), 964; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics15030964 - 16 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1491
Abstract
Comparative analysis of flavonoids and phenolic acids composition, in plants of six species of Monarda from family Lamiaceae was carried out. The 70% (v/v) methanolic extracts of flowering herbs of Monarda citriodora Cerv. ex Lag., Monarda bradburiana L.C. Beck, Monarda didyma [...] Read more.
Comparative analysis of flavonoids and phenolic acids composition, in plants of six species of Monarda from family Lamiaceae was carried out. The 70% (v/v) methanolic extracts of flowering herbs of Monarda citriodora Cerv. ex Lag., Monarda bradburiana L.C. Beck, Monarda didyma L., Monarda media Willd., Monarda fistulosa L. and Monarda punctata L. were analyzed for their polyphenol composition as well as antioxidant capacity and antimicrobial effect. Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC–DAD–ESI-QTOF/MS/MS) was used to identify phenolic compounds. The in vitro antioxidant activity was assessed using a DPPH radical scavenging assay, while antimicrobial activity was measured by the broth microdilution method allowing for MIC (minimal inhibitory concentration) determination. The total polyphenol content (TPC) was assayed by the Folin–Ciocalteu method. The results showed the presence of eighteen different components including phenolic acids and flavonoids together with their derivatives. The presence of six constituents (gallic acid, hydroxybenzoic acid glucoside, ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, luteolin-7-glucoside and apigenin-7-glucoside) was found to be dependent on the species. To differentiate the samples, the antioxidant activity of 70% (v/v) methanolic extracts was studied and expressed as a percent of DPPH radical inhibition and in EC50 values (mg/mL). The latter values were as follows: M. media (EC50 = 0.090 mg/mL), M. didyma (EC50 = 0.114 mg/mL), M. citriodora (EC50 = 0.139 mg/mL), M. bradburiana (EC50 = 0.141 mg/mL), M. punctata (EC50 = 0.150 mg/mL) and M. fistulosa (EC50 = 0.164 mg/mL). Moreover, all extracts indicated bactericidal activity against reference Gram-positive (MIC = 0.07–1.25 mg/mL) and Gram-negative bacteria (MIC = 0.63–10 mg/mL) as well as fungicidal effect towards yeasts (MIC = 1.25–10 mg/mL). Staphylococcus epidermidis and Micrococcus luteus were the most sensitive to them. All extracts showed promising antioxidant properties and noteworthy activity against the reference Gram-positive bacteria. Antimicrobial effect of the extracts against the reference Gram-negative bacteria as well as fungi (yeasts) from Candida spp. was slight. All extracts showed bactericidal and fungicidal effect. The obtained results indicated that the investigated extracts from Monarda spp. could be potential sources of natural antioxidants and antimicrobial agents, especially with activity towards Gram-positive bacteria. The differences in the composition and properties of the studied samples may influence the pharmacological effects of the studied species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmaceutical Applications of Plant Extracts)
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15 pages, 1671 KiB  
Article
Potent Virucidal Activity In Vitro of Photodynamic Therapy with Hypericum Extract as Photosensitizer and White Light against Human Coronavirus HCoV-229E
by Beatriz Praena, Marta Mascaraque, Sabina Andreu, Raquel Bello-Morales, Edgar Abarca-Lachen, Valentina Rapozzi, Yolanda Gilaberte, Salvador González, José Antonio López-Guerrero and Ángeles Juarranz
Pharmaceutics 2022, 14(11), 2364; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics14112364 - 2 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1805
Abstract
The emergent human coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 and its high infectivity rate has highlighted the strong need for new virucidal treatments. In this sense, the use of photodynamic therapy (PDT) with white light, to take advantage of the sunlight, is a potent strategy for decreasing [...] Read more.
The emergent human coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 and its high infectivity rate has highlighted the strong need for new virucidal treatments. In this sense, the use of photodynamic therapy (PDT) with white light, to take advantage of the sunlight, is a potent strategy for decreasing the virulence and pathogenicity of the virus. Here, we report the virucidal effect of PDT based on Hypericum extract (HE) in combination with white light, which exhibits an inhibitory activity of the human coronavirus HCoV-229E on hepatocarcinoma Huh-7 cells. Moreover, despite continuous exposure to white light, HE has long durability, being able to maintain the prevention of viral infection. Given its potent in vitro virucidal capacity, we propose HE in combination with white light as a promising candidate to fight against SARS-CoV-2 as a virucidal compound. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmaceutical Applications of Plant Extracts)
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17 pages, 2794 KiB  
Article
Secondary Metabolite Profile and Pharmacological Opportunities of Lettuce Plants following Selenium and Sulfur Enhancement
by Muna Ali Abdalla, Ibukun Famuyide, Madelien Wooding, Lyndy J. McGaw and Karl H. Mühling
Pharmaceutics 2022, 14(11), 2267; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics14112267 - 23 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1909
Abstract
Selenium (Se) is an essential trace nutrient for humans and animals owing to its role in redox regulation, thyroid hormone control factors, immunity, inflammatory reactions, brain activities, and carbohydrate regulation. It is also important to support muscle development, as well as for reproductive [...] Read more.
Selenium (Se) is an essential trace nutrient for humans and animals owing to its role in redox regulation, thyroid hormone control factors, immunity, inflammatory reactions, brain activities, and carbohydrate regulation. It is also important to support muscle development, as well as for reproductive and cardiovascular well-being. Furthermore, sulfur is known to be a healing element, due to the remarkable function of specialized and secondary S-containing compounds. The scope of the current study was to determine the impact of Se and S enrichment on the secondary metabolite accumulation and antibacterial and NO inhibition activities in green and red leaf lettuce (V1 and V2, respectively). The plants were grown in a hydroponic system supplied with different S concentrations (S0: 0, S1: 1 mM and S2: 1.5 mM K2SO4) via the nutrient solution and foliar-applied varying levels of Se (0, 0.2 and 2.6 µM). Electrospray ionization–quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-QTOF/MS) combined with ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) was used to identify the secondary metabolites in green and red lettuce. The results indicated that extracts of the biofortified lettuce were not cytotoxic to Vero kidney cells at the highest concentration tested of 1 mg/mL. The ESI/MS of the tentatively identified metabolites showed that the response values of 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid, cyanidin 3-O-galactoside, quercetin 3-O-(6′′-acetyl-glucoside) and quercetin 3-O-malonylglucoside were induced synergistically under higher Se and S levels in red lettuce plants. The acetone extract of red lettuce had antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.156 and 0.625 μg/mL under S2/Se1 and S2/Se2 treatments, respectively. As with antibacterial activity, the acetone extract of green (V1) lettuce treated with adequate (S1) and higher S (S2) under Se-limiting conditions showed the ability to inhibit nitric oxide (NO) release from macrophages. NO production by macrophages was inhibited by 50% at respective concentrations of 106.1 ± 2.4 and 101.0 ± 0.6 μg/mL with no toxic effect on the cells, in response to S1 and S2, respectively, under Se-deficient conditions (Se0). Furthermore, the red cultivar (V2) exhibited the same effect as the green cultivar (V1) regarding NO inhibition, with IC50 = 113.0 ± 4.2 μg/mL, in response to S1/Se2 treatments. Collectively, the promising NO inhibitory effect and antibacterial activity of red lettuce under the above-mentioned conditions might be attributed to the production of flavonoid glycosides and phenylpropanoic acid esters under the same condition. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to show the novel approach of the NO inhibitory effect of Se and S enrichment in food crops, as an indicator for the potential of Se and S as natural anti-inflammatory agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmaceutical Applications of Plant Extracts)
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20 pages, 10052 KiB  
Article
Comparative Estimation of the Cytotoxic Activity of Different Parts of Cynara scolymus L.: Crude Extracts versus Green Synthesized Silver Nanoparticles with Apoptotic Investigation
by Amgad I. M. Khedr, Abdelaziz F. S. Farrag, Ali M. Nasr, Shady A. Swidan, Mohamed S. Nafie, Maged S. Abdel-Kader, Marwa S. Goda, Jihan M. Badr and Reda F. A. Abdelhameed
Pharmaceutics 2022, 14(10), 2185; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics14102185 - 13 Oct 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1862
Abstract
Different parts of Cynara scolymus L. and their green synthesized eco-friendly silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were screened for their cytotoxicity and apoptotic activity. Results showed that flower extract AgNPs exhibited more potent cytotoxicity compared to the normal form against PC-3 and A549 cell lines [...] Read more.
Different parts of Cynara scolymus L. and their green synthesized eco-friendly silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were screened for their cytotoxicity and apoptotic activity. Results showed that flower extract AgNPs exhibited more potent cytotoxicity compared to the normal form against PC-3 and A549 cell lines with IC50 values of 2.47 μg/mL and 1.35 μg/mL, respectively. The results were compared to doxorubicin (IC50 = 5.13 and 6.19 μg/mL, respectively). For apoptosis-induction, AgNPs prepared from the flower extract induced cell death by apoptosis by 41.34-fold change and induced necrotic cell death by 10.2-fold. Additionally, they induced total prostate apoptotic cell death by a 16.18-fold change, and it slightly induced necrotic cell death by 2.7-fold. Hence, green synthesized flower extract AgNPs exhibited cytotoxicity in A549 and PC-3 through apoptosis-induction in both cells. Consequently, synthesized AgNPs were further tested for apoptosis and increased gene and protein expression of pro-apoptotic markers while decreasing expression of anti-apoptotic genes. As a result, this formula may serve as a promising source for anti-cancer candidates. Finally, liquid chromatography combined with electrospray mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) analysis was assessed to identify the common bioactive metabolites in crude extracts of stem, flower, and bract. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmaceutical Applications of Plant Extracts)
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20 pages, 24064 KiB  
Article
The Anticancer Effect of a Flavonoid-Rich Extract of Bergamot Juice in THP-1 Cells Engages the SIRT2/AKT/p53 Pathway
by Alessandro Maugeri, Caterina Russo, Laura Musumeci, Giovanni Enrico Lombardo, Giovambattista De Sarro, Davide Barreca, Santa Cirmi and Michele Navarra
Pharmaceutics 2022, 14(10), 2168; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics14102168 - 11 Oct 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1769
Abstract
Novel targets are constantly sought to fight hematologic malignancies. In this regard, high levels of SIRT2 expression are associated with unfavorable prognosis of acute myeloid leukemia. The interest in the plant kingdom has allowed the identification of ever-new anti-leukemic agents. Citrus × bergamia [...] Read more.
Novel targets are constantly sought to fight hematologic malignancies. In this regard, high levels of SIRT2 expression are associated with unfavorable prognosis of acute myeloid leukemia. The interest in the plant kingdom has allowed the identification of ever-new anti-leukemic agents. Citrus × bergamia (bergamot) was proved to possess anticancer properties, yet no evidence is available regarding leukemia. For the first time, we studied the potential anti-leukemic effect of a flavonoid-rich extract of bergamot juice (BJe) in THP-1 cells, investigating the underlying mechanisms. Our findings showed that BJe reduced THP-1 cell proliferation, without affecting that of primary PBMCs, blocking the cell cycle in S phase and inducing apoptosis. Triggering of both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways was witnessed by cleavage of caspase-8 and -9, which in turn activated caspase-3 and PARP. Interestingly, the increased p53 acetylation in THP-1 cells underlies SIRT2 inhibition by BJe, that was proved also in the isolated enzyme. Moreover, BJe hampered SIRT2 also by lowering its gene expression. Finally, BJe reduced AKT phosphorylation, which we hypothesized being the joining link between SIRT2 and p53, that play a pivotal role in BJe-induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in THP-1 cells. Our results suggest BJe as a potential anti-leukemic agent, via targeting of the SIRT2/AKT/p53 pathway. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmaceutical Applications of Plant Extracts)
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18 pages, 5533 KiB  
Article
Extracts of Rheum palmatum and Aloe vera Show Beneficial Properties for the Synergistic Improvement of Oral Wound Healing
by Lena Katharina Müller-Heupt, Nadine Wiesmann, Sofia Schröder, Yüksel Korkmaz, Nina Vierengel, Jonathan Groß, Rolf Dahm, James Deschner, Till Opatz, Juergen Brieger, Bilal Al-Nawas and Peer W. Kämmerer
Pharmaceutics 2022, 14(10), 2060; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics14102060 - 27 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1820
Abstract
Various local and systemic factors compromise oral wound healing and may lead to wound dehiscence, inflammation, or ulcers. Currently, there is a lack of topical therapeutical options. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the effect of Aloe vera (AV) and Rheum palmatum root [...] Read more.
Various local and systemic factors compromise oral wound healing and may lead to wound dehiscence, inflammation, or ulcers. Currently, there is a lack of topical therapeutical options. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the effect of Aloe vera (AV) and Rheum palmatum root (RPR) on oral wound healing capacity in vitro. The effect of AV and RPR on human primary fibroblast viability and migration was studied by measuring metabolic activity and gap closure in a scratch assay. Furthermore, cell cycle distribution and cytoskeletal features were analyzed. Antimicrobial activity against the oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis was evaluated by broth microdilution assay. AV and RPR increased fibroblast migration after single agent treatment. Synergistic effects of the plant extract combination were observed regarding cellular migration which were confirmed by calculation of the phenomenological combination index (pCI), whereas the cell cycle distribution was not influenced. Furthermore, the combination of AV and RPR showed synergistic antibacterial effects as determined by the fractional inhibitory concentration index. This study demonstrated that the combination of AV and RPR can promote the migration of human primary fibroblasts in vitro and exert antimicrobial efficacy against P. gingivalis, suggesting these compounds for the topical treatment of wound healing disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmaceutical Applications of Plant Extracts)
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16 pages, 4282 KiB  
Article
The Effects of Resveratrol-Rich Extracts of Vitis vinifera Pruning Waste on HeLa, MCF-7 and MRC-5 Cells: Apoptosis, Autophagia and Necrosis Interplay
by Aleksandra Jovanović Galović, Nataša Jovanović Lješković, Senka Vidović, Jelena Vladić, Nikola Jojić, Milan Ilić, Tatjana Srdić Rajić, Vesna Kojić and Dimitar Jakimov
Pharmaceutics 2022, 14(10), 2017; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics14102017 - 23 Sep 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2162
Abstract
Resveratrol is a well-studied plant-derived molecule in cancer biology, with a plethora of documented in vitro effects. However, its low bioavailability and toxicity risk hamper its wider use. In this study, vine shoots after pruning were used as a source of resveratrol (RSV). [...] Read more.
Resveratrol is a well-studied plant-derived molecule in cancer biology, with a plethora of documented in vitro effects. However, its low bioavailability and toxicity risk hamper its wider use. In this study, vine shoots after pruning were used as a source of resveratrol (RSV). The activity of subcritical water extract (SWE) and dry extract (DE) is examined on three cell lines: HeLa, MCF-7 and MRC-5. The cytotoxic effect is assessed by the MTT test and EB/AO staining, levels of apoptosis are determined by Annexin V assay, autophagia by ULK-1 expression using Western blot and NF-kB activation by p65 ELISA. Our results show that both resveratrol-rich extracts (DE, SWE) have a preferential cytotoxic effect on malignant cell lines (HeLa, MCF-7), and low cytotoxicity on non-malignant cells in culture (MRC-5). Further experiments indicate that the investigated malignant cells undergo different cell death pathways. MCF-7 cells died preferentially by apoptosis, while the HeLa cells died most likely by necrosis (possibly ferroptosis). Protective autophagia is diminished upon treatment with DE in both HeLa and MCF-7 cells, while SWE does not influence the level of autophagia. The extracts are effective even at low concentrations (below IC50) in the activation of NF-kB (p65 translocation). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmaceutical Applications of Plant Extracts)
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10 pages, 5052 KiB  
Article
Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitory Activity and Chemical Composition of Pistacia chinensis Leaf Essential Oil
by Chi-Ya Huang, Yu-Yi Chang, Shang-Tzen Chang and Hui-Ting Chang
Pharmaceutics 2022, 14(10), 1982; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics14101982 - 20 Sep 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2877
Abstract
Gout is a common metabolic disease caused by abnormal purine metabolism that promotes the formation and deposition of monosodium urate crystals within joints that causes acute arthritis and can seriously affect the daily life of patients. Pistacia chinensis is one of the traditional [...] Read more.
Gout is a common metabolic disease caused by abnormal purine metabolism that promotes the formation and deposition of monosodium urate crystals within joints that causes acute arthritis and can seriously affect the daily life of patients. Pistacia chinensis is one of the traditional medicinal plants of the Anacardiaceae family, and there have been many studies on its biological activity, including anti-inflammatory, antidepressant, antibacterial, antioxidant, and hypoglycemic activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antigout effect of P. chinensis leaf essential oil and its constituents through xanthine oxidase inhibition. Leaf essential oil showed good xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity for both substrates, hypoxanthine and xanthine. Six fractions were obtained from open column chromatography, and fraction E1 exhibited the best activity. The constituents of leaf essential oil and fraction E1 were analyzed by GC-MS. The main constituents of both leaf essential oil and fraction E1 were limonene and 3-carene; limonene showed a higher inhibitory effect on xanthine oxidase. Based on the enzyme kinetic investigation, limonene was the mixed-type inhibitor against xanthine oxidase. The results revealed that Pistacia chinensis leaf essential oil and limonene have the potential to act as natural remedies for the treatment of gout. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmaceutical Applications of Plant Extracts)
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17 pages, 3193 KiB  
Article
Stability Study of Alpinia galanga Constituents and Investigation of Their Membrane Permeability by ChemGPS-NP and the Parallel Artificial Membrane Permeability Assay
by Alexandra Simon, Kim Szofi Nghiem, Nóra Gampe, Zsófia Garádi, Imre Boldizsár, Anders Backlund, András Darcsi, Andrea Nagyné Nedves and Eszter Riethmüller
Pharmaceutics 2022, 14(9), 1967; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics14091967 - 18 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2493
Abstract
Alpinia galanga Willd., greater galangal, has been used for thousands of years as a spice as well as in traditional medicine. Its central nervous system (CNS) stimulant activity and neuroprotective effects have been proved both in animal models and human trials. However, the [...] Read more.
Alpinia galanga Willd., greater galangal, has been used for thousands of years as a spice as well as in traditional medicine. Its central nervous system (CNS) stimulant activity and neuroprotective effects have been proved both in animal models and human trials. However, the compounds responsible for these effects have not been identified yet. Therefore, the main constituents (p-OH-benzaldehyde (1), trans-p-coumaryl-alcohol (2), p-coumaryl-aldehyde (4), galanganol A (5), galanganol B (6), trans-p-acetoxycinnamyl alcohol (7), 1′S-1′-acetoxychavicol acetate (ACA, 9), and 1′S-1′-acetoxyeugenol acetate (AEA, 10)) were isolated to investigate their aqueous stability and passive diffusion across the gastro-intestinal tract (GIT) membrane and the blood–brain barrier (BBB) by the parallel artificial membrane permeability assay (PAMPA). Our positive results for compounds 1, 2, 4, 7, 9, and 10 suggest good permeability, thus potential contribution to the effects of greater galangal in the CNS. The results of the PAMPA-BBB were corroborated by in silico chemography-based ChemGPS-NP framework experiments. In addition, examination of the chemical space position of galangal compounds in relation to known psychostimulants revealed that all the molecules in proximity are NET/SERT inhibitors. As ACA and AEA did not show much proximity to either compound, the importance of further investigation of their degradation products becomes more pronounced. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmaceutical Applications of Plant Extracts)
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16 pages, 4062 KiB  
Article
Quaternized Chitosan Thiol Hydrogel-Thickened Nanoemulsion: A Multifunctional Platform for Upgrading the Topical Applications of Virgin Olive Oil
by Ali M. Nasr, Salama M. Aboelenin, Mohammad Y. Alfaifi, Ali A. Shati, Serag Eldin I. Elbehairi, Reda F. M. Elshaarawy and Nashwa H. Abd Elwahab
Pharmaceutics 2022, 14(7), 1319; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics14071319 - 22 Jun 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1731
Abstract
(1) Background: Virgin olive oil (VOO) has attracted the attention of many researchers due to its nutritional and medicinal values. However, VOO’s biological applications have been limited due to a lack of precise chemical profiling and approach to increase the physicochemical characteristics, bioactivity, [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Virgin olive oil (VOO) has attracted the attention of many researchers due to its nutritional and medicinal values. However, VOO’s biological applications have been limited due to a lack of precise chemical profiling and approach to increase the physicochemical characteristics, bioactivity, and delivery of its bioactive components; (2) Methods: The current study intended to evaluate the chemical composition of VOO using the GC-MS technique and determine its major components. Furthermore, the effect of incorporating VOO into Tween 80-lecithin nanoemulsion (OONE) and a quaternized trimethyl chitosan-thiol (TMCT) hydrogel-thickened nanoemulsion system (OOHTN) on its physicochemical characteristics and biological potentials will be investigated; (3) Results: The VOO-based NEs’ physicochemical properties (particle size and zeta potential) were steady during storage for four weeks owing to the inclusion of the protective TMCT hydrogel network to OONE. Excessive fine-tuning of olive oil nanoemulsion (OONE) and the TMCT protective network’s persistent positive charge have contributed to the oil’s improved antimicrobial, anti-biofilm, and antioxidant potentials; (4) Conclusions: The Tween 80-lecithin-TMCT nanosystem might provide a unique and multifunctional nanoplatform for efficient topical therapy as well as the transdermal delivery of lipophilic bioactive compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmaceutical Applications of Plant Extracts)
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16 pages, 1343 KiB  
Article
Membrane Permeability and Aqueous Stability Study of Linear and Cyclic Diarylheptanoids from Corylus maxima
by Csenge Anna Felegyi-Tóth, Zsófia Tóth, Zsófia Garádi, Imre Boldizsár, Andrea Nagyné Nedves, Alexandra Simon, Kristóf Felegyi, Ágnes Alberti and Eszter Riethmüller
Pharmaceutics 2022, 14(6), 1250; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics14061250 - 12 Jun 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1742
Abstract
Seven diarylheptanoids were isolated from Corylus maxima by flash chromatography and semipreparative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and identified by Orbitrap® mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy as linear diarylheptanoids: hirsutanonol-5-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), platyphyllonol-5-O-β-D-xylopyranoside ( [...] Read more.
Seven diarylheptanoids were isolated from Corylus maxima by flash chromatography and semipreparative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and identified by Orbitrap® mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy as linear diarylheptanoids: hirsutanonol-5-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), platyphyllonol-5-O-β-D-xylopyranoside (4), platyphyllenone (5); and cyclic derivatives: alnusonol-11-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (6), alnusone (7), giffonin F (8), carpinontriol B (9). Cyclic diarylheptanoids are reported in C. maxima for the first time. The aqueous stability of the isolated compounds and other characteristic constituents of C. maxima, oregonin (2), hirsutenone (3), quercitrin (10) and myricitrin (11) was evaluated at pH 1.2, 6.8 and 7.4. The passive diffusion of the constituents across biological membranes was investigated by parallel artificial membrane permeability assay for the gastrointestinal tract (PAMPA-GI) and the blood–brain barrier (PAMPA-BBB) methods. The cyclic diarylheptanoid aglycones and quercitrin were stable at all investigated pH values, while a pH-dependent degradation of the other compounds was observed. A validated ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-diode-array detection (UHPLC-DAD) method was utilized for the determination of compound concentrations. The structures of the degradation products were characterized by UHPLC-Orbitrap® MS. Platyphyllenone and alnusone possessed log Pe values greater than −5.0 and −6.0 in the PAMPA-GI and PAMPA-BBB studies, respectively, indicating their ability to cross the membranes via passive diffusion. However, only alnusone can be considered to have both good aqueous stability and satisfactory membrane penetration ability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmaceutical Applications of Plant Extracts)
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19 pages, 5211 KiB  
Article
Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Hypericum perforatum L. Aqueous Extract with the Evaluation of Its Antibacterial Activity against Clinical and Food Pathogens
by Abdalrahim Alahmad, Wael A. Al-Zereini, Tahani J. Hijazin, Osama Y. Al-Madanat, Ibrahim Alghoraibi, Omar Al-Qaralleh, Samer Al-Qaraleh, Armin Feldhoff, Johanna-Gabriela Walter and Thomas Scheper
Pharmaceutics 2022, 14(5), 1104; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics14051104 - 21 May 2022
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 4101
Abstract
The rapid development of nanotechnology and its applications in medicine has provided the perfect solution against a wide range of different microbes, especially antibiotic-resistant ones. In this study, a one-step approach was used in preparing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by mixing silver nitrate with [...] Read more.
The rapid development of nanotechnology and its applications in medicine has provided the perfect solution against a wide range of different microbes, especially antibiotic-resistant ones. In this study, a one-step approach was used in preparing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by mixing silver nitrate with hot Hypericum perforatum (St. John’s wort) aqueous extract under high stirring to prevent agglomeration. The formation of silver nanoparticles was monitored by continuous measurement of the surface plasma resonance spectra (UV-VIS). The effect of St. John’s wort aqueous extract on the formation of silver nanoparticles was evaluated and fully characterized by using different physicochemical techniques. The obtained silver nanoparticles were spherical, monodisperse, face-centered cubic (fcc) crystal structures, and the size ranges between 20 to 40 nm. They were covered with a capping layer of organic compounds considered as a nano dimension protective layer that prevents agglomeration and sedimentation. AgNPs revealed antibacterial activity against both tested Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains causing the formation of 13–32 mm inhibition zones with MIC 6.25–12.5 µg/mL; Escherichia coli strains were resistant to tested AgNPs. The specific growth rate of S. aureus was significantly reduced due to tested AgNPs at concentrations ≥½ MIC. AgNPs did not affect wound migration in fibroblast cell lines compared to control. Our results highlighted the potential use of AgNPs capped with plant extracts in the pharmaceutical and food industries to control bacterial pathogens’ growth; however, further studies are required to confirm their wound healing capability and their health impact must be critically evaluated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmaceutical Applications of Plant Extracts)
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11 pages, 2014 KiB  
Article
Translational Value of the Transdermal Administration of Bergamot Essential Oil and of Its Fractions
by Damiana Scuteri, Laura Rombolà, Michele Crudo, Chizuko Watanabe, Hirokazu Mizoguchi, Shinobu Sakurada, Kengo Hamamura, Tsukasa Sakurada, Luigi Antonio Morrone, Paolo Tonin, Giacinto Bagetta and Maria Tiziana Corasaniti
Pharmaceutics 2022, 14(5), 1006; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics14051006 - 7 May 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 1888
Abstract
The essential oil of bergamot (BEO) has consistently proven antinociceptive and antiallodynic properties. Accordingly, the analgesic efficacy of the decolored essential oil (DEC), with higher levels of limonene, and the deterpenated (DET) fraction, with higher levels of linalool and linalyl acetate, was investigated [...] Read more.
The essential oil of bergamot (BEO) has consistently proven antinociceptive and antiallodynic properties. Accordingly, the analgesic efficacy of the decolored essential oil (DEC), with higher levels of limonene, and the deterpenated (DET) fraction, with higher levels of linalool and linalyl acetate, was investigated using a formalin test after inhalation. The present study was aimed at characterizing the effects of BEO, its components with the highest pharmacological activity (represented by linalool, limonene, and linalyl acetate), and its DEC and DET fractions on the formalin test after transdermal administration relevant to clinical translation through topical application. To this aim, the schedule of intervention involved administration immediately after formalin injection or as a 5 min pretreatment followed by washout in ddY-strain mice. This study demonstrates, for the first time, the significant analgesic effect of all three constituents in the first and second phases, accounting for the efficacy of the essential oil in the formalin test. While all fractions revealed equal activity toward the phytocomplex in the early phase, the reduction in time of licking/biting during the late phase was more markedly induced by DEC. Moreover, pretreatment with BEO and its fractions followed by washout did not produce a significant reduction in licking/biting time in both phases of formalin-induced nociceptive response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmaceutical Applications of Plant Extracts)
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Review

Jump to: Research

19 pages, 1359 KiB  
Review
Plant Extracts as a Source of Natural Products with Potential Antimalarial Effects: An Update from 2018 to 2022
by Giovane de Jesus Gomes Ribeiro, Sun Liu Rei Yan, Giuseppe Palmisano and Carsten Wrenger
Pharmaceutics 2023, 15(6), 1638; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics15061638 - 1 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3200
Abstract
Malaria kills more than 500,000 people yearly, mainly affecting Africa and Southeast Asia. The disease is caused by the protozoan parasite from the genus Plasmodium, with Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum being the main species that cause the disease in humans. Although substantial progress [...] Read more.
Malaria kills more than 500,000 people yearly, mainly affecting Africa and Southeast Asia. The disease is caused by the protozoan parasite from the genus Plasmodium, with Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum being the main species that cause the disease in humans. Although substantial progress has been observed in malaria research in the last years, the threat of the spread of Plasmodium parasites persists. Artemisinin-resistant strains of this parasite have been reported mainly in Southeast Asia, highlighting the urgent need to develop more effective and safe antimalarial drugs. In this context, natural sources, mainly from flora, remain underexplored antimalarial spaces. The present mini-review explores this space focusing on plant extracts and some of their isolated natural products with at least in vitro antiplasmodial effects reported in the literature comprising the last five years (2018–2022). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmaceutical Applications of Plant Extracts)
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12 pages, 1934 KiB  
Review
Pharmacotherapeutic Potential of Aloe secundiflora against Colorectal Cancer Growth and Proliferation
by John M. Macharia, Veronica Ngure, Barnabás Emődy, Bence Király, Zsolt Káposztás, Nóra Rozmann, Attila Erdélyi and Bence Raposa
Pharmaceutics 2023, 15(5), 1558; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics15051558 - 22 May 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1569
Abstract
Aloe species are widespread and diverse in African ecosystems, and this commonly correlates to their habitual use as reservoirs of herbal medicine. The side effects associated with chemotherapy and the development of antimicrobial resistance to empirically used antimicrobial drugs are substantial, paving the [...] Read more.
Aloe species are widespread and diverse in African ecosystems, and this commonly correlates to their habitual use as reservoirs of herbal medicine. The side effects associated with chemotherapy and the development of antimicrobial resistance to empirically used antimicrobial drugs are substantial, paving the way for novel phytotherapeutic approaches. This comprehensive study aimed to evaluate and present Aloe secundiflora (A. secundiflora) as a compelling alternative with potential benefits in colorectal cancer (CRC) treatment. Important databases were systematically searched for relevant literature, and out of a large collection of 6421 titles and abstracts, only 68 full-text articles met the inclusion criteria. A. secundiflora possesses an abundant presence of bioactive phytoconstituents in the leaves and roots, including anthraquinones, naphthoquinones, phenols, alkaloids, saponins, tannins, and flavonoids, among others. These metabolites have proven diverse efficacy in inhibiting cancer growth. The presence of innumerable biomolecules in A. secundiflora signifies the beneficial effects of incorporating the plant as a potential anti-CRC agent. Nonetheless, we recommend further research to determine the optimal concentrations necessary to elicit beneficial effects in the management of CRC. Furthermore, they should be investigated as potential raw ingredients for making conventional medications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmaceutical Applications of Plant Extracts)
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34 pages, 1211 KiB  
Review
Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera)—Current Research on the Health-Promoting Activities: A Narrative Review
by Paulina Mikulska, Marta Malinowska, Miłosz Ignacyk, Paweł Szustowski, Joanna Nowak, Karolina Pesta, Monika Szeląg, Damian Szklanny, Eliza Judasz, Gabriela Kaczmarek, Ovinuchi Prince Ejiohuo, Magdalena Paczkowska-Walendowska, Anna Gościniak and Judyta Cielecka-Piontek
Pharmaceutics 2023, 15(4), 1057; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics15041057 - 24 Mar 2023
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 41250
Abstract
In recent years, there has been a significant surge in reports on the health-promoting benefits of winter cherry (Withania somnifera), also known as Ashwagandha. Its current research covers many aspects of human health, including neuroprotective, sedative and adaptogenic effects and effects on sleep. [...] Read more.
In recent years, there has been a significant surge in reports on the health-promoting benefits of winter cherry (Withania somnifera), also known as Ashwagandha. Its current research covers many aspects of human health, including neuroprotective, sedative and adaptogenic effects and effects on sleep. There are also reports of anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, cardioprotective and anti-diabetic properties. Furthermore, there are reports of reproductive outcomes and tarcicidal hormone action. This growing body of research on Ashwagandha highlights its potential as a valuable natural remedy for many health concerns. This narrative review delves into the most recent findings and provides a comprehensive overview of the current understanding of ashwagandha’s potential uses and any known safety concerns and contraindications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmaceutical Applications of Plant Extracts)
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31 pages, 977 KiB  
Review
The Potential of Medicinal Plants and Natural Products in the Treatment of Burns and Sunburn—A Review
by Weronika Skowrońska and Agnieszka Bazylko
Pharmaceutics 2023, 15(2), 633; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics15020633 - 13 Feb 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3729
Abstract
Treating burns remains a challenge for modern medicine, especially in developing countries that cannot afford expensive, advanced therapies. This review article summarises clinical and animal model studies of botanical preparations and their mixtures in treating burn wounds and sunburn. Articles available in electronic [...] Read more.
Treating burns remains a challenge for modern medicine, especially in developing countries that cannot afford expensive, advanced therapies. This review article summarises clinical and animal model studies of botanical preparations and their mixtures in treating burn wounds and sunburn. Articles available in electronic databases such as PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Science Direct and Google Scholar, published in English in 2010–2022, were considered. In the described clinical trials, it was shown that some herbal preparations have better effectiveness in treating burn wounds, including shortening the healing time and reducing inflammation, than the conventional treatment used hitherto. These herbal preparations contained extracts from Albizia julibrissin, Alkanna tinctoria, Aloe vera, Arnebia euchroma, Betula pendula and Betula pubescens, Centella asiatica, Hippophaë rhamnoides, Juglans regia, Lawsonia inermis, and mixtures of Matricaria chamomilla and Rosa canina. Research on animal models shows that many extracts may potentially benefit the treatment of burn wounds and sunburn. Due to the diverse mechanism of action, antibacterial activity, the safety of use and cost-effectiveness, herbal preparations can compete with conventional treatment. The growing interest in alternative medicine and herbal medicine encourages further research. Not only single preparations but also their mixtures should be taken into account because the research conducted so far often suggests a synergistic effect of the ingredients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmaceutical Applications of Plant Extracts)
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22 pages, 1141 KiB  
Review
Therapeutics for Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy: Approaches with Natural Compounds from Traditional Eastern Medicine
by Geehoon Chung and Sun Kwang Kim
Pharmaceutics 2022, 14(7), 1407; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics14071407 - 5 Jul 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2906
Abstract
Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) often develops in patients with cancer treated with commonly used anti-cancer drugs. The symptoms of CIPN can occur acutely during chemotherapy or emerge after cessation, and often accompany long-lasting intractable pain. This adverse side effect not only affects the [...] Read more.
Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) often develops in patients with cancer treated with commonly used anti-cancer drugs. The symptoms of CIPN can occur acutely during chemotherapy or emerge after cessation, and often accompany long-lasting intractable pain. This adverse side effect not only affects the quality of life but also limits the use of chemotherapy, leading to a reduction in the survival rate of patients with cancer. Currently, effective treatments for CIPN are limited, and various interventions are being applied by clinicians and patients because of the unmet clinical need. Potential approaches to ameliorate CIPN include traditional Eastern medicine-based methods. Medicinal substances from traditional Eastern medicine have well-established analgesic effects and are generally safe. Furthermore, many substances can also improve other comorbid symptoms in patients. This article aims to provide information regarding traditional Eastern medicine-based plant extracts and natural compounds for CIPN. In this regard, we briefly summarized the development, mechanisms, and changes in the nervous system related to CIPN, and reviewed the substances of traditional Eastern medicine that have been exploited to treat CIPN in preclinical and clinical settings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmaceutical Applications of Plant Extracts)
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