Novel Formulation Strategies for Enhancing Dissolution and/or Oral Bioavailability

A special issue of Pharmaceutics (ISSN 1999-4923).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 January 2019) | Viewed by 77453

Special Issue Editors

Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, Shanghai 201203, China
Interests: drug delivery; pharmaceutics; oral delivery; controlled and sustained release; pharmaceutical technology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Key Laboratory of Smart Drug Delivery of MOE, School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, Shanghai 201203, China
Interests: drug delivery; micro/nanoparticles
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, Shanghai 201203, China
Interests: oral delivery; transdermal delivery; nasal delivery; delivery of biomacromolecules; nano drug delivery system; absorption mechanisms
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Poor oral bioavailability has become a major challenge in drug development due to both poor water-solubility and poor permeability across intestinal biomembranes. Despite significant efforts to optimize drug leads, about 40% of currently marketed drugs and 70% of drug candidates are poorly water-soluble. It is worse that a fraction of poorly water-soluble entities is poorly permeable as well. To enhance oral bioavailability, it is a prerequisite to improve the dissolution rate in the gastrointestinal tract. For BCS II (poor solubility, high permeability) drugs, enhancement of dissolution is workable, whereas for BCS IV (poor solubility, poor permeability), enhancement of both dissolution and permeability is highly demanded. Various formulation strategies have been employed in the past to enhance the dissolution and subsequent oral absorption of poorly water-soluble drugs, such as solid dispersion, inclusion complexation, nanosizing, co-crystallization and lipid-based delivery systems. Enhancing dissolution and/or oral bioavailability is an enduring theme.

This Special Issue serves as a forum to bring together prominent scientists from all around the world and presents their work together to draw attention from a grand audience. We invite review or original articles on all aspects of “Novel Formulation Strategies for Enhancing Dissolution and/or Oral Bioavailability”.

Prof. Wei Wu
Assoc. Prof. Yi Lu
Assoc. Prof. Jianping Qi
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • oral
  • dissolution
  • absorption
  • bioavailability
  • solid dispersion
  • inclusion complex
  • nanosuspension/nanocrystals
  • co-crystals/co-amorphous systems
  • porous and mesoporous materials
  • lipid-based delivery systems

Published Papers (16 papers)

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Research

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11 pages, 4109 KiB  
Article
Rapid Preparation of Spherical Granules via the Melt Centrifugal Atomization Technique
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(5), 198; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11050198 - 30 Apr 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3637
Abstract
Granules with superior fluidity and low moisture absorption are ideal for tableting and capsule filling. Melt granulation as a solvent-free technology has attracted increasing interest for the granulation of moisture-sensitive drugs. The objective of the present study was to develop a solvent-less and [...] Read more.
Granules with superior fluidity and low moisture absorption are ideal for tableting and capsule filling. Melt granulation as a solvent-free technology has attracted increasing interest for the granulation of moisture-sensitive drugs. The objective of the present study was to develop a solvent-less and high throughput melt granulation method via the melt centrifugal atomization (MCA) technique. The granule formability of various drugs and excipients via MCA and their dissolution properties were studied. It was found that the yield, fluidity, and moisture resistance of the granules were affected by the drug and excipient types, operation temperature, and collector diameter. The drugs were in an amorphous state in pure drug granules, or were highly dispersed in excipients as solid dispersions. The granules produced via MCA showed an improved drug dissolution. The present study demonstrated that the solvent-free, one-step, and high-throughput MCA approach can be used to produce spherical granules with superior fluidity and immediate drug release characteristics for poorly water-soluble and moisture-sensitive therapeutics. Full article
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21 pages, 7717 KiB  
Article
Amorphisation of Free Acid Ibuprofen and Other Profens in Mixtures with Nanocellulose: Dry Powder Formulation Strategy for Enhanced Solubility
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(2), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11020068 - 06 Feb 2019
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3563
Abstract
The formulation of arylpropionic acid derivatives (profens), which are poorly soluble Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS) Type II drugs, has a strong impact on their therapeutic action. This article shows that heat-treated powder mixtures of free acid profens with high surface area Cladophora cellulose [...] Read more.
The formulation of arylpropionic acid derivatives (profens), which are poorly soluble Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS) Type II drugs, has a strong impact on their therapeutic action. This article shows that heat-treated powder mixtures of free acid profens with high surface area Cladophora cellulose induces drug amorphization and results in enhanced solubility and bioavailability. Similar mixtures produced using conventional low surface area cellulose, i.e., microcrystalline cellulose, does not produce the same effect. The concept is thoroughly described and links the solid-state characterization data, such as differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray powder diffraction, and Fourier-transform infra-red spectroscopy, with in vitro dissolution in biorelevant media and in vivo pharmacokinetic analysis in rats. The concept is demonstrated for several substances from the profens group, including ibuprofen (main model drug), ketoprofen, flurbiprofen, and naproxen. The presented approach opens new ways to produce solid dosage forms of profen drugs in their free acidic form as alternatives to existing analogues, e.g., drug-salt conjugates or soft gel liquid capsules. Full article
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13 pages, 2897 KiB  
Article
Applying Supercritical Fluid Technology to Prepare Ibuprofen Solid Dispersions with Improved Oral Bioavailability
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(2), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11020067 - 03 Feb 2019
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 4017
Abstract
In this study, supercritical fluid (SCF) technology was applied to prepare reliable solid dispersions of pharmaceutical compounds with limited bioavailability using ibuprofen (IBU) as a model compound. Solid-state characterization of the dispersions was conducted by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), [...] Read more.
In this study, supercritical fluid (SCF) technology was applied to prepare reliable solid dispersions of pharmaceutical compounds with limited bioavailability using ibuprofen (IBU) as a model compound. Solid-state characterization of the dispersions was conducted by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The PXRD and DSC results suggested that the amorphous form of IBU was maintained in the solid dispersions. Furthermore, in vitro dissolution and in vivo pharmacokinetic (PK) studies in rats were also performed. The dissolution performance of the SCF-prepared IBU dispersions was significantly improved compared to that of the physical mixtures of crystalline IBU and a polymer. In addition, the PK results revealed that the SCF-prepared IBU dispersions produced remarkably high blood drug concentrations (both the AUC and Cmax) and a rapid absorption rate (Tmax). Finally, molecular modeling was used to evaluate the binding energy of interactions between IBU and the polymers. The negative binding energy suggests a relatively stable system. Hence, SCF technology can be used as a very effective approach to prepare IBU solid dispersions with good physical stability and enhanced in vitro and in vivo performance. Full article
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13 pages, 1370 KiB  
Article
Co-Crystal Formation of Antibiotic Nitrofurantoin Drug and Melamine Co-Former Based on a Vibrational Spectroscopic Study
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(2), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11020056 - 30 Jan 2019
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 3499
Abstract
The co-crystallization of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) has received increasing attention due to the modulation of the relative physicochemical properties of APIs such as low solubility, weak permeability and relatively inferior oral bioavailability. Crystal engineering plays a decisive role in the systematic design [...] Read more.
The co-crystallization of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) has received increasing attention due to the modulation of the relative physicochemical properties of APIs such as low solubility, weak permeability and relatively inferior oral bioavailability. Crystal engineering plays a decisive role in the systematic design and synthesis of co-crystals by means of exerting control on the inter-molecular interactions. The characterization and detection of such co-crystal formations plays an essential role in the field of pharmaceutical research and development. In this work, nitrofurantoin (NF), melamine (MELA) and their hydrated co-crystal form were characterized and analyzed by using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) and Raman vibrational spectroscopy. According to the experimental THz spectra, the hydrated co-crystal form has characteristic absorption peaks at 0.67, 1.05, 1.50 and 1.73 THz, while the THz spectra for the two raw parent materials (NF and MELA) are quite different within this spectral region. Similar observations were made from the experimental Raman vibrational spectra results. Density functional theory (DFT) calculation was performed to help determine the major vibrational modes of the hydrated co-crystal between nitrofurantoin and melamine, as well as identify the structural changes due to inter- and/or intra-molecular hydrogen bonding motifs between NF and MELA. The results of the theoretical frequency calculations corroborate the THz and Raman experimental spectra. The characteristic bands of the NF–MELA-hydrated co-crystal between nitrofurantoin and melamine were also determined based on the DFT simulated calculation. The reported results in this work provide us with a wealth of structural information and a unique vibrational spectroscopic method for characterizing the composition of specific co-crystals and inter-molecular hydrogen bonding interactions upon pharmaceutical co-crystallization. Full article
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12 pages, 3580 KiB  
Article
Improved Pharmacokinetics of Icariin (ICA) within Formulation of PEG-PLLA/PDLA-PNIPAM Polymeric Micelles
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(2), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11020051 - 25 Jan 2019
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 3544
Abstract
Icariin (ICA) is a major flavonoid that contains the active compound Epimedii Folium. However, ICA’s pharmacokinetic characteristics remain unsatisfactory due to its low bioavailability, and hence limited drugability. In order to improve its pharmacokinetics and achieve prolonged blood circulation time, a novel [...] Read more.
Icariin (ICA) is a major flavonoid that contains the active compound Epimedii Folium. However, ICA’s pharmacokinetic characteristics remain unsatisfactory due to its low bioavailability, and hence limited drugability. In order to improve its pharmacokinetics and achieve prolonged blood circulation time, a novel polymeric micelle, made of the self-assembled micelle between poly (ethylene glycol)-poly (L-lactic acid) (PEG-PLLA) and poly (D-lactic acid)-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PDLA-PNIPAM), was designed to encapsulate ICA. Our experimental results showed that this polymeric micelle formulation of ICA exhibited uniform nano-size distribution and high stability within 48 h. The new formulation also allowed sustained ICA release in an in vitro drug release study. Furthermore, in vivo experiments revealed that ICA bioavailability in the PEG-PLLA/PDLA-PNIPAM polymeric micelle formulation was significantly higher compared to ICA alone, or ICA in the traditional Pluronic F127 micelle formulation. Finally, we show that metabolite analysis confirmed that ICA within the PEG-PLLA/PDLA-PNIPAM polymeric micelle formulation provided better drug protection, reduced drug metabolites production, and decreased undesired first-pass effects. Overall, these data show that ICA within PEG-PLLA/PDLA-PNIPAM polymeric micelle formulation exhibit advantages, in terms of improved physicochemical properties, sustained release of ICA in vitro, and improved bioavailability of ICA in vivo, which represent a feasible approach for improving the drugability of pharmaceutical small molecules with low bioavailability or poor stability. Full article
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14 pages, 3270 KiB  
Article
Immediate-Release Nifedipine Binary Dry Powder Mixtures with Nanocellulose Featuring Enhanced Solubility and Dissolution Rate
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(1), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11010037 - 18 Jan 2019
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 4273
Abstract
Nifedipine (NIF) is a 1,4-dihydropyridine-based calcium channel blocker with poor solubility, whose bioavailability is highly dependent on the type of formulation. Dry powder mixtures of 20% w/w NIF with microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and its high surface area nanocellulose analogue, which is [...] Read more.
Nifedipine (NIF) is a 1,4-dihydropyridine-based calcium channel blocker with poor solubility, whose bioavailability is highly dependent on the type of formulation. Dry powder mixtures of 20% w/w NIF with microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and its high surface area nanocellulose analogue, which is namely Cladophora (CLAD) cellulose, were produced by heating at the melting temperature of the drug for 1 h. Non-heated samples were used as a reference. The solid-state properties of the mixtures were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction. The drug release was studied in biorelevant media, including simulated gastric fluid (SGF), fasted-state simulated intestinal fluid (FaSIF) and fed-state simulated intestinal fluid (FeSIF). An enhanced apparent solubility and faster dissolution rate of NIF were observed in the heated mixture of NIF with CLAD-H in all tested biorelevant media (i.e., SGF, FaSIF and FeSIF), which was due to NIF amorphization in the high surface area nanocellulose powder. Ordinary MCC, which is essentially non-porous, did not produce an enhancement of a similar magnitude. The results of the study suggest that dry powder formulation using high surface area nanocellulose is a facile new strategy for formulating calcium channel blocker drugs, which could potentially be a viable alternative to currently used soft gel liquid capsules. Full article
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13 pages, 2453 KiB  
Article
Effect of Shape on Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles for Oral Delivery of Indomethacin
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11010004 - 23 Dec 2018
Cited by 40 | Viewed by 5110
Abstract
The use of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) in the field of oral drug delivery has recently attracted greater attention. However, there is still limited knowledge about how the shape of MSNs affects drug delivery capacity. In our study, we fabricated mesoporous silica nanorods [...] Read more.
The use of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) in the field of oral drug delivery has recently attracted greater attention. However, there is still limited knowledge about how the shape of MSNs affects drug delivery capacity. In our study, we fabricated mesoporous silica nanorods (MSNRs) to study the shape effects of MSNs on oral delivery. MSNRs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), nitrogen adsorption/desorption, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and small-angle X-ray diffraction (small-angle XRD). Indomethacin (IMC), a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent, was loaded into MSNRs as model drug, and the drug-loaded MSNRs resulted in an excellent dissolution-enhancing effect. The cytotoxicity and in vivo pharmacokinetic studies indicated that MSNRs can be applied as a safe and efficient candidate for the delivery of insoluble drugs. The use of MSNs with a rod-like shape, as a drug delivery carrier, will extend the pharmaceutical applications of silica materials. Full article
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13 pages, 3260 KiB  
Article
Moisture-Resistant Co-Spray-Dried Netilmicin with l-Leucine as Dry Powder Inhalation for the Treatment of Respiratory Infections
Pharmaceutics 2018, 10(4), 252; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics10040252 - 01 Dec 2018
Cited by 30 | Viewed by 4171
Abstract
Netilmicin (NTM) is one of the first-line drugs for lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) therapy, but its nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity caused by intravenous injection restrict its clinical application. Dry powder inhalation (DPI) is a popular local drug delivery system that is introduced as [...] Read more.
Netilmicin (NTM) is one of the first-line drugs for lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) therapy, but its nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity caused by intravenous injection restrict its clinical application. Dry powder inhalation (DPI) is a popular local drug delivery system that is introduced as a solution. Due to the nature of NTM hygroscopicity that hinders its direct use through DPI, in this study, L-leucine (LL) was added into NTM dry powder to reduce its moisture absorption rate and improve its aerosolization performance. NTM DPIs were prepared using spray-drying with different LL proportions. The particle size, density, morphology, crystallinity, water content, hygroscopicity, antibacterial activity, in vitro aerosolization performance, and stability of each formulation were characterized. NTM DPIs were suitable for inhalation and amorphous with a corrugated surface. The analysis indicated that the water content and hygroscopicity were decreased with the addition of LL, whilst the antibacterial activity of NTM was maintained. The optimal formulation ND2 (NTM:LL = 30:1) showed high fine particle fraction values (85.14 ± 8.97%), which was 2.78-fold those of ND0 (100% NTM). It was stable after storage at 40 ± 2 °C, 75 ± 5% relative humidity (RH). The additional LL in NTM DPI successfully reduced the hygroscopicity and improved the aerosolization performance. NTM DPIs were proved to be a feasible and desirable approach for the treatment of LRTI. Full article
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19 pages, 3196 KiB  
Article
Development of Paroxetine Hydrochloride Single Layer Controlled-Release Tablets Based on 32 Factorial Design
Pharmaceutics 2018, 10(4), 243; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics10040243 - 20 Nov 2018
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 5064
Abstract
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is one of the main contributors to disability and suicide mortality globally. Paroxetine hydrochloride (PHH) is the most potent antidepressant used for MDD treatment. Due to its reduced side effects PAXIL® CR is a widely-used controlled-release formulation of [...] Read more.
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is one of the main contributors to disability and suicide mortality globally. Paroxetine hydrochloride (PHH) is the most potent antidepressant used for MDD treatment. Due to its reduced side effects PAXIL® CR is a widely-used controlled-release formulation of PHH. However, the complicated double-layer production of PAXIL® CR faces the risk of layer separation. In this study, PHH enteric coating single layer controlled-release tablets (PHH-EC-SLTs) were designed as a simplified substitution of PAXIL® CR through a rational formulation screening. The optimized PHH-EC-SLTs showed similar release behaviors in vitro to PAXIL® CR and the release profiles corresponded to a zero-order release model (R2 = 0.9958). Polymer matrix erosion was the main release mechanism, according to the fitting exponents n > 1 in the Korsmeyer-Pappas model. Crucial pharmacokinetic parameters including peak-reaching time (Tmax), peak concentration (Cmax) and the area under the blood level-time curve (AUC0-48) of PHH-EC-SLTs and PAXIL® CR had no significant difference (p > 0.05) and the relative bioavailability (F = 97.97%) of PHH-EC-SLTs demonstrated their similar pharmacokinetic profiles in vivo. In view of avoiding layer separation risk and simplifying the preparation processing, the self-made PHH-EC-SLTs could be considered as a safe and economic alternative to PAXIL® CR. Full article
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13 pages, 4994 KiB  
Article
Development of an Oral Compound Pickering Emulsion Composed of Nanocrystals of Poorly Soluble Ingredient and Volatile Oils from Traditional Chinese Medicine
Pharmaceutics 2018, 10(4), 170; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics10040170 - 01 Oct 2018
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 4235
Abstract
In this study, an oral drug nanocrystals self-stabilized Pickering emulsion (NSSPE), which used nanocrystals of a poorly soluble ingredient from Puerariae Radix called puerarin as solid particle stabilizers and Ligusticum chuanxiong essential oil since the main oil phase had been developed to improve [...] Read more.
In this study, an oral drug nanocrystals self-stabilized Pickering emulsion (NSSPE), which used nanocrystals of a poorly soluble ingredient from Puerariae Radix called puerarin as solid particle stabilizers and Ligusticum chuanxiong essential oil since the main oil phase had been developed to improve the oral bioavailability of puerarin. The appearance of emulsions, size and zeta potential of droplets, and content of puerarin in emulsified layer during a storage of six months at 4, 25, and 40 °C were investigated. The centrifugation stability at 4000× g was also studied. The micro-structure of emulsion droplets was characterized by a scanning electron micrograph (SEM), confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), a fluorescence microscope (FM), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The in vivo oral bioavailability of puerarin NSSPE was investigated in rats. Results showed that appearances of puerarin NSSPE kept stable after centrifugation at 4000× g for 15 min or storage for six months at 4, 25, and 40 °C. SEM, CLSM, FM, and DSC showed that the puerarin NSSPE had a stable core-shell structure of emulsion droplets formed by the adsorption of puerarin nanocrystals on the surface of oil droplets of mixed oil of Ligusticum chuanxiong essential oil and Labrafil M 1944 CS (9:1, v/v). The relative bioavailability of puerarin NSSPE to puerarin coarse powder suspension, nanocrystal suspension, and surfactant emulsion were 262.43%, 155.92%, and 223.65%, respectively. All these results indicated that puerarin nanocrystals could stabilize Pickering emulsion of Ligusticum chuanxiong essential oil without any other stabilizers and Pickering emulsion could improve the oral bioavailability of puerarin, which suggests that the drug nanocrystal self-stabilized Pickering emulsion as a promising oral drug delivery system for Traditional Chinese Medicine containing poorly soluble ingredients and volatile oils. Full article
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13 pages, 6383 KiB  
Article
Amorphous Nanoparticulate Formulation of Sirolimus and Its Tablets
Pharmaceutics 2018, 10(3), 155; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics10030155 - 11 Sep 2018
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 5084
Abstract
Nanocrystallization and amorphization have proven to be two effective strategies to improve the bioavailability of water-insoluble drugs. The purpose of our work was to develop a nano-formulated tablet of sirolimus (SRL) for enhanced dissolution. Amorphous SRL nanocomposites were prepared using anti-solvent precipitation via [...] Read more.
Nanocrystallization and amorphization have proven to be two effective strategies to improve the bioavailability of water-insoluble drugs. The purpose of our work was to develop a nano-formulated tablet of sirolimus (SRL) for enhanced dissolution. Amorphous SRL nanocomposites were prepared using anti-solvent precipitation via a high-gravity rotating packed bed. Various factors that affect particle size and size distribution, such as excipients, rotating speed, antisolvent/solvent flow rate, were investigated. Structure, stability and in vitro dissolution of the as-prepared SRL were evaluated. Furthermore, the nanoparticulated SRL tablet formula was screened to control drug release. Importantly, SRL tablets exhibit different dissolution profile by adjusting HPMC (hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose) content, which makes them more suitable for various formulation developments. Full article
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13 pages, 3222 KiB  
Article
Oral Bioavailability and Lymphatic Transport of Pueraria Flavone-Loaded Self-Emulsifying Drug-Delivery Systems Containing Sodium Taurocholate in Rats
Pharmaceutics 2018, 10(3), 147; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics10030147 - 05 Sep 2018
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 4258
Abstract
We developed self-microemulsifying drug-delivery systems (SMEDDS), including bile salts, to improve the oral bioavailability of pueraria flavones (PFs). The physical properties of the SMEDDS using Cremophor RH 40, and bile salts as mixed surfactants at weight ratios of 10:0–0:10 were determined. The particle [...] Read more.
We developed self-microemulsifying drug-delivery systems (SMEDDS), including bile salts, to improve the oral bioavailability of pueraria flavones (PFs). The physical properties of the SMEDDS using Cremophor RH 40, and bile salts as mixed surfactants at weight ratios of 10:0–0:10 were determined. The particle sizes of PFs-SMEDDSNR containing sodium taurocholate (NaTC) and Cremophor RH 40, and PFs-SMEDDSR containing Cremophor RH 40 were measured upon dilution with deionized water and other aqueous media. Dilution volume presented no remarkable effects on particle size, whereas dilution media slightly influenced particle size. PFs-SMEDDSNR and PFs-SMEDDSR provided similar release rates in pH-1.2 hydrochloride solution. However, the release rate of PFs-SMEDDSNR was faster than that of PFs-SMEDDSR in pH-6.8 phosphate buffer containing 20 mM NaTC and 500 U/mL porcine pancreas lipase. The pharmacokinetics and bioavailability were measured in rats. The oral bioavailability of PFs-SMEDDSNR was 2.57- and 2.28-fold that of a suspension of PFs (PFs-suspension) before and after the blockade of the lymphatic transport route by cycloheximide, respectively. These results suggested PFs-SMEDDSNR could significantly improve the oral relative absorption of PFs via the lymphatic uptake pathway. SMEDDS containing NaTC may provide an effective approach for enhancing the oral bioavailability of PFs. Full article
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19 pages, 4347 KiB  
Article
Folate and Borneol Modified Bifunctional Nanoparticles for Enhanced Oral Absorption
Pharmaceutics 2018, 10(3), 146; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics10030146 - 04 Sep 2018
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3828
Abstract
Oral delivery is considered the preferred route of administration due to its convenience and favorable compliance. Here, docetaxel (DTX) loaded polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles, coated with polyethyleneimine–folic acid (PEI-FA) and polyethyleneimine–borneol (PEI-BO), were designed to enhance oral absorption (FA/BO-PLGA-NPs). The FA/BO-PLGA-NPs were spherical [...] Read more.
Oral delivery is considered the preferred route of administration due to its convenience and favorable compliance. Here, docetaxel (DTX) loaded polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles, coated with polyethyleneimine–folic acid (PEI-FA) and polyethyleneimine–borneol (PEI-BO), were designed to enhance oral absorption (FA/BO-PLGA-NPs). The FA/BO-PLGA-NPs were spherical and smooth with an average size of (137.0 ± 2.1) nm. Encapsulation efficiency (EE%) and drug loading (DL%) were (80.3 ± 1.8)% and (2.3 ± 0.3)%, respectively. In vitro release studies showed that approximately 62.1% of DTX was released from FA/BO-PLGA-NPs in media at pH 7.4. The reverted gut sac method showed that the absorption of FA/BO-PLGA-NPs in the intestines was approximately 6.0 times that of DTX. Moreover, cellular uptake suggested that the obtained FA/BO-PLGA-NPs could be efficiently internalized into Caco-2 cells via FA-mediated active targeting and BO-mediated P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibition. Pharmacokinetics study demonstrated that after oral administration of DTX at a dose of 10 mg/kg in FA/BO-PLGA-NPs, the bioavailability of FA/BO-PLGA-NPs was enhanced by approximately 6.8-fold compared with that of DTX suspension. FA/BO-PLGA-NPs caused no obvious irritation to the intestines. Overall, the FA/BO-PLGA-NP formulation remarkably improved the oral bioavailability of DTX and exhibited a promising perspective in oral drug delivery. Full article
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11 pages, 3203 KiB  
Article
Amorphous Nanosuspensions Aggregated from Paclitaxel–Hemoglobulin Complexes with Enhanced Cytotoxicity
Pharmaceutics 2018, 10(3), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics10030092 - 13 Jul 2018
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3421
Abstract
Amorphous nanosuspensions (ANSs) enable rapid release and improved delivery of a poorly water-soluble drug; however, their preparation is challenging. Here, using hemoglobin (Hb) as a carrier, ANSs aggregated from paclitaxel (PTX)–Hb complexes were prepared to improve delivery of the hydrophobic anti-cancer agent. An [...] Read more.
Amorphous nanosuspensions (ANSs) enable rapid release and improved delivery of a poorly water-soluble drug; however, their preparation is challenging. Here, using hemoglobin (Hb) as a carrier, ANSs aggregated from paclitaxel (PTX)–Hb complexes were prepared to improve delivery of the hydrophobic anti-cancer agent. An affinity study demonstrated strong interaction between Hb and PTX. Importantly, the complexes could aggregate into <300 nm ANSs with high drug loading, which acidic condition facilitated their formation. Furthermore, the ANSs possessed improved cytotoxicity against cancer cells over the crystalline nanosuspensions. Taken together, ANSs aggregated from PTX–Hb complexes were developed, which could kill cancer cells with high efficiency. Full article
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13 pages, 3506 KiB  
Article
Raloxifene/SBE-β-CD Inclusion Complexes Formulated into Nanoparticles with Chitosan to Overcome the Absorption Barrier for Bioavailability Enhancement
Pharmaceutics 2018, 10(3), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics10030076 - 28 Jun 2018
Cited by 34 | Viewed by 4343
Abstract
Raloxifene (RXF) is a hormone-like medication used for treating postmenopausal osteoporosis and estrogen-dependent breast cancer, yet associated with bad low bioavailability due to poor solubility. This study was intended to develop cyclodextrin/chitosan nanoparticles (ccNPs) for oral delivery of RXF in order to enhance [...] Read more.
Raloxifene (RXF) is a hormone-like medication used for treating postmenopausal osteoporosis and estrogen-dependent breast cancer, yet associated with bad low bioavailability due to poor solubility. This study was intended to develop cyclodextrin/chitosan nanoparticles (ccNPs) for oral delivery of RXF in order to enhance the oral bioavailability. RXF-loaded ccNPs (RXF-ccNPs) were prepared by cyclodextrin inclusion followed by complexation with chitosan. RXF-ccNPs were fully characterized by particle size, morphology and in vitro drug release. The oral delivery efficacy and transepithelial transport potential were evaluated by pharmacokinetics, in situ single-pass intestinal perfusion, cellular uptake and ex vivo imaging. The resulting RXF-ccNPs were around 165 nm in particle size with a narrow distribution. The oral bioavailability of RXF was enhanced by 2.6 folds through ccNPs compared to RXF suspensions in rats. It was shown that RXF-ccNPs could improve the intestinal permeability of RXF, increase the cellular uptake of RXF and facilitate its transport across the absorptive epithelia. The results indicate that our developed ccNPs based on sulfobutylether-β-cyclodextrin and oligochitosan are a promising vehicle to orally deliver poorly water-soluble drugs over and above RXF. Full article
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33 pages, 1721 KiB  
Review
Pharmaceutical Dispersion Techniques for Dissolution and Bioavailability Enhancement of Poorly Water-Soluble Drugs
Pharmaceutics 2018, 10(3), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics10030074 - 23 Jun 2018
Cited by 139 | Viewed by 13907
Abstract
Over the past decades, a large number of drugs as well as drug candidates with poor dissolution characteristics have been witnessed, which invokes great interest in enabling formulation of these active ingredients. Poorly water-soluble drugs, especially biopharmaceutical classification system (BCS) II ones, are [...] Read more.
Over the past decades, a large number of drugs as well as drug candidates with poor dissolution characteristics have been witnessed, which invokes great interest in enabling formulation of these active ingredients. Poorly water-soluble drugs, especially biopharmaceutical classification system (BCS) II ones, are preferably designed as oral dosage forms if the dissolution limit can be broken through. Minimizing a drug’s size is an effective means to increase its dissolution and hence the bioavailability, which can be achieved by specialized dispersion techniques. This article reviews the most commonly used dispersion techniques for pharmaceutical processing that can practically enhance the dissolution and bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs. Major interests focus on solid dispersion, lipid-based dispersion (nanoencapsulation), and liquisolid dispersion (drug solubilized in a non-volatile solvent and dispersed in suitable solid excipients for tableting or capsulizing), covering the formulation development, preparative technique and potential applications for oral drug delivery. Otherwise, some other techniques that can increase the dispersibility of a drug such as co-precipitation, concomitant crystallization and inclusion complexation are also discussed. Various dispersion techniques provide a productive platform for addressing the formulation challenge of poorly water-soluble drugs. Solid dispersion and liquisolid dispersion are most likely to be successful in developing oral dosage forms. Lipid-based dispersion represents a promising approach to surmounting the bioavailability of low-permeable drugs, though the technique needs to traverse the obstacle from liquid to solid transformation. Novel dispersion techniques are highly encouraged to develop for formulation of poorly water-soluble drugs. Full article
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