Local Drug Delivery System

A special issue of Pharmaceutics (ISSN 1999-4923). This special issue belongs to the section "Drug Delivery and Controlled Release".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 July 2023) | Viewed by 39705

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Guest Editor
Department of Pharmacy, University of Pisa, 56126 Pisa, Italy
Interests: pharmaceutical technology; drug delivery; in vitro and in vivo models; biopharmaceutics; formulation; skin, eye, nail, buccal and vaginal mucosae
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Pharmacy, University of Pisa, 56126 Pisa, Italy
Interests: pharmaceutical technology; drug delivery; in vitro and in vivo models; biopharmaceutics; formulation; skin, eye, nail, buccal and vaginal mucosae
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Site-specific drug delivery is among the main objectives for the optimization of pharmaceutical therapies. In particular, local drug delivery systems represent a way to avoid systemic administration, reducing the associated side effects and increasing patient compliance. In the design of local drug delivery systems, different strategies to overcome physiological barriers to obtain effective drug concentration at the target site without affecting adjacent tissues can be pursued. Physical and chemical enhancers, microneedles and nanostructured drug delivery systems have been proposed as effective tools to influence drug release and partition at the target tissues. Innovative drug delivery systems could be based on natural or synthetic polymers, better if biodegradable, endowed with stimuli-responsive behavior and, if applicable, mucoadhesive properties.

This Special Issue welcomes original research articles and reviews in this field, with a focus on all aspects of the formulation, characterization and development of innovative drug-delivery systems for local drug delivery.

Prof. Dr. Silvia Tampucci
Prof. Dr. Daniela Monti
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • drug delivery strategies
  • nanostructured drug delivery systems
  • microneedles
  • formulation
  • permeation and penetration
  • physical and chemical enhancers
  • mucoadhesion

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Research

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14 pages, 4936 KiB  
Article
Determination of Mucoadhesion of Polyvinyl Alcohol Films to Human Intestinal Tissue
by Laura Müller, Christoph Rosenbaum, Adrian Rump, Michael Grimm, Friederike Klammt, Annabel Kleinwort, Alexandra Busemann and Werner Weitschies
Pharmaceutics 2023, 15(6), 1740; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics15061740 - 15 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1015
Abstract
The absorption of drugs with narrow absorption windows in the upper small intestine can be improved with a mucoadhesive drug delivery system such as enteric films. To predict the mucoadhesive behaviour in vivo, suitable in vitro or ex vivo methods can be performed. [...] Read more.
The absorption of drugs with narrow absorption windows in the upper small intestine can be improved with a mucoadhesive drug delivery system such as enteric films. To predict the mucoadhesive behaviour in vivo, suitable in vitro or ex vivo methods can be performed. In this study, the influence of tissue storage and sampling site on the mucoadhesion of polyvinyl alcohol film to human small intestinal mucosa was investigated. Tissue from twelve human subjects was used to determine adhesion using a tensile strength method. Thawing of tissue frozen at −20 °C resulted in a significantly higher work of adhesion (p = 0.0005) when a low contact force was applied for one minute, whereas the maximum detachment force was not affected. When the contact force and time were increased, no differences were found for thawed tissue compared to fresh tissue. No change in adhesion was observed depending on the sampling location. Initial results from a comparison of adhesion to porcine and human mucosa suggest that the tissues are equivalent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Local Drug Delivery System)
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18 pages, 2740 KiB  
Article
Micro Injection Molding of Drug-Loaded Round Window Niche Implants for an Animal Model Using 3D-Printed Molds
by Robert Mau, Thomas Eickner, Gábor Jüttner, Ziwen Gao, Chunjiang Wei, Nicklas Fiedler, Volkmar Senz, Thomas Lenarz, Niels Grabow, Verena Scheper and Hermann Seitz
Pharmaceutics 2023, 15(6), 1584; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics15061584 - 24 May 2023
Viewed by 1422
Abstract
A novel approach for the long-term medical treatment of the inner ear is the diffusion of drugs through the round window membrane from a patient-individualized, drug-eluting implant, which is inserted in the middle ear. In this study, drug-loaded (10 wt% Dexamethasone) guinea pig [...] Read more.
A novel approach for the long-term medical treatment of the inner ear is the diffusion of drugs through the round window membrane from a patient-individualized, drug-eluting implant, which is inserted in the middle ear. In this study, drug-loaded (10 wt% Dexamethasone) guinea pig round window niche implants (GP-RNIs, ~1.30 mm × 0.95 mm × 0.60 mm) were manufactured with high precision via micro injection molding (µIM, Tmold = 160 °C, crosslinking time of 120 s). Each implant has a handle (~3.00 mm × 1.00 mm × 0.30 mm) that can be used to hold the implant. A medical-grade silicone elastomer was used as implant material. Molds for µIM were 3D printed from a commercially available resin (TG = 84 °C) via a high-resolution DLP process (xy resolution of 32 µm, z resolution of 10 µm, 3D printing time of about 6 h). Drug release, biocompatibility, and bioefficacy of the GP-RNIs were investigated in vitro. GP-RNIs could be successfully produced. The wear of the molds due to thermal stress was observed. However, the molds are suitable for single use in the µIM process. About 10% of the drug load (8.2 ± 0.6 µg) was released after 6 weeks (medium: isotonic saline). The implants showed high biocompatibility over 28 days (lowest cell viability ~80%). Moreover, we found anti-inflammatory effects over 28 days in a TNF-α-reduction test. These results are promising for the development of long-term drug-releasing implants for human inner ear therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Local Drug Delivery System)
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21 pages, 4606 KiB  
Article
Insights into the Safety and Versatility of 4D Printed Intravesical Drug Delivery Systems
by Marco Uboldi, Cristiana Perrotta, Claudia Moscheni, Silvia Zecchini, Alessandra Napoli, Chiara Castiglioni, Andrea Gazzaniga, Alice Melocchi and Lucia Zema
Pharmaceutics 2023, 15(3), 757; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics15030757 - 24 Feb 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1608
Abstract
This paper focuses on recent advancements in the development of 4D printed drug delivery systems (DDSs) for the intravesical administration of drugs. By coupling the effectiveness of local treatments with major compliance and long-lasting performance, they would represent a promising innovation for the [...] Read more.
This paper focuses on recent advancements in the development of 4D printed drug delivery systems (DDSs) for the intravesical administration of drugs. By coupling the effectiveness of local treatments with major compliance and long-lasting performance, they would represent a promising innovation for the current treatment of bladder pathologies. Being based on a shape-memory pharmaceutical-grade polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), these DDSs are manufactured in a bulky shape, can be programmed to take on a collapsed one suitable for insertion into a catheter and re-expand inside the target organ, following exposure to biological fluids at body temperature, while releasing their content. The biocompatibility of prototypes made of PVAs of different molecular weight, either uncoated or coated with Eudragit®-based formulations, was assessed by excluding relevant in vitro toxicity and inflammatory response using bladder cancer and human monocytic cell lines. Moreover, the feasibility of a novel configuration was preliminarily investigated, targeting the development of prototypes provided with inner reservoirs to be filled with different drug-containing formulations. Samples entailing two cavities, filled during the printing process, were successfully fabricated and showed, in simulated urine at body temperature, potential for controlled release, while maintaining the ability to recover about 70% of their original shape within 3 min. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Local Drug Delivery System)
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18 pages, 3856 KiB  
Article
Intraocular siRNA Delivery Mediated by Penetratin Derivative to Silence Orthotopic Retinoblastoma Gene
by Xin Gao, Xingyan Fan, Kuan Jiang, Yang Hu, Yu Liu, Weiyue Lu and Gang Wei
Pharmaceutics 2023, 15(3), 745; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics15030745 - 23 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1570
Abstract
Gene therapy brings a ray of hope for inherited ocular diseases that may cause severe vision loss and even blindness. However, due to the dynamic and static absorption barriers, it is challenging to deliver genes to the posterior segment of the eye by [...] Read more.
Gene therapy brings a ray of hope for inherited ocular diseases that may cause severe vision loss and even blindness. However, due to the dynamic and static absorption barriers, it is challenging to deliver genes to the posterior segment of the eye by topical instillation. To circumvent this limitation, we developed a penetratin derivative (89WP)-modified polyamidoamine polyplex to deliver small interference RNA (siRNA) via eye drops to achieve effective gene silencing in orthotopic retinoblastoma. The polyplex could be spontaneously assembled through electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions, as demonstrated by isothermal titration calorimetry, and enter cells intactly. In vitro cellular internalization revealed that the polyplex possessed higher permeability and safety than the lipoplex composed of commercial cationic liposomes. After the polyplex was instilled in the conjunctival sac of the mice, the distribution of siRNA in the fundus oculi was significantly increased, and the bioluminescence from orthotopic retinoblastoma was effectively inhibited. In this work, an evolved cell-penetrating peptide was employed to modify the siRNA vector in a simple and effective way, and the formed polyplex interfered with intraocular protein expression successfully via noninvasive administration, which showed a promising prospect for gene therapy for inherited ocular diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Local Drug Delivery System)
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28 pages, 6964 KiB  
Article
Formulation Development of Fast Dissolving Microneedles Loaded with Cubosomes of Febuxostat: In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation
by Brijesh Patel and Hetal Thakkar
Pharmaceutics 2023, 15(1), 224; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics15010224 - 9 Jan 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2368
Abstract
Febuxostat is a widely prescribed drug for the treatment of gout, which is a highly prevalent disease worldwide and is a major cause of disability in mankind. Febuxostat suffers from several limitations such as gastrointestinal disturbances and low oral bioavailability. Thus, to improve [...] Read more.
Febuxostat is a widely prescribed drug for the treatment of gout, which is a highly prevalent disease worldwide and is a major cause of disability in mankind. Febuxostat suffers from several limitations such as gastrointestinal disturbances and low oral bioavailability. Thus, to improve patient compliance and bioavailability, transdermal drug delivery systems of Febuxostat were developed for obtaining enhanced permeation. Cubosomes of Febuxostat were prepared using a bottom-up approach and loaded into a microneedle using a micromolding technique to achieve better permeation through the skin. Optimization of the process and formulation parameters were achieved using our design of experiments. The optimized cubosomes of Febuxostat were characterized for various parameters such as % entrapment efficiency, vesicle size, Polydispersity index, Transmission electron microscopy, in vitro drug release, Small angle X-ray scattering, etc. After loading it in the microneedle it was characterized for dissolution time, axial fracture force, scanning electron microscopy, in vitro drug release, pore closure kinetics, etc. It was also evaluated for various ex vivo characterizations such as in vitro cell viability, ex vivo permeation, ex vivo fluorescence microscopy and histopathology which indicates its safety and better permeation. In vivo pharmacokinetic studies proved enhanced bioavailability compared with the marketed formulation. Pharmacodynamic study indicated its effectiveness in a disease-induced rat model. The developed formulations were then subjected to the stability study, which proved its stability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Local Drug Delivery System)
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18 pages, 4097 KiB  
Article
Effect of Ciprofloxacin-Loaded Niosomes on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm Formation
by Linda Maurizi, Jacopo Forte, Maria Grazia Ammendolia, Patrizia Nadia Hanieh, Antonietta Lucia Conte, Michela Relucenti, Orlando Donfrancesco, Caterina Ricci, Federica Rinaldi, Carlotta Marianecci, Maria Carafa and Catia Longhi
Pharmaceutics 2022, 14(12), 2662; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics14122662 - 30 Nov 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1875
Abstract
Infections caused by bacterial biofilms represent a global health problem, causing considerable patient morbidity and mortality in addition to an economic burden. Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and other medically relevant bacterial strains colonize clinical surfaces and medical devices via biofilm in which [...] Read more.
Infections caused by bacterial biofilms represent a global health problem, causing considerable patient morbidity and mortality in addition to an economic burden. Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and other medically relevant bacterial strains colonize clinical surfaces and medical devices via biofilm in which bacterial cells are protected from the action of the immune system, disinfectants, and antibiotics. Several approaches have been investigated to inhibit and disperse bacterial biofilms, and the use of drug delivery could represent a fascinating strategy. Ciprofloxacin (CIP), which belongs to the class of fluoroquinolones, has been extensively used against various bacterial infections, and its loading in nanocarriers, such as niosomes, could support the CIP antibiofilm activity. Niosomes, composed of two surfactants (Tween 85 and Span 80) without the presence of cholesterol, are prepared and characterized considering the following features: hydrodynamic diameter, ζ-potential, morphology, vesicle bilayer characteristics, physical-chemical stability, and biological efficacy. The obtained results suggest that: (i) niosomes by surfactants in the absence of cholesterol are formed, can entrap CIP, and are stable over time and in artificial biological media; (ii) the CIP inclusion in nanocarriers increase its stability, with respect to free drug; (iii) niosomes preparations were able to induce a relevant inhibition of biofilm formation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Local Drug Delivery System)
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15 pages, 4234 KiB  
Article
Design of a Transdermal Sustained Release Formulation Based on Water-Soluble Ointment Incorporating Tulobuterol Nanoparticles
by Noriaki Nagai, Fumihiko Ogata, Saori Deguchi, Aoi Fushiki, Saki Daimyo, Hiroko Otake and Naohito Kawasaki
Pharmaceutics 2022, 14(11), 2431; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics14112431 - 10 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1401
Abstract
We aimed to investigate which base was suitable for preparing transdermal formulations incorporating tulobuterol (TUL) nanoparticles (30–180 nm) in this study. Three bases (water-soluble, absorptive, and aqueous ionic cream) were selected to prepare the transdermal formulations, and TUL nanoparticles were prepared with a [...] Read more.
We aimed to investigate which base was suitable for preparing transdermal formulations incorporating tulobuterol (TUL) nanoparticles (30–180 nm) in this study. Three bases (water-soluble, absorptive, and aqueous ionic cream) were selected to prepare the transdermal formulations, and TUL nanoparticles were prepared with a bead-milling treatment. In the drug release study, the TUL release from the water-soluble ointment was higher than that from the other two ointments. Moreover, the addition of l-menthol enhanced TUL nanoparticle release from the ointment, and the rat skin penetration of the TUL water-soluble ointment was also significantly higher than that of the other two ointments. In addition, the drug penetration of the TUL water-soluble ointment with l-menthol sustained zero-order release over 24 h, and the skin permeability of TUL increased with TUL content in the ointment. On the other hand, this penetration was significantly inhibited by treatment with a caveolae-mediated endocytosis inhibitor (nystatin). In conclusion, we found that the water-soluble base incorporating TUL nanoparticles and l-menthol was the best among those assessed in this study. Furthermore, the pathway using caveolae-mediated endocytosis was related to the skin penetration of TUL nanoparticles in the TUL water-soluble ointment with l-menthol. These findings are useful for the design of a transdermal sustained-release formulation based on TUL nanoparticles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Local Drug Delivery System)
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23 pages, 2064 KiB  
Article
Novel Pullulan/Gellan Gum Bilayer Film as a Vehicle for Silibinin-Loaded Nanocapsules in the Topical Treatment of Atopic Dermatitis
by Mailine Gehrcke, Carolina Cristóvão Martins, Taíne de Bastos Brum, Lucas Saldanha da Rosa, Cristiane Luchese, Ethel Antunes Wilhelm, Fabio Zovico Maxnuck Soares and Letícia Cruz
Pharmaceutics 2022, 14(11), 2352; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics14112352 - 31 Oct 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1653
Abstract
In this study a novel gellan gum/pullulan bilayer film containing silibinin-loaded nanocapsules was developed for topical treatment of atopic dermatitis (AD). The bilayer films were produced by applying a pullulan layer on a gellan gum layer incorporated with silibinin nanocapsules by two-step solvent [...] Read more.
In this study a novel gellan gum/pullulan bilayer film containing silibinin-loaded nanocapsules was developed for topical treatment of atopic dermatitis (AD). The bilayer films were produced by applying a pullulan layer on a gellan gum layer incorporated with silibinin nanocapsules by two-step solvent casting method. The bilayer formation was confirmed by microscopic analysis. In vitro studies showed that pullulan imparts bioadhesitvity for the films and the presence of nanocapsules increased their occlusion factor almost 2-fold. Besides, the nano-based film presented a slow silibinin release and high affinity for cutaneous tissue. Moreover, this film presented high scavenger capacity and non-hemolytic property. In the in vivo study, interestingly, the treatments with vehicle film attenuated the scratching behavior and the ear edema in mice induced by 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB). However, the nano-based film containing silibinin modulated the inflammatory and oxidative parameters in a similar or more pronounced way than silibinin solution and vehicle film, as well as than hydrocortisone, a classical treatment of AD. In conclusion, these data suggest that itself gellan gum/pullulan bilayer film might attenuate the effects induced by DNCB, acting together with silibinin-loaded nanocapsules, which protected the skin from oxidative damage, improving the therapeutic effect in this AD-model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Local Drug Delivery System)
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19 pages, 4403 KiB  
Article
Sporopollenin Microcapsule: Sunscreen Delivery System with Photoprotective Properties
by Silvia Tampucci, Giorgio Tofani, Patrizia Chetoni, Mariacristina Di Gangi, Andrea Mezzetta, Valentina Paganini, Susi Burgalassi, Christian Silvio Pomelli and Daniela Monti
Pharmaceutics 2022, 14(10), 2041; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics14102041 - 24 Sep 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2454
Abstract
In recent years, the demand for high-quality solar products that combine high efficacy with environmentally friendly characteristics has increased. Among the coral-safe sunscreens, ethylhexyl triazone (Uvinul® T150) is an effective organic UVB filter, photostable and practically insoluble in water, therefore difficult to [...] Read more.
In recent years, the demand for high-quality solar products that combine high efficacy with environmentally friendly characteristics has increased. Among the coral-safe sunscreens, ethylhexyl triazone (Uvinul® T150) is an effective organic UVB filter, photostable and practically insoluble in water, therefore difficult to be formulated in water-based products. Oil-free sunscreens are considered ideal for most skin types, as they are not comedogenic and do not leave the skin feeling greasy. Recent studies reported that pollen grains might represent innovative drug delivery systems for their ability to encapsulate and release active ingredients in a controlled manner. Before being used, the pollen grains must be treated to remove cellular material and biomolecules, which could cause allergic reactions in predisposed subjects; the obtained hollow structures possess uniform diameter and a rigid wall with openings that allow them to be filled with bioactive substances. In the present work, pollen from Lycopodium clavatum has been investigated both as a delivery system for ethylhexyl triazone and as an active ingredient by evaluating its photoprotective capacity. The goal is to obtain environmentally friendly solar aqueous formulations that take advantage of both sunscreen and sporopollenin microcapsules’ UV protection with a relatively low cost, as these pollen grains are widely available. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Local Drug Delivery System)
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Review

Jump to: Research

21 pages, 4559 KiB  
Review
A Review on Dry Eye Disease Treatment: Recent Progress, Diagnostics, and Future Perspectives
by Himangsu Mondal, Ho-Joong Kim, Nijaya Mohanto and Jun-Pil Jee
Pharmaceutics 2023, 15(3), 990; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics15030990 - 19 Mar 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 4593
Abstract
Dry eye disease is a multifactorial disorder of the eye and tear film with potential damage to the ocular surface. Various treatment approaches for this disorder aim to alleviate disease symptoms and restore the normal ophthalmic environment. The most widely used dosage form [...] Read more.
Dry eye disease is a multifactorial disorder of the eye and tear film with potential damage to the ocular surface. Various treatment approaches for this disorder aim to alleviate disease symptoms and restore the normal ophthalmic environment. The most widely used dosage form is eye drops of different drugs with 5% bioavailability. The use of contact lenses to deliver drugs increases bioavailability by up to 50%. Cyclosporin A is a hydrophobic drug loaded onto contact lenses to treat dry eye disease with significant improvement. The tear is a source of vital biomarkers for various systemic and ocular disorders. Several biomarkers related to dry eye disease have been identified. Contact lens sensing technology has become sufficiently advanced to detect specific biomarkers and predict disease conditions accurately. This review focuses on dry eye disease treatment with cyclosporin A-loaded contact lenses, contact lens biosensors for ocular biomarkers of dry eye disease, and the possibility of integrating sensors in therapeutic contact lenses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Local Drug Delivery System)
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39 pages, 1646 KiB  
Review
Local Drug Delivery Strategies towards Wound Healing
by Ruchi Tiwari and Kamla Pathak
Pharmaceutics 2023, 15(2), 634; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics15020634 - 13 Feb 2023
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 5002
Abstract
A particular biological process known as wound healing is connected to the overall phenomena of growth and tissue regeneration. Several cellular and matrix elements work together to restore the integrity of injured tissue. The goal of the present review paper focused on the [...] Read more.
A particular biological process known as wound healing is connected to the overall phenomena of growth and tissue regeneration. Several cellular and matrix elements work together to restore the integrity of injured tissue. The goal of the present review paper focused on the physiology of wound healing, medications used to treat wound healing, and local drug delivery systems for possible skin wound therapy. The capacity of the skin to heal a wound is the result of a highly intricate process that involves several different processes, such as vascular response, blood coagulation, fibrin network creation, re-epithelialisation, collagen maturation, and connective tissue remodelling. Wound healing may be controlled with topical antiseptics, topical antibiotics, herbal remedies, and cellular initiators. In order to effectively eradicate infections and shorten the healing process, contemporary antimicrobial treatments that include antibiotics or antiseptics must be investigated. A variety of delivery systems were described, including innovative delivery systems, hydrogels, microspheres, gold and silver nanoparticles, vesicles, emulsifying systems, nanofibres, artificial dressings, three-dimensional printed skin replacements, dendrimers and carbon nanotubes. It may be inferred that enhanced local delivery methods might be used to provide wound healing agents for faster healing of skin wounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Local Drug Delivery System)
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26 pages, 2611 KiB  
Review
Current Status of Polysaccharides-Based Drug Delivery Systems for Nervous Tissue Injuries Repair
by Caterina Valentino, Barbara Vigani, Giuseppina Sandri, Franca Ferrari and Silvia Rossi
Pharmaceutics 2023, 15(2), 400; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics15020400 - 25 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1608
Abstract
Neurological disorders affecting both CNS and PNS still represent one of the most critical and challenging pathologies, therefore many researchers have been focusing on this field in recent decades. Spinal cord injury (SCI) and peripheral nerve injury (PNI) are severely disabling diseases leading [...] Read more.
Neurological disorders affecting both CNS and PNS still represent one of the most critical and challenging pathologies, therefore many researchers have been focusing on this field in recent decades. Spinal cord injury (SCI) and peripheral nerve injury (PNI) are severely disabling diseases leading to dramatic and, in most cases, irreversible sensory, motor, and autonomic impairments. The challenging pathophysiologic consequences involved in SCI and PNI are demanding the development of more effective therapeutic strategies since, as yet, a therapeutic strategy that can effectively lead to a complete recovery from such pathologies is not available. Drug delivery systems (DDSs) based on polysaccharides have been receiving more and more attention for a wide range of applications, due to their outstanding physical-chemical properties. This review aims at providing an overview of the most studied polysaccharides used for the development of DDSs intended for the repair and regeneration of a damaged nervous system, with particular attention to spinal cord and peripheral nerve injury treatments. In particular, DDSs based on chitosan and their association with alginate, dextran, agarose, cellulose, and gellan were thoroughly revised. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Local Drug Delivery System)
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41 pages, 2254 KiB  
Review
Recent Advances in Targeted Nanocarriers for the Management of Triple Negative Breast Cancer
by Rajesh Pradhan, Anuradha Dey, Rajeev Taliyan, Anu Puri, Sanskruti Kharavtekar and Sunil Kumar Dubey
Pharmaceutics 2023, 15(1), 246; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics15010246 - 11 Jan 2023
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3493
Abstract
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a life-threatening form of breast cancer which has been found to account for 15% of all the subtypes of breast cancer. Currently available treatments are significantly less effective in TNBC management because of several factors such as poor [...] Read more.
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a life-threatening form of breast cancer which has been found to account for 15% of all the subtypes of breast cancer. Currently available treatments are significantly less effective in TNBC management because of several factors such as poor bioavailability, low specificity, multidrug resistance, poor cellular uptake, and unwanted side effects being the major ones. As a rapidly growing field, nano-therapeutics offers promising alternatives for breast cancer treatment. This platform provides a suitable pathway for crossing biological barriers and allowing sustained systemic circulation time and an improved pharmacokinetic profile of the drug. Apart from this, it also provides an optimized target-specific drug delivery system and improves drug accumulation in tumor cells. This review provides insights into the molecular mechanisms associated with the pathogenesis of TNBC, along with summarizing the conventional therapy and recent advances of different nano-carriers for the management of TNBC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Local Drug Delivery System)
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28 pages, 3418 KiB  
Review
Nanoemulgel: A Novel Nano Carrier as a Tool for Topical Drug Delivery
by Mahipal Reddy Donthi, Siva Ram Munnangi, Kowthavarapu Venkata Krishna, Ranendra Narayan Saha, Gautam Singhvi and Sunil Kumar Dubey
Pharmaceutics 2023, 15(1), 164; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics15010164 - 3 Jan 2023
Cited by 29 | Viewed by 5234
Abstract
Nano-emulgel is an emerging drug delivery system intended to enhance the therapeutic profile of lipophilic drugs. Lipophilic formulations have a variety of limitations, which includes poor solubility, unpredictable absorption, and low oral bioavailability. Nano-emulgel, an amalgamated preparation of different systems aims to deal [...] Read more.
Nano-emulgel is an emerging drug delivery system intended to enhance the therapeutic profile of lipophilic drugs. Lipophilic formulations have a variety of limitations, which includes poor solubility, unpredictable absorption, and low oral bioavailability. Nano-emulgel, an amalgamated preparation of different systems aims to deal with these limitations. The novel system prepared by the incorporation of nano-emulsion into gel improves stability and enables drug delivery for both immediate and controlled release. The focus on nano-emulgel has also increased due to its ability to achieve targeted delivery, ease of application, absence of gastrointestinal degradation or the first pass metabolism, and safety profile. This review focuses on the formulation components of nano-emulgel for topical drug delivery, pharmacokinetics and safety profiles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Local Drug Delivery System)
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34 pages, 2482 KiB  
Review
Application of Intranasal Administration in the Delivery of Antidepressant Active Ingredients
by Zhiyu Jin, Yu Han, Danshen Zhang, Zhongqiu Li, Yongshuai Jing, Beibei Hu and Shiguo Sun
Pharmaceutics 2022, 14(10), 2070; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics14102070 - 28 Sep 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2550
Abstract
As a mental disease in modern society, depression shows an increasing occurrence, with low cure rate and high recurrence rate. It has become the most disabling disease in the world. At present, the treatment of depression is mainly based on drug therapy combined [...] Read more.
As a mental disease in modern society, depression shows an increasing occurrence, with low cure rate and high recurrence rate. It has become the most disabling disease in the world. At present, the treatment of depression is mainly based on drug therapy combined with psychological therapy, physical therapy, and other adjuvant therapy methods. Antidepressants are primarily administered peripherally (oral and intravenous) and have a slow onset of action. Antidepressant active ingredients, such as neuropeptides, natural active ingredients, and some chemical agents, are limited by factors such as the blood–brain barrier (BBB), first-pass metabolism, and extensive adverse effects caused by systemic administration. The potential anatomical link between the non-invasive nose–brain pathway and the lesion site of depression may provide a more attractive option for the delivery of antidepressant active ingredients. The purpose of this article is to describe the specific link between intranasal administration and depression, the challenges of intranasal administration, as well as studies of intranasal administration of antidepressant active ingredients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Local Drug Delivery System)
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