Formulation and Delivery of Traditional Medicines and Natural Products

A special issue of Pharmaceutics (ISSN 1999-4923). This special issue belongs to the section "Physical Pharmacy and Formulation".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2024 | Viewed by 5888

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Katz Group-Rexall Centre for Pharmacy & Health Research, University of Alberta, 11315–87 Avenue, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada
Interests: pharmacokinetics; chirality; drug interactions; formulation and drug delivery
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Guest Editor
Head of Department of Applied Thai Traditional Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Director of Center of Excellence in Applied Thai Traditional Medicine Research, Thammasat University, Khlong Nueng, Khlong Luang, Pathum Thani 12120, Thailand
Interests: pharmacognosy; Thai traditional medicine; natural products; flavonoids; stilbenes; microemulsions; topical delivery

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Traditional medicines and natural products from plant and animal sources require pharmaceutic formulation techniques and understanding of disposition able to overcome barriers, using carriers for bioavailability, solubility and stability issues and the possibility of formulating using delivery systems with controlled release rates. On these bases, traditional medicines and natural products and their dosage forms can represent effective therapeutic platforms for disease. The active molecules need to be formulated to achieve optimal efficacy. Most of the applied techniques include robust analytical method development and the study of delivery systems.

This Special Issue will cover different aspects of the delivery and disposition of traditional medicines and natural products as a means to control or modify the release of natural substances in traditional, contemporary and advanced delivery systems. Since clinical efficacies and toxicities have been reported to be improved by the formulation of the bioavailability of traditional medicines and natural products, release kinetics, stability concerns, taste masking, and overcoming natural barriers including the skin will be discussed.

Prof. Dr. Neal M. Davies
Dr. Arunporn Itharat
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • solubility
  • microencapsulation
  • hydrogel patch
  • coacervation
  • nanoparticles
  • in silico
  • lipid formulation
  • microemulsion
  • microspheres
  • microparticles
  • microcapsules
  • nanoemulsion
  • polymeric drug delivery systems
  • topical delivery

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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12 pages, 1147 KiB  
Article
Formulation and Evaluation of Mucoadhesive Oral Care Gel Containing Kaempferia galanga Extract
by Indah Suasani Wahyuni, Irna Sufiawati, Amira Shafuria, Wipawee Nittayananta and Jutti Levita
Pharmaceutics 2024, 16(3), 421; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics16030421 - 19 Mar 2024
Viewed by 686
Abstract
The rhizome of Kaempferia galanga (Zingiberaceae) is extensively used in traditional medicine by utilizing its various biological activities. It has been proven that ethyl-para-methoxycinnamate (EPMC) and other polyphenolic compounds are present in considerable amounts in the ethanolic extract of K. galanga [...] Read more.
The rhizome of Kaempferia galanga (Zingiberaceae) is extensively used in traditional medicine by utilizing its various biological activities. It has been proven that ethyl-para-methoxycinnamate (EPMC) and other polyphenolic compounds are present in considerable amounts in the ethanolic extract of K. galanga rhizome (EKG). Our previous study confirmed that a dose of 0.5–1% of EKG demonstrated anti-inflammatory activity and a wound-healing effect in chemical-induced oral mucosal ulcers of Wistar rats. Currently, there are no reports on the formulation of oral gel containing EKG, thus revealing the potential of EKG to be developed as a herbal oral gel for mucosal ulcers. This study aims to formulate the best mucoadhesive oral care gel containing EKG in terms of physical stability. The presence of EPMC and the total phenols in the best EKG gel were also determined. The results revealed that Carbopol 934 is the best gelling agent for EKG gel preparations as proven by its stability during 14 days of storage. The statistical analysis resulted in a significant difference between the physical stability of the Carbopol 934-based EKG gel preparation compared to three commercial oral care gel products (p < 0.05). RP-HPLC chromatograms indicated that EPMC was identified in Carbopol 934-based gels containing 5% and 10% EKG at 6.056 and 6.146 min, respectively, with polyphenol levels of 1201.2557 mg/kg and 1849.1506 mg/kg, respectively. The hedonic test performed on 30 respondents to measure the degree of consumer acceptance and satisfaction confirmed that 5% EKG gel is the most sensorially accepted by the respondents. Data were analyzed using paired t-tests, one-way ANOVA, and a Kruskal–Wallis test. Taken together, the Carbopol 934-based gel containing 5% EKG could potentially be further developed as a topical anti-oral mucosal ulcer drug for clinical purposes. Full article
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11 pages, 2619 KiB  
Article
Development of Avocado and Lemon Oil Emulgels Based on Natural Products: Phycocyanin and Pectin
by Patricia Tello, Nuria Calero, Jenifer Santos and Luis A. Trujillo-Cayado
Pharmaceutics 2023, 15(8), 2067; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics15082067 - 01 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1059
Abstract
Phycocyanin (PC), a natural product obtained from algae, is attracting attention due to its health benefits, such as its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. This work studies the use of PC as the main stabilizer in avocado and lemon oil emulgels, a format for [...] Read more.
Phycocyanin (PC), a natural product obtained from algae, is attracting attention due to its health benefits, such as its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. This work studies the use of PC as the main stabilizer in avocado and lemon oil emulgels, a format for drug delivery. The influence of PC concentration on droplet size distribution, rheological properties, and physical stability is studied using a laser diffraction technique, rheological measurements, and multiple light scattering. The 5 wt.% PC emulsions show the lowest droplet size and, consequently, the best stability against creaming and droplet growth. Emulsions formulated with PC as the only stabilizer show a slight pseudoplastic character with an apparent viscosity below 10 mPa·s at 2 Pa. This indicates that these emulsions undergo creaming with aging time. In order to reduce creaming, pectin is incorporated into the 5 wt.% PC emulsion at different concentrations. Interestingly, yield stress and an incipient gel character are observed due to the presence of pectin. This is why the creaming mechanism is reduced. In conclusion, PC forms a layer that protects the interface against coalescence and Ostwald ripening. And, pectin is incorporated to reduce creaming. This research has the potential to make valuable contributions to diverse fields, such as health, medicine, and encapsulation technology. Full article
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18 pages, 2728 KiB  
Article
Optimized Chitosan-Based Nanoemulsion Improves Luteolin Release
by Camila Diedrich, Isabella C. Zittlau, Najeh M. Khalil, Adam F. G. Leontowich, Rilton A. de Freitas, Ildiko Badea and Rubiana M. Mainardes
Pharmaceutics 2023, 15(6), 1592; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics15061592 - 25 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1431
Abstract
Luteolin (LUT) is a flavonoid found in several edible and medicinal plants. It is recognized for its biological activities such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, and antitumor effects. However, the limited water solubility of LUT leads to poor absorption after oral administration. Nanoencapsulation may [...] Read more.
Luteolin (LUT) is a flavonoid found in several edible and medicinal plants. It is recognized for its biological activities such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, and antitumor effects. However, the limited water solubility of LUT leads to poor absorption after oral administration. Nanoencapsulation may improve the solubility of LUT. Nanoemulsions (NE) were selected for the encapsulation of LUT due to their biodegradability, stability, and ability to control drug release. In this work, chitosan (Ch)-based NE was developed to encapsulate luteolin (NECh-LUT). A 23 factorial design was built to obtain a formulation with optimized amounts of oil, water, and surfactants. NECh-LUT showed a mean diameter of 67.5 nm, polydispersity index 0.174, zeta potential of +12.8 mV, and encapsulation efficiency of 85.49%. Transmission electron microscopy revealed spherical shape and rheological analysis verified the Newtonian behavior of NECh-LUT. SAXS technique confirmed the bimodal characteristic of NECh-LUT, while stability analysis confirmed NECh-LUT stability when stored at room temperature for up to 30 days. Finally, in vitro release studies showed LUT controlled release up to 72 h, indicating the promising potential of NECh-LUT to be used as novel therapeutic option to treat several disorders. Full article
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Review

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26 pages, 3560 KiB  
Review
Therapeutic Potential and Predictive Pharmaceutical Modeling of Stilbenes in Cannabis sativa
by Conor O’Croinin, Andres Garcia Guerra, Michael R. Doschak, Raimar Löbenberg and Neal M. Davies
Pharmaceutics 2023, 15(7), 1941; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics15071941 - 12 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1780
Abstract
Cannabis sativa is a plant used for recreational and therapeutic purposes; however, many of the secondary metabolites in the plant have not been thoroughly investigated. Stilbenes are a class of compounds with demonstrated anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties and are present in cannabis. Many [...] Read more.
Cannabis sativa is a plant used for recreational and therapeutic purposes; however, many of the secondary metabolites in the plant have not been thoroughly investigated. Stilbenes are a class of compounds with demonstrated anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties and are present in cannabis. Many stilbenes present in cannabis have been investigated for their therapeutic effects. Fourteen stilbenes have been identified to be present in cannabis, all of which are structurally dihydrostilbenoids, with half possessing a prenylated moiety. The stilbenes summarized in this analysis show varying degrees of therapeutic benefits ranging from anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and anti-cancer to antioxidant effects. Many of the identified stilbenes have been researched to a limited extent for potential health benefits. In addition, predictive in silico modeling was performed on the fourteen identified cannabis-derived stilbenes. This modeling provides prospective activity, pharmacokinetic, metabolism, and permeability data, setting the groundwork for further investigation into these poorly characterized compounds. Full article
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