Ethnopharmacology in Latin America

A special issue of Pharmaceuticals (ISSN 1424-8247). This special issue belongs to the section "Natural Products".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (24 March 2023) | Viewed by 26426

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Departamento de Farmacia, División de Ciencias Naturales y Exactas, Universidad de Guanajuato, Guanajuato, Mexico
Interests: pharmacology; medicinal plant; ethnobotany; pharmacy
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Latin America is a multicultural region, which encompasses 43 countries, and it was the settlement of many pre-Hispanic civilizations. Their knowledge and culture still remain. This region is the home of over 50 million indigenous people belonging to 400 different ethnic groups. Their ancient knowledge was incorporated into many pharmacopeias from this region. Latin America has many endemic medicinal plants. However, this region is facing a loss of biodiversity. The migration to rural areas is resulting in the loss of ethnomedicinal information. In Latin America, the use of medicinal plants for primary healthcare is a common practice among the general population due to the lack of/insufficient medical attention and the lack of economic resources. Many of these medicinal plants remain to be studied for their toxicology, pharmacology, and chemistry. This Special Issue will be focused on the following topics: (i) ethnobotanical studies using quantitative tools, (ii) survey-based studies about self-medication/use of herbal products, (iii) preclinical and clinical studies with plant extracts and their active compounds, (iv) analytical procedures for the standardization of plant extracts, and (v) legislation and regulation of herbal products. The journal Pharmaceuticals invites experts to contribute to this Special Issue with reviews and original research articles focusing on the pharmacology, toxicology, analytical chemistry, pharmacy, and ethnobotany of medicinal plants endemic to Latin America.

With best regards,

Dr. Angel Josabad Alonso-Castro
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Latin America
  • preclinical
  • clinical
  • ethnobotany
  • pharmacology
  • chemical standardization
  • herbal products

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Editorial

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3 pages, 215 KiB  
Editorial
Special Issue “Ethnopharmacology in Latin America”
by Angel Josabad Alonso-Castro
Pharmaceuticals 2023, 16(9), 1189; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph16091189 - 22 Aug 2023
Viewed by 553
Abstract
Latin America is a multicultural region encompassing 43 countries, with 665 million inhabitants with a mean age of 31 years old, 84% of whom live in urban areas [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ethnopharmacology in Latin America)

Research

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23 pages, 7059 KiB  
Article
Horsetail (Equisetum hyemale) Extract Accelerates Wound Healing in Diabetic Rats by Modulating IL-10 and MCP-1 Release and Collagen Synthesis
by Hilda Aguayo-Morales, Crystel A. Sierra-Rivera, Jesús A. Claudio-Rizo and Luis E. Cobos-Puc
Pharmaceuticals 2023, 16(4), 514; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph16040514 - 30 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3668
Abstract
Traditionally, Equisetum hyemale has been used for wound healing. However, its mechanism of action remains to be elucidated. For this purpose, a 40% ethanolic extract of E. hyemale was prepared. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of minerals, sterols, phenolic acids, flavonols, a lignan, [...] Read more.
Traditionally, Equisetum hyemale has been used for wound healing. However, its mechanism of action remains to be elucidated. For this purpose, a 40% ethanolic extract of E. hyemale was prepared. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of minerals, sterols, phenolic acids, flavonols, a lignan, and a phenylpropenoid. The extract reduced the viability of RAW 264.7 cells and skin fibroblasts at all times evaluated. On the third day of treatment, this reduction was 30–40% and 15–40%, respectively. In contrast, the extract increased the proliferation of skin fibroblasts only after 48 h. In addition, the extract increased IL-10 release and inhibited MCP-1 release. However, the extract did not affect both TGF-β1 and TNF-α released by RAW 264.7 cells. The higher release of IL-10 could be related to the up-/downregulation of inflammatory pathways mediated by the extract components associated with their bioactivity. The extract inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Topical application of the extract accelerated wound healing in diabetic rats by increasing fibroblast collagen synthesis. These results suggest that E. hyemale extract has great potential for use in the treatment of wounds thanks to its phytochemical composition that modulates cytokine secretion, collagen synthesis, and bacterial growth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ethnopharmacology in Latin America)
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20 pages, 2812 KiB  
Article
Neuropharmacological Activities of Ceiba aesculifolia (Kunth) Britten & Baker f (Malvaceae)
by Chrystyan Iván Bustos-Gómez, Deisy Gasca-Martínez, Eunice Yáñez-Barrientos, Sergio Hidalgo-Figueroa, Maria L. Gonzalez-Rivera, Juan Carlos Barragan-Galvez, Juan Ramón Zapata-Morales, Mario Isiordia-Espinoza, Alma Rosa Corrales-Escobosa and Angel Josabad Alonso-Castro
Pharmaceuticals 2022, 15(12), 1580; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph15121580 - 18 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1516
Abstract
Ceiba aesculifolia (Kunth) Britten & Baker f (Malvaceae) is used for the folk treatment of mood disorders. C. aesculifolia bark was extracted in ethanol, and the extract (CAE) was chemically standardized using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). This study evaluated the effects of CAE [...] Read more.
Ceiba aesculifolia (Kunth) Britten & Baker f (Malvaceae) is used for the folk treatment of mood disorders. C. aesculifolia bark was extracted in ethanol, and the extract (CAE) was chemically standardized using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). This study evaluated the effects of CAE (10–100 mg/kg p.o.) on anxiolytic-like activity, sedation, locomotor activity, depression-like activity, and spatial working memory using in vivo rodent models. A possible mechanism for the anxiolytic-like and antidepressant-like actions induced by CAE was assessed using neurotransmission pathway inhibitors. Myristic acid was one of the compounds found in CAE using GC-MS. This study also evaluated the anxiolytic-like activity and the sedative actions of myristic acid and assessed a possible mechanism of action using neurotransmission pathway inhibitors and an in silico analysis. CAE elicited anxiolytic-like activity and antidepressant-like effects (ED50 = 57 mg/kg). CAE (10–100 mg/kg) did not affect locomotor coordination or induce sedation. The anxiolytic-like and antidepressant-like actions of CAE were reverted by prazosin, suggesting a possible participation of the noradrenergic system. The anxiolytic-like activity of myristic acid was reverted by the co-administration of prazosin and partially reverted by ketanserin. The docking study revealed that myristic acid can form favorable interactions within 5-HT2A and α1A-adrenoreceptor binding pockets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ethnopharmacology in Latin America)
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11 pages, 3081 KiB  
Article
Safety Investigations of Two Formulations for Vaginal Use Obtained from Eugenia uniflora L. Leaves in Female Rats
by Guilherme Donadel, Mariana Dalmagro, João Antonio Berta de Oliveira, Giuliana Zardeto, Mariana Moraes Pinc, Jaqueline Hoscheid, Odair Alberton, Salviano Tramontin Belettini, Ezilda Jacomassi, Arquimedes Gasparotto Junior and Emerson Luiz Botelho Lourenço
Pharmaceuticals 2022, 15(12), 1567; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph15121567 - 15 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1451
Abstract
Medicinal plants have great prominence in research into the development of new medicines. Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae) is an edible and medicinal plant with economic value in the northeast region of Brazil. Several preparations from E. uniflora leaves and its fruits are employed [...] Read more.
Medicinal plants have great prominence in research into the development of new medicines. Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae) is an edible and medicinal plant with economic value in the northeast region of Brazil. Several preparations from E. uniflora leaves and its fruits are employed as a source of nutrients and bioactive compounds. In this study we evaluated the preclinical toxicology of crude extract and vaginal gel obtained from the leaves of E. uniflora (5%, 10%, and 15%) aiming to provide safety for its use in the treatment of vulvovaginitis. Both formulations were applied to the vaginal cavity for 14 days. Detailed observations of the vaginal region, including pruritus, swelling, irritation, burning, pain, and vaginal secretion, as well as the estrous cycle were evaluated. On the fifth day, blood samples were obtained from the supraorbital plexus for biochemical and hematological analyses. The animals were subsequently euthanized. All animals underwent necropsy and macroscopic examination of the vaginal mucosa and reproductive system. A histological examination was also performed. No clinically significant changes were detected during the entire experimental period. All biochemical, hematological, or histopathological parameters were within the normal range for the species. The data obtained allow us to suggest that the E. uniflora vaginal formulations are safe in this experimental model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ethnopharmacology in Latin America)
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16 pages, 2011 KiB  
Article
Tibouchina granulosa Leaves Present Anti-Inflammatory Effect
by Carolina Carvalho Guilhon, Alan Silva Minho, Marc Pouliot, Fabio Boylan and Patricia Dias Fernandes
Pharmaceuticals 2022, 15(12), 1458; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph15121458 - 24 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1275
Abstract
The ethanol extract (EE) prepared from the leaves of Tibouchina granulosa, and its fraction in ethyl acetate (fEA) were evaluated concerning their capacity to reduce inflammation in different experimental models. fEA was also studied concerning its chemical constituents. EE and fEA were [...] Read more.
The ethanol extract (EE) prepared from the leaves of Tibouchina granulosa, and its fraction in ethyl acetate (fEA) were evaluated concerning their capacity to reduce inflammation in different experimental models. fEA was also studied concerning its chemical constituents. EE and fEA were assayed for their anti-inflammatory potential, using formalin-induced licking behavior and carrageenan-induced inflammation into the subcutaneous air pouch (SAP) models. Reduction in polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) activation was performed in freshly isolated PMN. Chromatographic analysis of fEA was performed by HPLC-DAD. Hispiduloside was isolated as the main constituent in fEA, and its quantity was estimated to be 39.3% in fEA. EE (30 mg/kg) significantly reduced the second phase of formalin-induced licking. fEA demonstrated a reduction in leukocyte migration into the SAP. EE and fEA drastically reduced cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IFN-γ), nitric oxide (NO) production, in vitro PMN migration induced by C5a and IL-8, and TNF-α and IL-1β gene expression. Taken together, our data indicate that either ethanol extract or its fEA fraction from leaves of T. granulosa present an anti-inflammatory effect, contributing to the pharmacological and chemical knowledge of this species and confirming the rationale behind its traditional use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ethnopharmacology in Latin America)
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19 pages, 3865 KiB  
Article
Copaiba Oil Resin Exerts an Additive Effect to Babassu Oil on Behavioral Changes in Human Endometriotic Cell Cultures
by Julianna Henriques da Silva, Leticia Coli Louvisse de Abreu, Renato Ferrari, Celia Yelimar Palmero Quintana, Eliane Gouvêa de Oliveira Barros, Natália de Moraes Cordeiro, Bruno Pontes, Valeria Pereira de Sousa, Lucio Mendes Cabral, Patricia Dias Fernandes and Luiz Eurico Nasciutti
Pharmaceuticals 2022, 15(11), 1414; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph15111414 - 15 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1529
Abstract
Background: Current drugs for the treatment of endometriosis are not able to completely cure the condition, and significant side effects hinder the continuation of treatment. Therefore, it is necessary to search for new drug candidates. In the present paper, the use of plant [...] Read more.
Background: Current drugs for the treatment of endometriosis are not able to completely cure the condition, and significant side effects hinder the continuation of treatment. Therefore, it is necessary to search for new drug candidates. In the present paper, the use of plant extracts is highlighted. Babassu oil and Copaiba oil resin have several therapeutic properties. We investigated the in vitro effects of two nanoemulsions containing oil extracted from Babassu (Orbignya speciosa) nuts (called SNEDDS-18) and/or oil resin extracted from Copaiba trunk (Copaifera langsdorffii) (called SNEDDS-18/COPA) on cultured human eutopic endometrium stromal cells from endometrial biopsies of patients without (CESC) and with (EuESC) endometriosis as well as human stromal cells from biopsies of endometriotic lesions (EctESC). Methods: CESC, EuESC, and EctESC were taken and treated with SNEDDS-18 and SNEDDS-18/COPA to evaluate their effects on cytotoxicity, cell morphology, proliferation, and signaling pathways. Results: After 48 h of incubation with SNEDDS-18 and SNEDDS-18/COPA, cell viability and proliferation were inhibited, especially in EctESC. The lowest concentration of both nanoemulsions reduced cell viability and proliferation and broke down the cytoskeleton in EctESCs. After 24 h of treatment a decrease in IL-1, TNF-α, and MCP-1 was observed, as well as an increase in IL-10 production. Conclusions: Both nanoemulsions can affect endometriotic stromal cell behaviors, thus revealing two potential candidates for new phytotherapeutic agents for the management of endometriosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ethnopharmacology in Latin America)
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15 pages, 1384 KiB  
Article
Baccharis trimera Infusion Reduces Macrophages Activation and High-Fat Diet-Induced Metabolic Disorders in Mice
by Thalita Vieira Nascimento Ximenes, Raquel Carvalho, Iluska Senna Bonfá, Vanessa Samúdio Santos, Luciane Candeloro, Flávio Macedo Alves, Denise Brentan Silva, Carlos Alexandre Carollo, Karine de Cássia Freitas Gielow, Saulo Euclides Silva-Filho and Mônica Cristina Toffoli-Kadri
Pharmaceuticals 2022, 15(10), 1258; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph15101258 - 13 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1656
Abstract
The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of Baccharis trimera infusion on high-fat diet-induced metabolic disorders in mice and macrophages activation. This study evaluated obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and hepatic steatosis induced by a high-fat diet in Swiss mice. Cellular [...] Read more.
The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of Baccharis trimera infusion on high-fat diet-induced metabolic disorders in mice and macrophages activation. This study evaluated obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and hepatic steatosis induced by a high-fat diet in Swiss mice. Cellular parameters in macrophages, such as cell viability (MTT), the production and release of nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), cell spreading, cell adhesion and phagocytosis were determined. Our results showed that treatment with B. trimera prevented the mentioned conditions, except for the production of hydrogen peroxide. B. trimera prevented the development of obesity and associated comorbidities, as well as activation of macrophages. In conclusion, B. trimera is able to prevent obesity and metabolic disorders and macrophages activation, minimizing inflammation and validating the popular use of this plant tea. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ethnopharmacology in Latin America)
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9 pages, 290 KiB  
Article
Factors and Practices Associated with Self-Medicating Children among Mexican Parents
by Angel Josabad Alonso-Castro, Yeniley Ruiz-Noa, Gissela Cristel Martínez-de la Cruz, Marco Antonio Ramírez-Morales, Martha Alicia Deveze-Álvarez, Raymundo Escutia-Gutiérrez, Candy Carranza-Álvarez, Fabiola Domínguez, Juan José Maldonado-Miranda and Alan Joel Ruiz-Padilla
Pharmaceuticals 2022, 15(9), 1078; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph15091078 - 29 Aug 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2389
Abstract
Background: Pediatric self-medication is based on the subjective interpretation of symptoms in children by the mother or an adult, the decision to self-medicate is made by a third party. The objective of this work is to provide information on the factors and practices [...] Read more.
Background: Pediatric self-medication is based on the subjective interpretation of symptoms in children by the mother or an adult, the decision to self-medicate is made by a third party. The objective of this work is to provide information on the factors and practices associated with the self-medication of children among parents in Mexico. Methods: A cross-sectional and descriptive study was conducted between June 2020 and December 2021 on Mexican parents with children under 12 years of age. Online questionnaires were completed with sections on sociodemographic characteristics, use of medicines or medicinal plants and their treated symptoms, sources of collection, and their recommendation. Results: A total of 9905 online surveys were completed with representation from the 32 states of Mexico, and the prevalence of self-medication was 49.6% (n = 4908). Associated factors were age, having two or more children, children with chronic illnesses, medium educational level, unemployment or employment unrelated to health, medium and high socioeconomic level, and lack of medical security. Respondents self-medicated their children on the recommendation of a family member or friend (55.8%), and own initiative (28%). The most used medication was VapoRub (61.3%), followed by paracetamol (56.9%) and chamomile (33.1%), and the most prevalent symptoms were flu/flow (47.7%) followed by cough (34.2%). The main reasons were perceiving symptoms as not serious (69.9%) and reusing medications (51.9%). Conclusions: There is a high prevalence of self-medication in children in Mexico, mainly associated with children with chronic diseases and families with three or more children. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ethnopharmacology in Latin America)
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9 pages, 649 KiB  
Article
Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Piquerol Isolated from Piqueria trinervia Cav.
by Nimsi Campos-Xolalpa, Ana Laura Esquivel-Campos, Rubria Marlen Martínez-Casares, Salud Pérez-Gutiérrez, Julia Pérez-Ramos and Ernesto Sánchez-Mendoza
Pharmaceuticals 2022, 15(7), 771; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph15070771 - 21 Jun 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1611
Abstract
Background: Inflammation is a complex process as a response to several stimuli, such as infection, a chemical irritant, and the attack of a foreign body. Piquerol was isolated from Piqueria trinervia, and its anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using in vivo and in [...] Read more.
Background: Inflammation is a complex process as a response to several stimuli, such as infection, a chemical irritant, and the attack of a foreign body. Piquerol was isolated from Piqueria trinervia, and its anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using in vivo and in vitro models. Methods: Piquerol is a monoterpene that was identified using NMR, FT-IR spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry analysis. The anti-inflammatory activity was tested in vivo in ear edema induced with TPA in mice. Piquerol was also tested on J774A.1 macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and the levels of NO, NF-κB, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10 were determined using ELISA. Results: The results show that piquerol diminished ear edema (66.19%). At 150.51 µM, it also inhibited the levels of NO (31.7%), TNF-α (49.8%), IL-1β (69.9%), IL-6 (47.5%), and NF-κB (26.7%), and increased the production of IL-10 (62.3%). Piquerol has a membrane stabilization property in erythrocyte, and at 100 µg/mL, the membrane protection was of 86.17%. Conclusions: Piquerol has anti-inflammatory activity, and its possible mechanism of action is through the inhibition of pro-inflammatory mediators. This compound could be a candidate in the development of new drugs to treat inflammatory problems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ethnopharmacology in Latin America)
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Review

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15 pages, 1212 KiB  
Review
Infoveillance and Critical Analysis of the Systematically Reviewed Literature on Dimethyltryptamine and the “God Molecule”
by Ahmed Al-Imam, Marek A. Motyka, Beata Hoffmann, Anita Magowska and Michal Michalak
Pharmaceuticals 2023, 16(6), 831; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph16060831 - 02 Jun 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2160
Abstract
Aboriginals of Latin America have used DMT (N,N-dimethyltryptamine) in ritualistic ceremonies for centuries. Nevertheless, there are limited data on web users’ interest concerning DMT. We aim to review the literature and explore the spatial–temporal mapping of online search behavior [...] Read more.
Aboriginals of Latin America have used DMT (N,N-dimethyltryptamine) in ritualistic ceremonies for centuries. Nevertheless, there are limited data on web users’ interest concerning DMT. We aim to review the literature and explore the spatial–temporal mapping of online search behavior concerning DMT, 5-MeO-DMT, and the Colorado River toad via Google Trends over the past 10 years (2012–2022) while using 5 search terms: “N,N-dimethyltryptamine”, “5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine”, “5-MeO-DMT”, “Colorado River toad”, and “Sonoran Desert toad”. Literature analysis conveyed novel information concerning DMT’s past shamanic and present-day illicit uses, showcased experimental trials on DMT uses for neurotic disorders, and highlighted potential uses in modern medicine. DMT’s geographic mapping signals originated mainly from Eastern Europe, the Middle East, and Far East Asia. In contrast, 5-MeO-DMT signals prevailed in Western Europe, Indo-China, and Australasia. Signals concerning the toad originated from the Americas, Australia, India, the Philippines, and Europe. Web users searched the most for “N,N-dimethyltryptamine” and “5-MeO-DMT”. Three terms exhibited significant upgoing linear temporal trends: “5-MeO-DMT” (β = 0.37, p < 0.001), “Sonoran Desert toad” (β = 0.23, p < 0.001), and “Colorado River toad” (β = 0.17, p < 0.001). The literature and Infoedemiology data provided crucial information concerning DMT’s legal status, risks and benefits, and potential for abuse. Nonetheless, we opine that in the upcoming decades, physicians might use DMT to manage neurotic disorders pending a change in its legal status. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ethnopharmacology in Latin America)
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40 pages, 1798 KiB  
Review
Medicinal Plants from Latin America with Wound Healing Activity: Ethnomedicine, Phytochemistry, Preclinical and Clinical Studies—A Review
by Anuar Salazar-Gómez and Angel Josabad Alonso-Castro
Pharmaceuticals 2022, 15(9), 1095; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph15091095 - 31 Aug 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 4737
Abstract
Latin America is a multicultural region with ancient traditional medicine. There is extensive knowledge of the use of medicinal plants for wound healing in this region. Nevertheless, many of these medicinal plants lack pharmacological, toxicological, and chemical studies. This review focuses on the [...] Read more.
Latin America is a multicultural region with ancient traditional medicine. There is extensive knowledge of the use of medicinal plants for wound healing in this region. Nevertheless, many of these medicinal plants lack pharmacological, toxicological, and chemical studies. This review focuses on the ethnomedicinal, phytochemical, and pharmacological (preclinical and clinical) studies of medicinal plants with wound healing activity, from Latin America. An electronic database search was conducted by consulting scientific articles and books. A total of 305 plant species with wound healing activity were recorded, based on traditional medicine. Most medicinal plants used in wound healing in Latin America are topically administered; their methods of preparation are mainly by water infusion from aerial parts. Only thirty-five percent of medicinal plants used in traditional medicine for wound healing have been experimentally validated for their pharmacological effects, and the wound healing activity of five medicinal plants has been studied in clinical trials. In all, 25 compounds (mostly terpenes and flavonoids) have been isolated from medicinal plants with wound healing activity; therefore, extensive work is necessary for a multidisciplinary approach to evaluate the wound healing effects of medicinal plants in Latin America. The mechanism of action of medicinal plants, their toxicological actions on the skin, and their bioactive compounds, have yet to be investigated. This review on the ethnomedicinal, phytochemical, and pharmacological studies, of medicinal plants from Latin America with wound healing activity, offers promising data for further studies, as well as providing new insights into their possible role in wound care. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ethnopharmacology in Latin America)
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Other

19 pages, 1829 KiB  
Systematic Review
Schinopsis brasiliensis Engler—Phytochemical Properties, Biological Activities, and Ethnomedicinal Use: A Scoping Review
by Ladaha Pequeno Menna Barreto Linhares, Bruna Vanessa Nunes Pereira, Maria Karoline Gomes Dantas, Wislayne Mirelly da Silva Bezerra, Daniela de Araújo Viana-Marques, Luiza Rayanna Amorim de Lima and Pedro Henrique Sette-de-Souza
Pharmaceuticals 2022, 15(8), 1028; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph15081028 - 20 Aug 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2135
Abstract
Brazil has the most incredible biodiversity globally and has a vast storehouse of molecules to be discovered. However, there are no pharmacological and phytochemical studies on most native plants. Parts of Schinopsis brasiliensis Engler, a tree from the Anacardiaceae family, are used by [...] Read more.
Brazil has the most incredible biodiversity globally and has a vast storehouse of molecules to be discovered. However, there are no pharmacological and phytochemical studies on most native plants. Parts of Schinopsis brasiliensis Engler, a tree from the Anacardiaceae family, are used by several traditional communities to treat injuries and health problems. The objective of this scoping review was to summarize the pharmacological information about S. brasiliensis, from ethnobotanical to phytochemical and biological studies. Data collection concerning the geographical distribution of S. brasiliensis specimens was achieved through the Reflora Virtual Herbarium. The study’s protocol was drafted using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR). The search strategy used the keyword “Schinopsis brasiliensis” in the databases: PUBMED, EMBASE, SCOPUS, Science Direct, Web of Science, SciFinder, and SciELO. Rayyan was used for the selection of eligible studies. In total, 35 studies were included in the paper. The most recurrent therapeutic indications were for general pain, flu and inflammation. The bark was the most studied part of the plant. The most used preparation method was decoction and infusion, followed by syrup. Phytochemical investigations indicate the presence of tannins, flavonoids, phenols, and polyphenols. Most of the substances were found in the plant’s leaf and bark. Important biological activities were reported, such as antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory. S. brasiliensis is used mainly by communities in the semi-arid region of northeastern Brazil to treat several diseases. Pharmacological and phytochemical studies together provide scientific support for the popular knowledge of the medicinal use of S. brasiliensis. In vitro and in vivo analyses reported antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, cytotoxic, photoprotective, preservative, molluscicidal, larvicidal, and pupicidal effects. It is essential to highlight the need for future studies that elucidate the mechanisms of action of these phytocompounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ethnopharmacology in Latin America)
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