Natural Products for the Treatment of Breast Cancer

A special issue of Pharmaceuticals (ISSN 1424-8247). This special issue belongs to the section "Natural Products".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2023) | Viewed by 16319

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
School of Medicine, Faculty of Health, Deakin University, 75 Pigdons Road, Waurn Ponds, VIC 3216, Australia
Interests: novel therapeutics in cancer treatment; breast cancer; drug development
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
The Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Woodville South, SA, Australia
Interests: breast cancer; gynaecological cancer; GI cancers; HCC; lung cancers

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nature has always been a key inspiration in drug development, in particular anti-cancer drug development. Despite advances in cancer treatment procedures including radiotherapy and surgery, medicinal-mediated treatment, most importantly chemotherapy, is still a mainstay of treatment for most tumours. Chemotherapy is, however, accompanied by side effects. Tumour resistance and adverse reactions limit the patients' compliance and tumour response to treatment. Therefore, the search to find the best treatment options continues.

Breast cancer is the most prevalent form of cancer worldwide. This Special Issue aims to integrate recent improvements in drug development for breast cancer with an effort to expand the knowledge on a wide range of topics in this field. I would like to sincerely invite you to contribute to this Special Issue with your research articles and reviews, which include but are not limited to natural medicines targeting the treatment of early or advanced breast cancer with an emphasis on treatments aimed to inhibit and treat metastasis, especially brain metastasis, nanomedicines, single or combination treatments, targeted treatments and novel targeted formulations, animal models, and clinical outcomes.

Dr. Maryam Nakhjavani
Dr. Vy Broadbridge
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • natural medicine
  • breast cancer
  • drug development
  • metastasis
  • herbal medicine
  • plant-derived medicine
  • marine-derived medicine
  • traditional herbal medicine
  • venom
  • poison

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

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13 pages, 2408 KiB  
Article
The Autoxidized Mixture of (-)-Epicatechin Contains Procyanidins and Shows Antiproliferative and Apoptotic Activity in Breast Cancer Cells
by Yazmin Osorio-Cruz, Ivonne María Olivares-Corichi, José Correa-Basurto, José Arnold González-Garrido, Fernando Pereyra-Vergara, Gildardo Rivera and José Rubén García-Sánchez
Pharmaceuticals 2024, 17(2), 258; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph17020258 - 17 Feb 2024
Viewed by 629
Abstract
For this study, procyanidins generated through the autoxidation of (-)-epicatechin (Flavan-3-ol) under mildly acidic conditions (pH = 6.0) were characterized with ultra high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Two procyanidins (types A and B) and a mix of oligomers [...] Read more.
For this study, procyanidins generated through the autoxidation of (-)-epicatechin (Flavan-3-ol) under mildly acidic conditions (pH = 6.0) were characterized with ultra high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Two procyanidins (types A and B) and a mix of oligomers were generated through the autoxidation of (-)-epicatechin. The antiproliferative activity of this mixture of procyanidins on MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-436, and MCF-7 breast cancer cells was evaluated. The results indicate that the procyanidin mixture inhibited the proliferation of breast cancer cells, where the activity of the procyanidin mixture was stronger than that of (-)-epicatechin. Moreover, the mechanism underlying the antiproliferative activity of procyanidins was investigated. The resulting data demonstrate that the procyanidins induced apoptotic cell death in a manner selective to cancerous cells. In particular, they caused the activation of intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways in the breast cancer cells. The findings obtained in this study demonstrate that the generation of procyanidins in vitro by the autoxidation of (-)-epicatechin has potential for the development of anti-breast cancer agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products for the Treatment of Breast Cancer)
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13 pages, 2960 KiB  
Article
Anthocyanin Oligomers Induce Apoptosis and Autophagy by Inhibiting the mTOR Signaling Pathway in Human Breast Cancer Cells
by Min-Gu Lee, Hyun-Jin Hong and Kyung-Soo Nam
Pharmaceuticals 2024, 17(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph17010024 - 22 Dec 2023
Viewed by 808
Abstract
Anthocyanin oligomers (AOs) are phytochemicals synthesized by fermenting anthocyanins extracted from grape skins and are more biologically active than monomeric anthocyanins. In this study, we evaluate the effects of an AO on triple-negative MDA-MB-231 and HER2-overexpressing SK-BR-3 breast cancer cells. The cell viability [...] Read more.
Anthocyanin oligomers (AOs) are phytochemicals synthesized by fermenting anthocyanins extracted from grape skins and are more biologically active than monomeric anthocyanins. In this study, we evaluate the effects of an AO on triple-negative MDA-MB-231 and HER2-overexpressing SK-BR-3 breast cancer cells. The cell viability of MDA-MB-231 and SK-BR-3 cells was significantly inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner by AO treatment for 24 h, while delphinidin (a monomeric anthocyanin) had no effect on cell viability. In addition, the AO increased H2A.X phosphorylation (a marker of DNA damage), reduced RAD51 (a DNA repair protein) and survivin (a cell survival factor) protein levels, and induced apoptosis by caspase-3-dependent PARP1 cleavage in both cell lines. Surprisingly, the AO induced autophagy by increasing intracellular LC3-II puncta and LC3-II and p62 protein levels. In addition, the AO inhibited the mTOR pathway in MDA-MB-231 and SK-BR-3 cells by suppressing the HER2, EGFR1, and AKT pathways. These results demonstrate that the anti-cancer effect of the AO was due to the induction of apoptosis and autophagy via cleaved caspase-3-mediated PARP1 cleavage and mTOR pathway inhibition, respectively. Furthermore, our results suggest that anthocyanin oligomers could be considered potential candidates for breast cancer treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products for the Treatment of Breast Cancer)
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18 pages, 1773 KiB  
Article
Enhancing Tamoxifen Therapy with α-Mangostin: Synergistic Antiproliferative Effects on Breast Cancer Cells and Potential Reduced Endometrial Impact
by Rafael Vargas-Castro, Rocío García-Becerra, Lorenza Díaz, Euclides Avila, David Ordaz-Rosado, Samantha V. Bernadez-Vallejo, Saúl Cano-Colín, Javier Camacho, Fernando Larrea and Janice García-Quiroz
Pharmaceuticals 2023, 16(11), 1576; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph16111576 - 08 Nov 2023
Viewed by 964
Abstract
Breast cancer is the most prevalent neoplasia among women worldwide. For the estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) phenotype, tamoxifen is the standard hormonal therapy; however, it carries the risk of promoting endometrial carcinoma. Hence, we aimed to evaluate the antiproliferative effect of the phytochemical α-mangostin [...] Read more.
Breast cancer is the most prevalent neoplasia among women worldwide. For the estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) phenotype, tamoxifen is the standard hormonal therapy; however, it carries the risk of promoting endometrial carcinoma. Hence, we aimed to evaluate the antiproliferative effect of the phytochemical α-mangostin (AM) as a co-adjuvant alongside tamoxifen on breast cancer cells to improve its efficacy while reducing its adverse effects on endometrium. For this, ER+ breast cancer cells (MCF-7 and T-47D) and endometrial cells (N30) were treated with AM, 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OH-TMX), and their combination. Cell proliferation was evaluated using sulforhodamine B assay, and the pharmacological interaction was determined through the combination index and the dose reduction index calculation. The genes KCNH1, CCDN1, MKI67, and BIRC5 were amplified by real-time PCR as indicators of oncogenesis, cell cycle progression, cell proliferation, and apoptosis, respectively. Additionally, genes involved in ER signaling were analyzed. In breast cancer cells, the combination of AM with 4-OH-TMX showed a synergistic antiproliferative effect and favorable dose reduction. AM and 4-OH-TMX decreased KCNH1, CCND1, and BIRC5 gene expression. In endometrial cells, AM decreased MKI-67 gene expression, while it reverted the 4-OH-TMX-dependent CCND1 upregulation. This study establishes the benefits of incorporating AM as a co-adjuvant for first-line ER+ breast cancer therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products for the Treatment of Breast Cancer)
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19 pages, 4592 KiB  
Article
Prediction of Cell Migration in MDA-MB 231 and MCF-7 Human Breast Cancer Cells Treated with Albizia Lebbeck Methanolic Extract Using Multilinear Regression and Artificial Intelligence-Based Models
by Huzaifa Umar, Nahit Rizaner, Abdullahi Garba Usman, Maryam Rabiu Aliyu, Humphrey Adun, Umar Muhammad Ghali, Dilber Uzun Ozsahin and Sani Isah Abba
Pharmaceuticals 2023, 16(6), 858; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph16060858 - 08 Jun 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2174
Abstract
Breast cancer is a common cancer affecting women worldwide, and it progresses from breast tissue to other parts of the body through a process called metastasis. Albizia lebbeck is a valuable plant with medicinal properties due to some active biological macromolecules, and it’s [...] Read more.
Breast cancer is a common cancer affecting women worldwide, and it progresses from breast tissue to other parts of the body through a process called metastasis. Albizia lebbeck is a valuable plant with medicinal properties due to some active biological macromolecules, and it’s cultivated in subtropical and tropical regions of the world. This study reports the phytochemical compositions, the cytotoxic, anti-proliferative and anti-migratory potential of A. lebbeck methanolic (ALM) extract on strongly and weakly metastatic MDA-MB 231 and MCF-7 human breast cancer cells, respectively. Furthermore, we employed and compared an artificial neural network (ANN), an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), and multilinear regression analysis (MLR) to predict cell migration on the treated cancer cells with various concentrations of the extract using our experimental data. Lower concentrations of the ALM extract (10, 5 & 2.5 μg/mL) showed no significant effect. Higher concentrations (25, 50, 100 & 200 μg/mL) revealed a significant effect on the cytotoxicity and proliferation of the cells when compared with the untreated group (p < 0.05; n ≥ 3). Furthermore, the extract revealed a significant decrease in the motility index of the cells with increased extract concentrations (p < 0.05; n ≥ 3). The comparative study of the models observed that both the classical linear MLR and AI-based models could predict metastasis in MDA-MB 231 and MCF-7 cells. Overall, various ALM extract concentrations showed promising an-metastatic potential in both cells, with increased concentration and incubation period. The outcomes of MLR and AI-based models on our data revealed the best performance. They will provide future development in assessing the anti-migratory efficacies of medicinal plants in breast cancer metastasis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products for the Treatment of Breast Cancer)
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27 pages, 2328 KiB  
Article
Exploring the Multi-Faceted Potential of Carob (Ceratonia siliqua var. Rahma) Leaves from Morocco: A Comprehensive Analysis of Polyphenols Profile, Antimicrobial Activity, Cytotoxicity against Breast Cancer Cell Lines, and Genotoxicity
by Amine Elbouzidi, Mohamed Taibi, Hayat Ouassou, Sabir Ouahhoud, Douâae Ou-Yahia, El Hassania Loukili, Marouane Aherkou, Farid Mansouri, Noureddine Bencheikh, Salah Laaraj, Reda Bellaouchi, Ennouamane Saalaoui, Kaoutar Elfazazi, Abdelbasset Berrichi, Malika Abid and Mohamed Addi
Pharmaceuticals 2023, 16(6), 840; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph16060840 - 05 Jun 2023
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2167
Abstract
The botanical species Ceratonia siliqua L., commonly referred to as the Carob tree, and locally as “L’Kharrûb”, holds significance as an agro-sylvo-pastoral species, and is traditionally utilized in Morocco for treating a variety of ailments. This current investigation aims to ascertain the antioxidant, [...] Read more.
The botanical species Ceratonia siliqua L., commonly referred to as the Carob tree, and locally as “L’Kharrûb”, holds significance as an agro-sylvo-pastoral species, and is traditionally utilized in Morocco for treating a variety of ailments. This current investigation aims to ascertain the antioxidant, antimicrobial, and cytotoxic properties of the ethanolic extract of C. siliqua leaves (CSEE). Initially, we analyzed the chemical composition of CSEE through high-performance liquid chromatography with Diode-Array Detection (HPLC-DAD). Subsequently, we conducted various assessments, including DPPH scavenging capacity, β-carotene bleaching assay, ABTS scavenging, and total antioxidant capacity assays to evaluate the antioxidant activity of the extract. In this study, we investigated the antimicrobial properties of CSEE against five bacterial strains (two gram-positive, Staphylococcus aureus, and Enterococcus faecalis; and three gram-negative bacteria, Escherichia coli, Escherichia vekanda, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and two fungi (Candida albicans, and Geotrichum candidum). Additionally, we evaluated the cytotoxicity of CSEE on three human breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, and MDA-MB-436) and assessed the potential genotoxicity of the extract using the comet assay. Through HPLC-DAD analysis, we determined that phenolic acids and flavonoids were the primary constituents of the CSEE extract. The results of the DPPH test indicated a potent scavenging capacity of the extract with an IC50 of 302.78 ± 7.55 µg/mL, which was comparable to that of ascorbic acid with an IC50 of 260.24 ± 6.45 µg/mL. Similarly, the β-carotene test demonstrated an IC50 of 352.06 ± 12.16 µg/mL, signifying the extract’s potential to inhibit oxidative damage. The ABTS assay revealed IC50 values of 48.13 ± 3.66 TE µmol/mL, indicating a strong ability of CSEE to scavenge ABTS radicals, and the TAC assay demonstrated an IC50 value of 165 ± 7.66 µg AAE/mg. The results suggest that the CSEE extract had potent antioxidant activity. Regarding its antimicrobial activity, the CSEE extract was effective against all five tested bacterial strains, indicating its broad-spectrum antibacterial properties. However, it only showed moderate activity against the two tested fungal strains, suggesting it may not be as effective against fungi. The CSEE exhibited a noteworthy dose-dependent inhibitory activity against all the tested tumor cell lines in vitro. The extract did not induce DNA damage at the concentrations of 6.25, 12.5, 25, and 50 µg/mL, as assessed by the comet assay. However, the 100 µg/mL concentration of CSEE resulted in a significant genotoxic effect compared to the negative control. A computational analysis was conducted to determine the physicochemical and pharmacokinetic characteristics of the constituent molecules present in the extract. The Prediction of Activity Spectra of Substances (PASS) test was employed to forecast the potential biological activities of these molecules. Additionally, the toxicity of the molecules was evaluated using the Protox II webserver. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products for the Treatment of Breast Cancer)
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18 pages, 6512 KiB  
Article
Morin Sensitizes MDA-MB-231 Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Cells to Doxorubicin Cytotoxicity by Suppressing FOXM1 and Attenuating EGFR/STAT3 Signaling Pathways
by Sushma Maharjan, Min-Gu Lee, So-Young Kim, Kyu-Shik Lee and Kyung-Soo Nam
Pharmaceuticals 2023, 16(5), 672; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph16050672 - 29 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1901
Abstract
Considerable emphasis is being placed on combinatorial chemotherapeutic/natural treatments for breast cancer. This study reveals the synergistic anti-tumor activity of morin and Doxorubicin (Dox) co-treatment on MDA-MB-231 triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell proliferation. Morin/Dox treatment promoted Dox uptake and induced DNA damage and [...] Read more.
Considerable emphasis is being placed on combinatorial chemotherapeutic/natural treatments for breast cancer. This study reveals the synergistic anti-tumor activity of morin and Doxorubicin (Dox) co-treatment on MDA-MB-231 triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell proliferation. Morin/Dox treatment promoted Dox uptake and induced DNA damage and formation of nuclear foci of p-H2A.X. Furthermore, DNA repair proteins, RAD51 and survivin, and cell cycle proteins, cyclin B1 and forkhead Box M1 (FOXM1), were induced by Dox alone but attenuated by morin/Dox co-treatment. In addition, Annexin V/7-AAD analysis revealed that necrotic cell death after co-treatment and apoptotic cell death by Dox alone were associated with the induction of cleaved PARP and caspase-7 without Bcl-2 family involvement. FOXM1 inhibition by thiostrepton showed that co-treatment caused FOXM1-mediated cell death. Furthermore, co-treatment downregulated the phosphorylation of EGFR and STAT3. Flow cytometry showed that the accumulation of cells in the G2/M and S phases might be linked to cellular Dox uptake, p21 upregulation, and cyclin D1 downregulation. Taken together, our study shows that the anti-tumor effect of morin/Dox co-treatment is due to the suppression of FOXM1 and attenuation of EGFR/STAT3 signaling pathways in MDA-MB-231 TNBC cells, which suggests that morin offers a means of improving therapeutic efficacy in TNBC patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products for the Treatment of Breast Cancer)
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14 pages, 1552 KiB  
Article
The Essential Oil from Oliveria decumbens Vent. (Apiaceae) as Inhibitor of Breast Cancer Cell (MCF-7) Growth
by Mandana Shariatzadeh, Akbar Karami, Ali Moghadam, Mahbobeh Lotfi, Filippo Maggi and Esmaeil Ebrahimie
Pharmaceuticals 2023, 16(1), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph16010059 - 30 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1987
Abstract
Oliveria decumbens Vent. is an aromatic and medicinal plant traditionally used in Iran for the treatment of infections, gastrointestinal diseases, cancer, and inflammation. This research was aimed at investigating the pharmacological potential of O. decumbens essential oil (OEO) and its main compounds, focusing [...] Read more.
Oliveria decumbens Vent. is an aromatic and medicinal plant traditionally used in Iran for the treatment of infections, gastrointestinal diseases, cancer, and inflammation. This research was aimed at investigating the pharmacological potential of O. decumbens essential oil (OEO) and its main compounds, focusing on OEO’s cytotoxic effects on MCF-7 breast cancer cells. OEO was obtained by hydro-distillation, and the chemical constituents were identified using GC-MS. Thymol, carvacrol, γ-terpinene, and p-cymene were the main OEO constituents. When MCF-7 cells were treated with OEO, the expressions of genes related to apoptosis (BIM and Bcl-2), tumor suppression (PTEN), and cell growth inhibition (AURKA), were evaluated using real-time PCR. Moreover, molecular docking was used for studying in silico the interaction of OEO principal compounds with PTEN and AURKA. The expression of AURKA was significantly reduced since the OEO treatment enhanced the expression of PTEN. Through in silico molecular docking, it was revealed that thymol, carvacrol, p-cymene, and γ-terpinene can activate PTEN and thus inhibit AURKA. Additionally, the DNA fragmentation assay, acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) double-staining assay, and real-time PCR highlighted the fact that the OEO treatment could activate apoptosis and inhibit cell proliferation. Therefore, OEO is a viable candidate to be employed in the pharmaceutical industry, specifically as a possible agent for cancer therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products for the Treatment of Breast Cancer)
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12 pages, 2996 KiB  
Article
3-Methoxy Carbazole Impedes the Growth of Human Breast Cancer Cells by Suppressing NF-κB Signaling Pathway
by Jowaher Alanazi, Aziz Unnisa, Muteb Alanazi, Tareq Nafea Alharby, Afrasim Moin, Syed Mohd Danish Rizvi, Talib Hussain, Amir Mahgoub Awadelkareem, AbdElmoneim O. Elkhalifa, Syed Shah Mohammed Faiyaz, Mohammad Khalid and Devegowda Vishakante Gowda
Pharmaceuticals 2022, 15(11), 1410; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph15111410 - 14 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1389
Abstract
Breast cancer represents the most frequently occurring cancer globally among women. As per the recent report of the World Health Organization (WHO), it was documented that by the end of the year 2020, approximately 7.8 million females were positively diagnosed with breast cancer [...] Read more.
Breast cancer represents the most frequently occurring cancer globally among women. As per the recent report of the World Health Organization (WHO), it was documented that by the end of the year 2020, approximately 7.8 million females were positively diagnosed with breast cancer and in 2020 alone, 685,000 casualties were documented due to breast cancer. The use of standard chemotherapeutics includes the frontline treatment option for patients; however, the concomitant side effects represent a major obstacle for their usage. Carbazole alkaloids are one such group of naturally-occurring bioactive compounds belonging to the Rutaceae family. Among the various carbazole alkaloids, 3-Methoxy carbazole or C13H11NO (MHC) is obtained from Clausena heptaphylla as well as from Clausena indica. In this study, MHC was investigated for its anti-breast cancer activity based on molecular interactions with specific proteins related to breast cancer, where the MHC had predicted binding affinities for NF-κB with −8.3 kcal/mol. Furthermore, to evaluate the biological activity of MHC, we studied its in vitro cytotoxic effects on MCF-7 cells. This alkaloid showed significant inhibitory effects and induced apoptosis, as evidenced by enhanced caspase activities and the cellular generation of ROS. It was observed that a treatment with MHC inhibited the gene expression of NF-kB in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. These results suggest that MHC could be a promising medical plant for breast cancer treatment. Further studies are needed to understand the molecular mechanisms behind the anticancer action of MHC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products for the Treatment of Breast Cancer)
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Review

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24 pages, 1808 KiB  
Review
Natural Compounds and Breast Cancer: Chemo-Preventive and Therapeutic Capabilities of Chlorogenic Acid and Cinnamaldehyde
by Yusuff Olayiwola and Lauren Gollahon
Pharmaceuticals 2024, 17(3), 361; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph17030361 - 11 Mar 2024
Viewed by 791
Abstract
Globally, breast cancer is not only the most frequently diagnosed cancer but also the leading cause of cancer death in women. Depending on breast cancer histotype, conventional breast cancer treatment options vary greatly in efficacy and accompanying side effects. Thus, there is a [...] Read more.
Globally, breast cancer is not only the most frequently diagnosed cancer but also the leading cause of cancer death in women. Depending on breast cancer histotype, conventional breast cancer treatment options vary greatly in efficacy and accompanying side effects. Thus, there is a need for more effective and safer strategies that impact breast cancer at all stages. Plant-based natural products are easily available, with them proving effective and inexpensive. Two such phytochemicals are chlorogenic acid and cinnamaldehyde. Studies have shown their efficacy against different molecular subtypes of breast cancers in vitro and in vivo. In this review, we discuss their current status in anticancer research with specific emphasis on chlorogenic acid and cinnamaldehyde. We describe their multiple mechanisms of action in destroying breast cancer cells, their potential uses, and the need for translational applications. We also include future directions for investigations to progress chlorogenic acid and cinnamaldehyde research from bench to bedside. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products for the Treatment of Breast Cancer)
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17 pages, 1976 KiB  
Review
Phytochemicals Targeting Ferroptosis: Therapeutic Opportunities and Prospects for Treating Breast Cancer
by Xinyi Zhao, Xueni Wang and Yuzhou Pang
Pharmaceuticals 2022, 15(11), 1360; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph15111360 - 05 Nov 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2351
Abstract
Ferroptosis, a recently discovered iron-dependent regulated cell death, has been implicated in the therapeutic responses of various cancers including breast cancer, making it a promising therapeutic target to manage this malignancy. Phytochemicals are conventional sources for medication development. Some phytochemicals have been utilized [...] Read more.
Ferroptosis, a recently discovered iron-dependent regulated cell death, has been implicated in the therapeutic responses of various cancers including breast cancer, making it a promising therapeutic target to manage this malignancy. Phytochemicals are conventional sources for medication development. Some phytochemicals have been utilized therapeutically to treat cancers as pharmaceutic agents or dietary supplements. Intriguingly, a considerable number of antitumor drugs derived from phytochemicals have been proven to be targeting ferroptosis, thus producing anticancer effects. In this review, we provide a short overview of the interaction between core ferroptosis modulators and breast cancer, illustrating how ferroptosis affects the destiny of breast cancer cells. We also systematically summarize the regulatory effects of phytochemicals on ferroptosis and emphasize their clinical applications in breast cancer suppression, which may accelerate the development of their therapeutic use in breast cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products for the Treatment of Breast Cancer)
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