Food Ingredients with Antimicrobial and Anti-inflammatory Activity against Infection of Periodontal Pathogens

A special issue of Pathogens (ISSN 2076-0817).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2023) | Viewed by 7647

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Division of Clinical Nutrition, Department of Comprehensive Rehabilitatiion, Osaka Prefecture University, Habikino 583-8555, Japan
Interests: periodontitis; food ingredient; antimicrobial activity; anti-inflammatory activity; fatty acid; peptide; amino acid; carbohydrate; vitamin; minerals; phytochemical; polyphenol

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Periodontal disease, a worldwide health problem because of its high prevalence and incidence, is a destructive inflammatory disorder caused by the long-term infection with periodontal pathogenic bacteria. Not only the periodontitis eventually leads to the tooth loss but also it associated with a number of systemic diseases or complications, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, Alzheimer disease, osteoporosis and preterm low birth weight. Control of the oral biofilm is a key to prevent and treat the periodontitis. Currently, chemical compounds such as antibiotics or medicated rinses have been used for control of the oral microbes. However, the chemicals have risks for the development of drug-resistant bacteria and adverse effects. In recent years, natural products and functional ingredients involved in them have been highlighted on antimicrobial and/or anti-inflammatory activities for potential prophylactic or therapeutic agents against periodontal infection. In particular, many reports showed that plant-derived food ingredients such as tea catechin and berry flavonoids have antibacterial activity against the pathogenic bacteria of periodontal disease. Compared to chemicals, food ingredients originated from food we ingest daily or for long time are basically safer and appear promising for future oral hygiene.

In this special issue, food ingredients including fatty acids, peptides, amino acids, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals and phytochemicals are focused on antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities against infection of periodontal pathogens. The aim of this issue is to provide the latest researches on food ingredients with antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities against infection of periodontal pathogens. Both original research and review articles will be accepted. Topics of interest include, but are not limited to the following areas:

(1) novel food ingredients with antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity

(2) novel activity of well-known food ingredients

(3) the mechanism of antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity by food ingredients

Prof. Dr. Shigeki Kamitani
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Periodontitis
  • Food ingredient
  • Antimicrobial activity
  • Anti-inflammatory activity
  • Fatty acid
  • Peptide
  • Amino acid
  • Carbohydrate
  • Vitamin
  • Minerals
  • Phytochemical
  • Polyphenol

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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11 pages, 1705 KiB  
Article
Analysis of the Effects of Food Additives on Porphyromonas gingivalis
by Mai Shinohara, Miki Maetani, Chiharu Kitada, Yasuko Nishigami, Ayaka Yazawa and Shigeki Kamitani
Pathogens 2022, 11(1), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11010065 - 04 Jan 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1772
Abstract
This study aims to investigate six food additives (octanoic acid, decanoic acid, acesulfame K, aspartame, saccharin, and sucralose) used in foods for the elderly or people with dysphagia because of the effect of these food additives on Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis), [...] Read more.
This study aims to investigate six food additives (octanoic acid, decanoic acid, acesulfame K, aspartame, saccharin, and sucralose) used in foods for the elderly or people with dysphagia because of the effect of these food additives on Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis), which is a keystone pathogen of periodontal diseases. The growth of P. gingivalis was inhibited by 5 mM octanoic acid, 1.25 mM decanoic acid, 1.25% acesulfame K, 0.0625% aspartame, 0.03125% saccharin, and 0.625% sucralose. In addition, these food additives showed bactericidal activity for planktonic P. gingivalis (5 mM octanoic acid, 5 mM decanoic acid, 0.25% aspartame, 0.25% saccharin, and 5% sucralose). Moreover, biofilm formation was inhibited by 10 mM octanoic acid, 10 mM decanoic acid, 10% acesulfame K, 0.35% aspartame, 0.5% saccharin, and 7.5% sucralose. Moreover, the same concentration of these food additives without aspartame killed P. gingivalis in the biofilm. Aspartame and sucralose did not show cytotoxicity to human cell lines at concentrations that affected P. gingivalis. These findings may be useful in clarifying the effects of food additives on periodontopathogenic bacteria. Full article
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12 pages, 1849 KiB  
Article
Curry Leaf Triggers Cell Death of P. gingivalis with Membrane Blebbing
by Ryoma Nakao, Tsuyoshi Ikeda, Soichi Furukawa and Yasushi Morinaga
Pathogens 2021, 10(10), 1286; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10101286 - 06 Oct 2021
Viewed by 3303
Abstract
Periodontal disease has become a serious public health problem, as indicated by accumulating evidence that periodontal disease is not only a major cause of tooth loss but is also associated with various systemic diseases. The present study assessed the anti-bacterial activities of three [...] Read more.
Periodontal disease has become a serious public health problem, as indicated by accumulating evidence that periodontal disease is not only a major cause of tooth loss but is also associated with various systemic diseases. The present study assessed the anti-bacterial activities of three herbal products (curry leaf, clove, and cinnamon) against Porphyomonas gingivalis, a keystone pathogen for periodontal diseases. The curry leaf extract (CLE) showed the strongest growth inhibitory activity among them, and the activity was maintained even after extensive heat treatment. Of note, while clove and cinnamon extracts at sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations (sub-MICs) significantly enhanced the biofilm formation of P. gingivalis, CLE at sub-MIC did not have any effect on the biofilm formation. The MIC of CLE against P. gingivalis was higher than those against a wide range of other oral bacterial species. P. gingivalis cells were completely killed within 30 min after treatment with CLE. Spatiotemporal analysis using high-speed atomic force microscopy revealed that CLE immediately triggered aberrant membrane vesicle formation on the bacterial surface. Bacterial membrane potential assay revealed that CLE induced depolarization of the bacterial membrane. Taken together, these findings suggest the mechanism behind early bactericidal activity of CLE and its therapeutic applicability in patients with periodontal diseases. Full article
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Review

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27 pages, 331 KiB  
Review
Anti-Inflammatory Benefits of Food Ingredients in Periodontal Diseases
by Evangelos Papathanasiou, Reem Alreshaid and Mariely Araujo de Godoi
Pathogens 2023, 12(4), 520; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens12040520 - 27 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2033
Abstract
Periodontitis is a multi-faceted inflammatory disease that impacts the gingiva and the structures that support our teeth, and may eventually increase tooth mobility and the risk of tooth loss. Inflammation is a viable therapeutic target of periodontitis for both biologic (dietary) and host [...] Read more.
Periodontitis is a multi-faceted inflammatory disease that impacts the gingiva and the structures that support our teeth, and may eventually increase tooth mobility and the risk of tooth loss. Inflammation is a viable therapeutic target of periodontitis for both biologic (dietary) and host modulatory agents/drugs. Conventional therapeutic approaches for periodontitis, including nonsurgical or surgical periodontal therapy as well as occasional adjunctive antimicrobial therapy, have been only marginally effective. Malnutrition, or at least poor dietary habits, can be highly prevalent among patients with periodontal diseases. As several food nutrients can aid in periodontal healing and regeneration, there is a critical need to evaluate natural dietary sources and supplement ingredients that can counterbalance the inflammatory processes and improve the periodontal status of our patients. Here, we reviewed the current state of knowledge (search period: 2010 to 2022; PubMed and Web of Science) on the anti-inflammatory actions of food ingredients and supplements in clinical studies of patients with periodontal diseases. A diet that includes fruits and vegetables, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and supplements of vitamins and plant-derived compounds seems to counteract gingival inflammation and has a promising therapeutic impact in patients with periodontal diseases. Despite the positive indications that several nutrients can be used as an adjunct to periodontal therapy, additional studies with bigger sample sizes and longer follow-up periods are needed to elucidate their therapeutic benefits and the most effective doses and administration. Full article
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