Coronaviruses and Other Human Respiratory Viruses from “Regular” Circulating Agents to Emerging Pathogens and the One Health Concept

A special issue of Pathogens (ISSN 2076-0817). This special issue belongs to the section "Viral Pathogens".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2022) | Viewed by 51592

Special Issue Editor

Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Ste-Justine and Faculté de Médecine, Département de Microbiologie, Infectiologie et Immunologie, Université de Montréal, Montreal, QC H3T 1J4, Canada
Interests: respiratory viruses; neuroinvasion; CNS; coronavirus; antivirals; virus-host interaction; viral cell-to-cell propagation; airway; zoonosis; emerging virus; viral evolution; adaptation
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

As Collection Editor of this forthcoming Topical Collection on Coronaviruses and Other Respiratory Viruses infecting Humans, I am pleased to invite you, as an expert, to submit a manuscript for publication in Pathogens (Impact Factor 3.492).

More than 200 different viruses can infect the human airway. Among them, several agents, such as RSV (respiratory syncytial virus), influenza, bocaviruses, metapneumovirus, rhinoviruses, enteroviruses, coronaviruses or adenoviruses circulate worldwide every year and are associated with a plethora of symptoms. Usually associated with upper respiratory tract infections (URI), these circulating agents generally cause mild diseases but may also produce lower respiratory tract infections. Indeed, in vulnerable populations, opportunistic respiratory viruses can reach the lower respiratory tract, causing more severe illnesses (bronchitis, bronchiolitis, pneumonia, exacerbations of asthma as well as respiratory distress syndrome). In addition to the prevalent pathogens mentioned above that infect millions of individuals every year, viruses existing in an animal reservoir occasionally cross the species barrier and gain the ability to infect human beings. These zoonoses may lead epidemic or pandemic (SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, Influenza, SARS-CoV2), which may have catastrophic repercussions usually correlating with more severe symptoms within the respiratory tract and sometimes with extra-respiratory tract manifestations and even death. In order to better understand the emergence of the latter viruses, the One Health concept (an integrative approach for the study of the interaction between humans, animals and the environment) is definitely helpful. Altogether, viral infections of the respiratory tract represent a major problem for human health, imposing a tremendous economic burden. These very common infections are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in humans worldwide, causing critical problems in public health, especially in children, the elderly and immune-compromised individuals. 

Dr. Marc Desforges
Collection Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Pathogens is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Respiratory viruses
  • neuroinvasion
  • human coronavirus
  • RSV
  • Influenza
  • Nipah
  • bocavirus
  • parainfluenza
  • adenovirus
  • rhinovirus
  • enterovirus
  • antivirals
  • virus-host interaction
  • viral cell-to-cell propagation
  • airway
  • zoonosis
  • emerging virus
  • SARS-CoV
  • MERS-CoV
  • H1N1
  • H5N1

Published Papers (10 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review, Other

12 pages, 1196 KiB  
Article
Viral Etiological Agent(s) of Respiratory Tract Infections in Symptomatic Individuals during the Second Wave of COVID-19 Pandemic: A Single Drive-Thru Mobile Collection Site Study
Pathogens 2022, 11(4), 475; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11040475 - 15 Apr 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2774
Abstract
One of the tools to contain the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic was to increase the number of performed tests and to improve the access to diagnostics. To this effect, mobile collection sites (MCSs) were established. This study was performed on samples collected at the MCS [...] Read more.
One of the tools to contain the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic was to increase the number of performed tests and to improve the access to diagnostics. To this effect, mobile collection sites (MCSs) were established. This study was performed on samples collected at the MCS between November 2020 and March 2021. We aimed to confirm/exclude SARS-CoV-2, differentiate SARS-CoV-2 variants, and detect other respiratory pathogens. SARS-CoV-2 and other respiratory viruses were identified by RT-qPCRs. A total of 876 (46.35%) SARS-CoV-2 positive specimens in the diagnostic tests were identified. The wild-type variant was determined in 667 (76.14%) samples; the remaining 209 (23.86%) samples specimens were identified as Alpha variant. A total of 51 (5.6%) non-SARS-CoV-2 cases were detected in retrospective studies. These accounted for 33 cases of mono-infection including rhinovirus (RV), human adenovirus (HAdV), human metapneumovirus (HMPV), enterovirus (EV), and influenza virus, and 18 cases of co-infection (SARS-CoV-2 with RV or HAdV or HMPV, and RV with EV). Our research shows that the results obtained from the MCS have value in epidemiological studies, reflecting national trends on a micro scale. Although the spread of COVID-19 is a major public health concern, SARS-CoV-2 is not the only pathogen responsible for respiratory infections. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 2417 KiB  
Article
Scanning Electron Microscopic Findings on Respiratory Organs of Some Naturally Infected Dromedary Camels with the Lineage-B of the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in Saudi Arabia—2018
Pathogens 2021, 10(4), 420; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10040420 - 01 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2267
Abstract
The currently known animal reservoir for MERS-CoV is the dromedary camel. The clinical pattern of the MERS-CoV field infection in dromedary camels is not yet fully studied well. Some pathological changes and the detection of the MERS-CoV antigens by immunohistochemistry have been recently [...] Read more.
The currently known animal reservoir for MERS-CoV is the dromedary camel. The clinical pattern of the MERS-CoV field infection in dromedary camels is not yet fully studied well. Some pathological changes and the detection of the MERS-CoV antigens by immunohistochemistry have been recently reported. However, the nature of these changes by the scanning electron microscope (SEM) was not revealed. The objective of this study was to document some changes in the respiratory organs induced by the natural MERS-CoV infection using the SEM. We previously identified three positive animals naturally infected with MERS-CoV and two other negative animals. Previous pathological studies on the positive animals showed varying degrees of alterations. MERS-CoV-S and MERS-CoV-Nc proteins were detected in the organs of positive animals. In the current study, we used the same tissues and sections for the SEM examination. We established a histopathology lesion scoring system by the SEM for the nasal turbinate and trachea. Our results showed various degrees of involvement per animal. The main observed characteristic findings are massive ciliary loss, ciliary disorientation, and goblet cell hyperplasia, especially in the respiratory organs, particularly the nasal turbinate and trachea in some animals. The lungs of some affected animals showed signs of marked interstitial pneumonia with damage to the alveolar walls. The partial MERS-CoV-S gene sequencing from the nasal swabs of some dromedary camels admitted to this slaughterhouse confirms the circulating strains belong to clade-B of MERS-CoV. These results confirm the respiratory tropism of the virus and the detection of the virus in the nasal cavity. Further studies are needed to explore the pathological alterations induced by MERS-CoV infection in various body organs of the MERS-CoV naturally infected dromedary camels. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

9 pages, 6614 KiB  
Article
Pattern of Respiratory Viruses among Pilgrims during 2019 Hajj Season Who Sought Healthcare Due to Severe Respiratory Symptoms
Pathogens 2021, 10(3), 315; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10030315 - 08 Mar 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2321
Abstract
The aim of our study was to define the spectrum of viral infections in pilgrims with acute respiratory tract illnesses presenting to healthcare facilities around the holy places in Makkah, Saudi Arabia during the 2019 Hajj pilgrimage. During the five days of Hajj, [...] Read more.
The aim of our study was to define the spectrum of viral infections in pilgrims with acute respiratory tract illnesses presenting to healthcare facilities around the holy places in Makkah, Saudi Arabia during the 2019 Hajj pilgrimage. During the five days of Hajj, a total of 185 pilgrims were enrolled in the study. Nasopharyngeal swabs (NPSs) of 126/185 patients (68.11%) tested positive for one or more respiratory viruses by PCR. Among the 126 pilgrims whose NPS were PCR positive: (a) there were 93/126 (74%) with a single virus infection, (b) 33/126 (26%) with coinfection with more than one virus (up to four viruses): of these, 25/33 cases had coinfection with two viruses; 6/33 were infected with three viruses, while the remaining 2/33 patients had infection with four viruses. Human rhinovirus (HRV) was the most common detected viruses with 53 cases (42.06%), followed by 27 (21.43%) cases of influenza A (H1N1), and 23 (18.25%) cases of influenza A other than H1N1. Twenty-five cases of CoV-229E (19.84%) were detected more than other coronavirus members (5 CoV-OC43 (3.97%), 4 CoV-HKU1 (3.17%), and 1 CoV-NL63 (0.79%)). PIV-3 was detected in 8 cases (6.35%). A single case (0.79%) of PIV-1 and PIV-4 were found. HMPV represented 5 (3.97%), RSV and influenza B 4 (3.17%) for each, and Parechovirus 1 (0.79%). Enterovirus, Bocavirus, and M. pneumoniae were not detected. Whether identification of viral nucleic acid represents nasopharyngeal carriage or specific causal etiology of RTI remains to be defined. Large controlled cohort studies (pre-Hajj, during Hajj, and post-Hajj) are required to define the carriage rates and the specific etiology and causal roles of specific individual viruses or combination of viruses in the pathogenesis of respiratory tract infections in pilgrims participating in the annual Hajj. Studies of the specific microbial etiology of respiratory track infections (RTIs) at mass gathering religious events remain a priority, especially in light of the novel SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 1313 KiB  
Article
Seasonality of Non-SARS, Non-MERS Coronaviruses and the Impact of Meteorological Factors
Pathogens 2021, 10(2), 187; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10020187 - 09 Feb 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1909
Abstract
Background: Seasonality is a characteristic of some respiratory viruses. The aim of our study was to evaluate the seasonality and the potential effects of different meteorological factors on the detection rate of the non-SARS coronavirus detection by PCR. Methods: We performed a retrospective [...] Read more.
Background: Seasonality is a characteristic of some respiratory viruses. The aim of our study was to evaluate the seasonality and the potential effects of different meteorological factors on the detection rate of the non-SARS coronavirus detection by PCR. Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of 12,763 respiratory tract sample results (288 positive and 12,475 negative) for non-SARS, non-MERS coronaviruses (NL63, 229E, OC43, HKU1). The effect of seven single weather factors on the coronavirus detection rate was fitted in a logistic regression model with and without adjusting for other weather factors. Results: Coronavirus infections followed a seasonal pattern peaking from December to March and plunged from July to September. The seasonal effect was less pronounced in immunosuppressed patients compared to immunocompetent patients. Different automatic variable selection processes agreed on selecting the predictors temperature, relative humidity, cloud cover and precipitation as remaining predictors in the multivariable logistic regression model, including all weather factors, with low ambient temperature, low relative humidity, high cloud cover and high precipitation being linked to increased coronavirus detection rates. Conclusions: Coronavirus infections followed a seasonal pattern, which was more pronounced in immunocompetent patients compared to immunosuppressed patients. Several meteorological factors were associated with the coronavirus detection rate. However, when mutually adjusting for all weather factors, only temperature, relative humidity, precipitation and cloud cover contributed independently to predicting the coronavirus detection rate. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research, Other

26 pages, 3110 KiB  
Review
COVID-19: Diabetes Perspective—Pathophysiology and Management
Pathogens 2023, 12(2), 184; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens12020184 - 25 Jan 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2598
Abstract
Recent evidence relating to the impact of COVID-19 on people with diabetes is limited but continues to emerge. COVID-19 pneumonia is a newly identified illness spreading rapidly throughout the world and causes many disabilities and fatal deaths. Over the ensuing 2 years, the [...] Read more.
Recent evidence relating to the impact of COVID-19 on people with diabetes is limited but continues to emerge. COVID-19 pneumonia is a newly identified illness spreading rapidly throughout the world and causes many disabilities and fatal deaths. Over the ensuing 2 years, the indirect effects of the pandemic on healthcare delivery have become prominent, along with the lingering effects of the virus on those directly infected. Diabetes is a commonly identified risk factor that contributes not only to the severity and mortality of COVID-19 patients, but also to the associated complications, including acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and multi-organ failure. Diabetic patients are highly affected due to increased viral entry into the cells and decreased immunity. Several hypotheses to explain the increased incidence and severity of COVID-19 infection in people with diabetes have been proposed and explained in detail recently. On the other hand, 20–50% of COVID-19 patients reported new-onset hyperglycemia without diabetes and new-onset diabetes, suggesting the two-way interactions between COVID-19 and diabetes. A systematic review is required to confirm diabetes as a complication in those patients diagnosed with COVID-19. Diabetes and diabetes-related complications in COVID-19 patients are primarily due to the acute illness caused during the SARS-CoV-2 infection followed by the release of glucocorticoids, catecholamines, and pro-inflammatory cytokines, which have been shown to drive hyperglycemia positively. This review provides brief insights into the potential mechanisms linking COVID-19 and diabetes, and presents clinical management recommendations for better handling of the disease. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

26 pages, 1227 KiB  
Review
An Overview of the Pathogenesis, Transmission, Diagnosis, and Management of Endemic Human Coronaviruses: A Reflection on the Past and Present Episodes and Possible Future Outbreaks
Pathogens 2021, 10(9), 1108; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10091108 - 30 Aug 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3744
Abstract
The outbreak of the 2019 coronavirus pandemic caught the world by surprise in late 2019 and has held it hostage for months with an increasing number of infections and deaths. Although coronavirus was first discovered in the 1960s and was known to cause [...] Read more.
The outbreak of the 2019 coronavirus pandemic caught the world by surprise in late 2019 and has held it hostage for months with an increasing number of infections and deaths. Although coronavirus was first discovered in the 1960s and was known to cause respiratory infection in humans, no information was available about the epidemic pattern of the virus until the past two decades. This review addresses the pathogenesis, transmission dynamics, diagnosis, management strategies, the pattern of the past and present events, and the possibility of future outbreaks of the endemic human coronaviruses. Several studies have described bats as presumptive natural reservoirs of coronaviruses. In essence, the identification of a diverse group of similar SARS coronaviruses in bats suggests the possibility of a future epidemic due to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-like) coronaviruses originating from different reservoir hosts. The study also identified a lack of vaccines to prevent human coronavirus infections in humans in the past, however, the recent breakthrough in vaccine discovery and approval for emergency use for the treatment of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 is commendable. The high rates of genomic substitution and recombination due to errors in RNA replication and the potential for independent species crossing suggest the chances of an entirely new strain evolving. Therefore, rapid research efforts should be deployed for vaccination to combat the COVID-19 pandemic and prevent a possible future outbreak. More sensitization and enlightenment on the need to adopt good personal hygiene practices, social distancing, and scientific evaluation of existing medications with promising antiviral effects against SARS-CoV-2 is required. In addition, intensive investigations to unravel and validate the possible reservoirs, the intermediate host, as well as insight into the ability of the virus to break the species barrier are needed to prevent future viral spillover and possible outbreaks. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

22 pages, 2529 KiB  
Review
A Summary of the SARS-CoV-2 Vaccines and Technologies Available or under Development
Pathogens 2021, 10(7), 788; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10070788 - 22 Jun 2021
Cited by 46 | Viewed by 7187
Abstract
Since the beginning of 2020, the world has been in a race to develop vaccines that can control the COVID-19 pandemic. More than 250 projects have been initiated for this purpose, but only 14 of them have been authorized for use, despite being [...] Read more.
Since the beginning of 2020, the world has been in a race to develop vaccines that can control the COVID-19 pandemic. More than 250 projects have been initiated for this purpose, but only 14 of them have been authorized for use, despite being in phase 3 clinical trials. More than 40 other vaccines are also in phase 1/2 clinical trials and show promising outcomes. Regarding the appropriate choice of vaccines for each country or region, we reviewed the currently used vaccines in light of the different influencing parameters. These factors include the mode of action, dosage protocol, age group of the vaccinee, side effects, storage conditions, mounted immune response, and cost. Technically, there are seven types of vaccines developed against SARS-CoV-2: messenger RNA (mRNA), nonreplicating and replicating vectors, inactivated viruses, protein subunits, viral-like particles, DNA vaccines, and live attenuated vaccines. The mRNA type is being used for the first time in humans. Unfortunately, mutated variants of SARS-CoV-2 have started to appear worldwide, and researchers are investigating the effects of the currently used vaccines on them. There are many concerns regarding the long-term protection afforded by these vaccines and their side effects, and whether they require future modifications to be effective against the mutated variants. The development of new vaccines using more advanced technology is paramount for overcoming the difficulties in controlling the COVID-19 pandemic across the world. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 412 KiB  
Review
Could Naturally Occurring Coronaviral Diseases in Animals Serve as Models for COVID-19? A Review Focusing on the Bovine Model
Pathogens 2020, 9(12), 991; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9120991 - 26 Nov 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3351
Abstract
The current pandemic of COVID-19 has highlighted the importance of basic studies on coronaviruses (CoVs) in general, and severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in particular. CoVs have for long been studied in veterinary medicine, due to their impact on animal [...] Read more.
The current pandemic of COVID-19 has highlighted the importance of basic studies on coronaviruses (CoVs) in general, and severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in particular. CoVs have for long been studied in veterinary medicine, due to their impact on animal health and welfare, production, and economy. Several animal models using coronaviral disease in the natural host have been suggested. In this review, different animal models are discussed, with the main focus on bovine CoV (BCoV). BCoV is endemic in the cattle population worldwide and has been known and studied for several decades. SARS-CoV-2 and BCoV are both betacoronaviruses, where BCoV is highly similar to human coronavirus (HCoV) OC43, encompassing the same virus species (Betacoronavirus 1). BCoV causes respiratory and gastrointestinal disease in young and adult cattle. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the similarities and dissimilarities between BCoV and SARS-CoV-2, as well as discussing the usage of BCoV as a model for human CoVs, including SARS-CoV-2. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Other

Jump to: Research, Review

9 pages, 580 KiB  
Brief Report
A First Assessment of SARS-CoV-2 Circulation in Bats of Central–Southern Italy
Pathogens 2022, 11(7), 742; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11070742 - 29 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1594
Abstract
One serious concern associated with the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic is that the virus might spill back from humans to wildlife, which would render some animal species reservoirs of the human virus. We assessed the potential circulation of SARS-CoV-2 caused by reverse infection from humans [...] Read more.
One serious concern associated with the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic is that the virus might spill back from humans to wildlife, which would render some animal species reservoirs of the human virus. We assessed the potential circulation of SARS-CoV-2 caused by reverse infection from humans to bats, by performing bat surveillance from different sites in Central–Southern Italy. We restricted our survey to sampling techniques that are minimally invasive and can therefore be broadly applied by non-medical operators such as bat workers. We collected 240 droppings or saliva from 129 bats and tested them using specific and general primers for SARS-CoV-2 and coronaviruses, respectively. All samples (127 nasal swabs and 113 faecal droppings) were negative for SARS-CoV-2, and these results were confirmed by testing the samples with the Droplet Digital PCR. Additionally, pancoronavirus end-point RT-PCR was performed, and no sample showed specific bands. This outcome is a first step towards a better understanding of the reverse transmission of this virus to bats. Although the occurrence of a reverse zoonotic pattern can only be fully established by serological testing, the latter might represent an in-depth follow-up to a broad-scale preliminary assessment performed with our approach. We encourage the systematic surveillance of bats to help prevent reverse zoonotic episodes that would jeopardize human health, as well as biodiversity conservation and management. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

9 pages, 253 KiB  
Perspective
Uncertainty around the Long-Term Implications of COVID-19
Pathogens 2021, 10(10), 1267; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10101267 - 01 Oct 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 22614
Abstract
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has infected more than 231 million people globally, with more than 4.7 million deaths recorded by the World Health Organization as of 26 September 2021. In response to the pandemic, some countries (New Zealand, Vietnam, Taiwan, [...] Read more.
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has infected more than 231 million people globally, with more than 4.7 million deaths recorded by the World Health Organization as of 26 September 2021. In response to the pandemic, some countries (New Zealand, Vietnam, Taiwan, South Korea and others) have pursued suppression strategies, so-called Zero COVID policies, to drive and maintain infection rates as close to zero as possible and respond aggressively to new cases. In comparison, European countries and North America have adopted mitigation strategies (of varying intensity and effectiveness) that aim primarily to prevent health systems from being overwhelmed. With recent advances in our understanding of SARS-CoV-2 and its biology, and the increasing recognition there is more to COVID-19 beyond the acute infection, we offer a perspective on some of the long-term risks of mutational escape, viral persistence, reinfection, immune dysregulation and neurological and multi-system complications (Long COVID). Full article
Back to TopTop