Staphylococcus Infections in Humans and Animals

A special issue of Pathogens (ISSN 2076-0817). This special issue belongs to the section "Bacterial Pathogens".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 September 2023) | Viewed by 77033

Special Issue Editor


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA
Interests: microbiology; bacterial infectious diseases; zoonosis; intestinal microbiome; inflammatory bowel diseases; vector-borne disease

Special Issue Information

Dear colleagues,

Staphylococcal infections, caused by Staphylococcus spp., still gained importance as a significant threat to both human public health and veterinary medicine due to the numerous types of infections they caused in humans and animals. Staphylococcus, the genus of Gram-positive bacteria, includes more than 40 species. It represents very versatile pathogenic bacterial strains that account for diverse human infections. For instance, Staphylococcus aureus, the most common species, could cause skin lesions, musculoskeletal diseases, toxic shock syndrome, bloodstream, and male and female infertility. S. leei was found related with human gastritis. Meanwhile, Staphylococcus members are also pathogenic for farm animals and pets, generating considerable economic losses in the related industry, such as mastitis in dairy animals, exophthalmia in fish.  Moreover, in the last few years, the incidence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus isolates have increased, becoming a severe problem for human and animal therapies and health. Therefore, it imparts a pressing need to identify and investigate the bacterial and host factors (suck as immune system) in bacteria amplification and disease outcomes in staphylococcal infections.

In this Special Issue, we aim to assemble a collection of research articles, reviews and case reports that highlight the critical advancements in our understanding of Staphylococcus infection in both humans and animals. At this purpose, we cordially invite you to submit articles related to the various aspects of Staphylococcus infections in humans and animals: epidemiology, bacteria-host interactions, bacterial pathogenesis, diagnostic procedures, therapies, and preventions.

Dr. Jilei Zhang
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Pathogens is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Staphylococcus spp.
  • Staphylococcus aureus
  • animal infection
  • human infection
  • antibiotics and antibiotic-resistance
  • bacteria-host interactions
  • immune response
  • epidemiology
  • diagnostic methods
  • prevention

Published Papers (28 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review, Other

20 pages, 6206 KiB  
Article
CcpA-Knockout Staphylococcus aureus Induces Abnormal Metabolic Phenotype via the Activation of Hepatic STAT5/PDK4 Signaling in Diabetic Mice
by Yilang Li, Jiaxuan Cai, Yinan Liu, Conglin Li, Xiaoqing Chen, Wing-Leung Wong, Wenyue Jiang, Yuan Qin, Guiping Zhang, Ning Hou and Wenchang Yuan
Pathogens 2023, 12(11), 1300; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens12111300 - 30 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1113
Abstract
Catabolite control protein A (CcpA), an important global regulatory protein, is extensively found in S. aureus. Many studies have reported that CcpA plays a pivotal role in regulating the tricarboxylic acid cycle and pathogenicity. Moreover, the CcpA-knockout Staphylococcus aureus (S. [...] Read more.
Catabolite control protein A (CcpA), an important global regulatory protein, is extensively found in S. aureus. Many studies have reported that CcpA plays a pivotal role in regulating the tricarboxylic acid cycle and pathogenicity. Moreover, the CcpA-knockout Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) in diabetic mice, compared with the wild-type, showed a reduced colonization rate in the tissues and organs and decreased inflammatory factor expression. However, the effect of CcpA-knockout S. aureus on the host’s energy metabolism in a high-glucose environment and its mechanism of action remain unclear. S. aureus, a common and major human pathogen, is increasingly found in patients with obesity and diabetes, as recent clinical data reveal. To address this issue, we generated CcpA-knockout S. aureus strains with different genetic backgrounds to conduct in-depth investigations. In vitro experiments with high-glucose-treated cells and an in vivo model study with type 1 diabetic mice were used to evaluate the unknown effect of CcpA-knockout strains on both the glucose and lipid metabolism phenotypes of the host. We found that the strains caused an abnormal metabolic phenotype in type 1 diabetic mice, particularly in reducing random and fasting blood glucose and increasing triglyceride and fatty acid contents in the serum. In a high-glucose environment, CcpA-knockout S. aureus may activate the hepatic STAT5/PDK4 pathway and affect pyruvate utilization. An abnormal metabolic phenotype was thus observed in diabetic mice. Our findings provide a better understanding of the molecular mechanism of glucose and lipid metabolism disorders in diabetic patients infected with S. aureus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Staphylococcus Infections in Humans and Animals)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 2074 KiB  
Article
Molecular Characteristics of Methicillin-Resistant and Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus from Pediatric Patients in Eastern China
by Yuxuan Zhou, Shuyang Yu, Chenjun Su, Shengqi Gao, Guilai Jiang, Zhemin Zhou and Heng Li
Pathogens 2023, 12(4), 549; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens12040549 - 2 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1539
Abstract
Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen that causes invasive infections in humans. In recent years, increasing studies have focused on the prevalence of S. aureus infections in adults; however, the epidemiology and molecular characteristics of S. aureus from Chinese pediatric patients remain unknown. [...] Read more.
Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen that causes invasive infections in humans. In recent years, increasing studies have focused on the prevalence of S. aureus infections in adults; however, the epidemiology and molecular characteristics of S. aureus from Chinese pediatric patients remain unknown. The present study examined the population structure, antimicrobial resistance, and virulent factors of methicillin-resistant and -susceptible S. aureus isolated from Chinese pediatric patients from one medical center in eastern China. A total of 81 cases were screened with positive S. aureus infections among 864 pediatric patients between 2016 and 2022 in eastern China. Molecular analysis showed that ST22 (28.4%) and ST59 (13.6%) were the most typical strains, and associations between different clonal complex (CC) types/serotype types (ST) and the age of pediatric patients were observed in this study. CC398 was the predominant type in neonates under 1 month of age, while CC22 was mainly found in term-infant (under 1 year of age) and toddlers (over 1 year of age). Additionally, 17 S. aureus isolates were resistant to at least three antimicrobials and majority of them belonged to CC59. The blaZ gene was found in 59 isolates and mecA gene was present in 26 strains identified as methicillin-resistant. Numerous virulent factors were detected in S. aureus isolated from present pediatric patients. Remarkably, lukF-PV and lukS-PV were dominantly carried by CC22, tsst-1 genes were detected in CC188, CC7, and CC15, while exfoliative toxin genes were found only in CC121. Only 41.98% of the S. aureus isolates possessed scn gene, indicating that the sources of infections in pediatric patients may include both human-to-human transmissions as well as environmental and nosocomial infections. Together, the present study provided a phylogenetic and genotypic comparison of S. aureus from Chinese pediatric patients in Suzhou city. Our results suggested that the colonization of multi-drug resistant isolates of S. aureus may raise concern among pediatric patients, at least from the present medical center in eastern China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Staphylococcus Infections in Humans and Animals)
Show Figures

Figure 1

21 pages, 4554 KiB  
Article
Complete Genome Sequence and Analysis of a ST573 Multidrug-Resistant Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus SauR3 Clinical Isolate from Terengganu, Malaysia
by Esra’a I. Al-Trad, Ainal Mardziah Che Hamzah, Suat Moi Puah, Kek Heng Chua, Muhamad Zarul Hanifah, Qasim Ayub, Prasit Palittapongarnpim, Stephen M. Kwong, Ching Hoong Chew and Chew Chieng Yeo
Pathogens 2023, 12(3), 502; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens12030502 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2198
Abstract
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a World Health Organization-listed priority pathogen. Scarce genomic data are available for MRSA isolates from Malaysia. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of a multidrug-resistant MRSA strain SauR3, isolated from the blood of a 6-year-old patient hospitalized [...] Read more.
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a World Health Organization-listed priority pathogen. Scarce genomic data are available for MRSA isolates from Malaysia. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of a multidrug-resistant MRSA strain SauR3, isolated from the blood of a 6-year-old patient hospitalized in Terengganu, Malaysia, in 2016. S. aureus SauR3 was resistant to five antimicrobial classes comprising nine antibiotics. The genome was sequenced on the Illumina and Oxford Nanopore platforms and hybrid assembly was performed to obtain its complete genome sequence. The SauR3 genome consists of a circular chromosome of 2,800,017 bp and three plasmids designated pSauR3-1 (42,928 bp), pSauR3-2 (3011 bp), and pSauR3-3 (2473 bp). SauR3 belongs to sequence type 573 (ST573), a rarely reported sequence type of the staphylococcal clonal complex 1 (CC1) lineage, and harbors a variant of the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) type V (5C2&5) element which also contains the aac(6′)-aph(2″) aminoglycoside-resistance genes. pSauR3-1 harbors several antibiotic resistance genes in a 14,095 bp genomic island (GI), previously reported in the chromosome of other staphylococci. pSauR3-2 is cryptic, whereas pSauR3-3 encodes the ermC gene that mediates inducible resistance to macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (iMLSB). The SauR3 genome can potentially be used as a reference genome for other ST573 isolates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Staphylococcus Infections in Humans and Animals)
Show Figures

Figure 1

24 pages, 4457 KiB  
Article
Designing a Next-Generation Multiepitope-Based Vaccine against Staphylococcus aureus Using Reverse Vaccinology Approaches
by Soumya Ranjan Mahapatra, Jyotirmayee Dey, T. Kiran Raj, Namrata Misra and Mrutyunjay Suar
Pathogens 2023, 12(3), 376; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens12030376 - 25 Feb 2023
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 2390
Abstract
Staphylococcus aureus is a human bacterial pathogen that can cause a wide range of symptoms. As virulent and multi-drug-resistant strains of S. aureus have evolved, invasive S. aureus infections in hospitals and the community have become one of the leading causes of mortality [...] Read more.
Staphylococcus aureus is a human bacterial pathogen that can cause a wide range of symptoms. As virulent and multi-drug-resistant strains of S. aureus have evolved, invasive S. aureus infections in hospitals and the community have become one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity. The development of novel techniques is therefore necessary to overcome this bacterial infection. Vaccines are an appropriate alternative in this context to control infections. In this study, the collagen-binding protein (CnBP) from S. aureus was chosen as the target antigen, and a series of computational methods were used to find epitopes that may be used in vaccine development in a systematic way. The epitopes were passed through a filtering pipeline that included antigenicity, toxicity, allergenicity, and cytokine inducibility testing, with the objective of identifying epitopes capable of eliciting both T and B cell-mediated immune responses. To improve vaccine immunogenicity, the final epitopes and phenol-soluble modulin α4 adjuvant were fused together using appropriate linkers; as a consequence, a multiepitope vaccine was developed. The chosen T cell epitope ensemble is expected to cover 99.14% of the global human population. Furthermore, docking and dynamics simulations were used to examine the vaccine’s interaction with the Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), revealing great affinity, consistency, and stability between the two. Overall, the data indicate that the vaccine candidate may be extremely successful, and it will need to be evaluated in experimental systems to confirm its efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Staphylococcus Infections in Humans and Animals)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 348 KiB  
Article
No Correlation between Biofilm-Forming Capacity and Antibiotic Resistance in Environmental Staphylococcus spp.: In Vitro Results
by Matthew Gavino Donadu, Marco Ferrari, Vittorio Mazzarello, Stefania Zanetti, Ivan Kushkevych, Simon K.-M. R. Rittmann, Anette Stájer, Zoltán Baráth, Dóra Szabó, Edit Urbán and Márió Gajdács
Pathogens 2022, 11(4), 471; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11040471 - 14 Apr 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2961
Abstract
The production of biofilms is a critical factor in facilitating the survival of Staphylococcus spp. in vivo and in protecting against various environmental noxa. The possible relationship between the antibiotic-resistant phenotype and biofilm-forming capacity has raised considerable interest. The purpose of the study [...] Read more.
The production of biofilms is a critical factor in facilitating the survival of Staphylococcus spp. in vivo and in protecting against various environmental noxa. The possible relationship between the antibiotic-resistant phenotype and biofilm-forming capacity has raised considerable interest. The purpose of the study was to assess the interdependence between biofilm-forming capacity and the antibiotic-resistant phenotype in 299 Staphylococcus spp. (S. aureus n = 143, non-aureus staphylococci [NAS] n = 156) of environmental origin. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing and detection of methicillin resistance (MR) was performed. The capacity of isolates to produce biofilms was assessed using Congo red agar (CRA) plates and a crystal violet microtiter-plate-based (CV-MTP) method. MR was identified in 46.9% of S. aureus and 53.8% of NAS isolates (p > 0.05), with resistance to most commonly used drugs being significantly higher in MR isolates compared to methicillin-susceptible isolates. Resistance rates were highest for clindamycin (57.9%), erythromycin (52.2%) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (51.1%), while susceptibility was retained for most last-resort drugs. Based on the CRA plates, biofilm was produced by 30.8% of S. aureus and 44.9% of NAS (p = 0.014), while based on the CV-MTP method, 51.7% of S. aureus and 62.8% of NAS were identified as strong biofilm producers, respectively (mean OD570 values: S. aureus: 0.779±0.471 vs. NAS: 1.053±0.551; p < 0.001). No significant differences in biofilm formation were observed based on MR (susceptible: 0.824 ± 0.325 vs. resistant: 0.896 ± 0.367; p = 0.101). However, pronounced differences in biofilm formation were identified based on rifampicin susceptibility (S: 0.784 ± 0.281 vs. R: 1.239 ± 0.286; p = 0.011). The mechanistic understanding of the mechanisms Staphylococcus spp. use to withstand harsh environmental and in vivo conditions is crucial to appropriately address the therapy and eradication of these pathogens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Staphylococcus Infections in Humans and Animals)
15 pages, 2009 KiB  
Article
Beyond CC398: Characterisation of Other Tetracycline and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Genetic Lineages Circulating in Spanish Hospitals
by Sara Ceballos, Carmen Lozano, Carmen Aspiroz, Laura Ruiz-Ripa, Paula Eguizábal, Allelen Campaña-Burguet, Emilia Cercenado, Ana Isabel López-Calleja, Javier Castillo, Jose Manuel Azcona-Gutiérrez, Luis Torres, Jorge Calvo, Carmen Martin, María Navarro, Myriam Zarazaga, Carmen Torres and the Study Group of Clinical LA-MRSA
Pathogens 2022, 11(3), 307; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11030307 - 1 Mar 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2176
Abstract
Tetracycline resistance (TetR) has been evidenced as a good phenotypic marker for detection of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) isolates of the clonal complex CC398. The aim of this study was to characterise a collection of 95 TetR-MRSA isolates, [...] Read more.
Tetracycline resistance (TetR) has been evidenced as a good phenotypic marker for detection of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) isolates of the clonal complex CC398. The aim of this study was to characterise a collection of 95 TetR-MRSA isolates, not belonging to the lineage CC398, that were obtained in a previous multicentre study, to detect other MRSA clonal complexes that could be associated with this phenotypic TetR marker. The TetR-MRSA isolates were recovered from 20 Spanish hospitals during 2016 and they were characterised to determine their antimicrobial resistance and virulence phenotypes/genotypes as well as the presence of the immune evasion cluster (IEC). A high proportion of isolates belonging to the CC1 lineage (46%) were observed, as well as to the CC5, CC8 and CC45 lineages (11% each one). Thirty-two different spa-types were identified, being predominantly CC1-t127 (40%) and CC45-t1081 (11%). The IEC system (with the gene scn as marker) was present in 73% of isolates and 16% produced the Panton Valentine leucocidin (PVL). A high proportion of MRSA-CC1 isolates were scn-negative (38.6%) and 52.9% of them were blaZ-negative. A multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotype was identified in 86% of MRSA isolates. The knowledge of other TetR-MRSA genetic lineages, in addition to CC398, is highly relevant, since most of them were MDR and some of them presented important virulence factors. Strains potentially associated with livestock (as the subpopulation CC1-t127-scn-negative) or with humans (as the CC45 lineage or the subpopulation CC1-scn-positive) have been found in this study. The use of tetracycline-resistance for detection, not only of CC398 but also of other LA-MRSA lineages should be tracked in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Staphylococcus Infections in Humans and Animals)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 2330 KiB  
Article
The C-Terminal Domain of Staphylococcus aureus Zinc Transport Protein AdcA Binds Plasminogen and Factor H In Vitro
by Natália Salazar, Bruno Bernardi Yamamoto, Matilde Costa Lima de Souza, Ludmila Bezerra da Silva, Ana Paula Mattos Arêas and Angela Silva Barbosa
Pathogens 2022, 11(2), 240; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11020240 - 12 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1714
Abstract
Bacterial acquisition of metals from a host is an essential attribute to facilitate survival and colonization within an infected organism. Staphylococcus aureus, a bacterial pathogen of medical importance, has evolved its strategies to acquire multiple metals, including iron, manganese, and zinc. Other [...] Read more.
Bacterial acquisition of metals from a host is an essential attribute to facilitate survival and colonization within an infected organism. Staphylococcus aureus, a bacterial pathogen of medical importance, has evolved its strategies to acquire multiple metals, including iron, manganese, and zinc. Other important strategies for the colonization and infection of the host have been reported for staphylococci and include the expression of adhesins on the bacterial surface, as well as the acquisition of host plasminogen and complement regulatory proteins. Here we assess the ability of the zinc transport protein AdcA from Staphylococcus aureus, first characterized elsewhere as a zinc-binding protein of the ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transporters, to bind to host molecules. Like other staphylococcus ion-scavenging proteins, such as MntC, a manganese-binding protein, AdcA interacts with human plasminogen. Once activated, plasmin bound to AdcA cleaves fibrinogen and vitronectin. In addition, AdcA interacts with the human negative complement regulator factor H (FH). Plasminogen and FH have been shown to bind to distinct sites on the AdcA C-terminal portion. In conclusion, our in vitro data pave the way for future studies addressing the relevance of AdcA interactions with host molecules in vivo. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Staphylococcus Infections in Humans and Animals)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 1216 KiB  
Article
Phenotypic and Molecular Characterization of Nonfermenting Gram-Negative Bacilli Causing Peritonitis in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients
by Ana Cláudia Moro Lima dos Santos, Aydir Cecília Marinho Monteiro, Thaís Alves Barbosa, Danilo Flávio Moraes Riboli, Carlos Henrique Camargo, Adriano Martison Ferreira, Alessandro Lia Mondelli, Augusto Cezar Montelli, Rodrigo Tavanelli Hernandes, Maria de Lourdes Ribeiro de Souza da Cunha and Pasqual Barretti
Pathogens 2022, 11(2), 218; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11020218 - 8 Feb 2022
Viewed by 1639
Abstract
(1) Background: Peritonitis due to nonfermenting Gram-negative bacilli (NF-GNB) is a dramatic complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD) with bad outcomes. Previous studies of PD-related peritonitis due to Pseudomonas species have shown a low-resolution rate, without a high resistance rate to antipseudomonal antibiotics. This [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Peritonitis due to nonfermenting Gram-negative bacilli (NF-GNB) is a dramatic complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD) with bad outcomes. Previous studies of PD-related peritonitis due to Pseudomonas species have shown a low-resolution rate, without a high resistance rate to antipseudomonal antibiotics. This suggests that bacterial virulence factors can act and influence peritonitis evolution. This study aimed to describe the microbiological characteristics of NF-GNB causing PD-related peritonitis and analyze their influence on the outcome. (2) Methods: We analyze the 48 isolates from NF-GNB peritonitis, which were stored in our culture collection regarding bacterial resistance, biofilm, and other virulence factors’ production, and clonal profile. Additionally, we collected data on treatment and outcomes from patients’ clinical registers. (3) Results: The etiologies were species of Pseudomonas (50%), Acinetobacter (36%), and other NF-GNB (14%). There was a high (75%) proportion of biofilm producer lineages. The in vitro susceptibility rate of Pseudomonas spp. to amikacin, ciprofloxacin, and ceftazidime was significantly greater than that of Acinetobacter spp. and other species; however, there was a similar low-resolution rate (<45%) among the episodes attributable to them. Pseudomonas species have a polyclonal profile, while we found a clone of five multiresistant Acinetobacter baumannii over an 8-year interval (2000–2008), which suggest an origin from the healthcare environment. (4) Conclusions: We are not able to identify any predictor of outcome, but it is possible that biofilm and others virulence factors can act in concert and contribute to the bad outcome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Staphylococcus Infections in Humans and Animals)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 2254 KiB  
Article
Staphylococcus ratti sp. nov. Isolated from a Lab Rat
by Vojtěch Kovařovic, Ivo Sedláček, Petr Petráš, Stanislava Králová, Ivana Mašlaňová, Pavel Švec, Meina Neumann-Schaal, Tibor Botka, Tereza Gelbíčová, Eva Staňková, Jiří Doškař and Roman Pantůček
Pathogens 2022, 11(1), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11010051 - 1 Jan 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2599
Abstract
Staphylococci from the Staphylococcus intermedius-Staphylococcus hyicus species group include numerous animal pathogens and are an important reservoir of virulence and antimicrobial resistance determinants. Due to their pathogenic potential, they are possible causative agents of zoonoses in humans; therefore, it is important [...] Read more.
Staphylococci from the Staphylococcus intermedius-Staphylococcus hyicus species group include numerous animal pathogens and are an important reservoir of virulence and antimicrobial resistance determinants. Due to their pathogenic potential, they are possible causative agents of zoonoses in humans; therefore, it is important to address the properties of these strains. Here we used a polyphasic taxonomic approach to characterize the coagulase-negative staphylococcal strain NRL/St 03/464T, isolated from the nostrils of a healthy laboratory rat during a microbiological screening of laboratory animals. The 16S rRNA sequence, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and positive urea hydrolysis and beta-glucuronidase tests clearly distinguished it from closely related Staphylococcus spp. All analyses have consistently shown that the closest relative is Staphylococcus chromogenes; however, values of digital DNA-DNA hybridization <35.3% and an average nucleotide identity <81.4% confirmed that the analyzed strain is a distinct Staphylococcus species. Whole-genome sequencing and expert annotation of the genome revealed the presence of novel variable genetic elements, including two plasmids named pSR9025A and pSR9025B, prophages, genomic islands and a composite transposon that may confer selective advantages to other bacteria and enhance their survival. Based on phenotypic, phylogenetic and genomic data obtained in this study, the strain NRL/St 03/464T (= CCM 9025T = LMG 31873T = DSM 111348T) represents a novel species with the suggested name Staphylococcus ratti sp. nov. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Staphylococcus Infections in Humans and Animals)
Show Figures

Figure 1

9 pages, 1250 KiB  
Article
Bacteria Patterns on Tonsillar Surface and Tonsillar Core Tissue among Patients Scheduled for Tonsillectomy at Bugando Medical Centre, Mwanza, Tanzania
by Gustave Buname, Gapto Aristides Kiwale, Martha F. Mushi, Vitus Silago, Peter Rambau and Stephen E. Mshana
Pathogens 2021, 10(12), 1560; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10121560 - 30 Nov 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2113
Abstract
Background: Tonsillitis is an inflammation of the tonsils due to either viruses or bacteria. Here, we report the bacteria patterns on the tonsillar surface and tonsillar core tissue among patients scheduled for tonsillectomy at Bugando Medical Centre (BMC), Mwanza Tanzania. Methods: The study [...] Read more.
Background: Tonsillitis is an inflammation of the tonsils due to either viruses or bacteria. Here, we report the bacteria patterns on the tonsillar surface and tonsillar core tissue among patients scheduled for tonsillectomy at Bugando Medical Centre (BMC), Mwanza Tanzania. Methods: The study included 120 patients planned for tonsillectomy between April and July 2019. Swab samples from tonsillar surface pre-tonsillectomy and core post-tonsillectomy were collected. Culture was performed following the microbiology laboratory standard operating procedures. Data analysis was completed using STATA version 13, as per the study objectives. Results: The slight majority of participants were males (73; 60.83%) with median age of 6 years (interquartile range 4–11). The proportion of positive culture growth was higher on the surface than in core swab samples: 65 (54.2%) vs. 42 (35.0%), p = 0.003. The commonest bacterial pathogen detected from the surface and core were S. aureus in 29 (40.3%) and 22 (51.2%) participants, followed by S. pyogenes in 17 (23.6%) and 11 (25.6%), respectively. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was observed in 20/51 (39%) of isolates. Streptococcus pyogenes resistance to macrolides ranged from 8.3% for core isolates to 35.3% for surface isolates. Features suggestive of tonsillitis on histology were reported in 83 (73.5%) samples. Conclusion: More than two-thirds of patients undergoing tonsillectomy had a positive culture for possible bacterial pathogens. Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes were the predominant bacteria detected with more than one third of Staphylococcus aureus being MRSA. More studies to investigate the treatment outcome of these patients are highly recommended. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Staphylococcus Infections in Humans and Animals)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 1437 KiB  
Article
Emergence of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST239/241 SCCmec-III Mercury in Eastern Algeria
by Hanane Aouati, Linda Hadjadj, Farida Aouati, Amir Agabou, Mariem Ben Khedher, Hacène Bousseboua, Chafia Bentchouala, Jean-Marc Rolain and Seydina M. Diene
Pathogens 2021, 10(11), 1503; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10111503 - 18 Nov 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2950
Abstract
In this paper, we investigate the epidemiology of infections-associated Staphylococcusaureus (S. aureus) from the Medical Intensive Care Unit (MICU) at University Hospital Center of Constantine (UHCC) in Algeria, with a special emphasis on methicillin-resistant strains (MRSA) revealed by cefoxitin disks [...] Read more.
In this paper, we investigate the epidemiology of infections-associated Staphylococcusaureus (S. aureus) from the Medical Intensive Care Unit (MICU) at University Hospital Center of Constantine (UHCC) in Algeria, with a special emphasis on methicillin-resistant strains (MRSA) revealed by cefoxitin disks (30 μg), then confirmed by penicillin-binding protein (PBP2a) agglutination and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) targeting mecA and mecC genes. Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec (SCCmec type), staphylococcal protein A (spa-type), multilocus sequence type (MLST), Panton–Valentine Leucocidin (PVL), and toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1) were further investigated in all isolates, and whole genome sequencing was performed for a selected subset of three hospital-acquired MRSA (HA-MRSA) isolates. A measurement of 80% out of the 50 S. aureus isolates were identified as HA-MRSA harbouring the mecA gene, and 72.5% of them were multidrug resistant (MDR). Twelve STs, four different SCCmec cassettes, fourteen spa types, ten isolates Panton–Valentine Leukocidin (PVL)-positive, and three isolates TSST-1 were identified. Interestingly, there was a high prevalence (n = 29; 72.5%) of a worrisome emerging clone: the HA-MRSA ST239/241 SCCmec-III mercury with PVL negative, resistant to β-lactams, aminoglycosides, quinolones, and tetracyclines. Other clones of HA-MRSA isolates were also identified, including PVL-positive ST80 SCCmec-IV/SCCmec-unknown (22.5%), ST34 SCCmec-V with TSST-1 positive (2.5%), and PVL-negative ST72 SCCmec-II (2.5%). Genome analysis enables us to describe the first detection of both PVL-negative HA-MRSA ST239/241 SCCmec-III mercury carrying ccrC, as well as SCCmec-V cassette, which dramatically changes the epidemiology of S. aureus infections in one of the hospitals in eastern Algeria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Staphylococcus Infections in Humans and Animals)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 11544 KiB  
Article
Contribution of Coagulase and Its Regulator SaeRS to Lethality of CA-MRSA 923 Bacteremia
by Ying Liu, Wei Gao, Junshu Yang, Haiyong Guo, Jiang Zhang and Yinduo Ji
Pathogens 2021, 10(11), 1396; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10111396 - 28 Oct 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1479
Abstract
Coagulase is a critical factor for distinguishing Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus. Our previous studies demonstrated that the null mutation of coagulase (coa) or its direct regulator, SaeRS, significantly enhanced the ability of S. aureus (CA-MRSA 923) to survive in [...] Read more.
Coagulase is a critical factor for distinguishing Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus. Our previous studies demonstrated that the null mutation of coagulase (coa) or its direct regulator, SaeRS, significantly enhanced the ability of S. aureus (CA-MRSA 923) to survive in human blood in vitro. This led us to further investigate the role of coagulase and its direct regulator, SaeRS, in the pathogenicity of CA-MRSA 923 in bacteremia during infection. In this study, we found that the null mutation of coa significantly decreased the mortality of CA-MRSA 923; moreover, the single null mutation of saeRS and the double deletion of coa/saeRS abolished the virulence of CA-MRSA 923. Moreover, the mice infected with either the saeRS knockout or the coa/saeRS double knockout mutant exhibited fewer histological lesions and less neutrophils infiltration in the infected kidneys compared to those infected with the coa knockout mutant or their parental control. Furthermore, we examined the impact of coa and saeRS on bacterial survival in vitro. The null mutation of coa had no impact on bacterial survival in mice blood, whereas the deletion mutation of saeRS or coa/saeRS significantly enhanced bacterial survival in mice blood. These data indicate that SaeRS plays a key role in the lethality of CA-MRSA 923 bacteremia, and that coagulase is one of the important virulence factors that is regulated by SaeRS and contributes to the pathogenicity of CA–MRSA 923. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Staphylococcus Infections in Humans and Animals)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 5202 KiB  
Article
Identification of cbiO Gene Critical for Biofilm Formation by MRSA CFSa36 Strain Isolated from Pediatric Patient with Cystic Fibrosis
by Ying Liu, Junshu Yang, Michelle Ji, James Phillips, Mark Wylam and Yinduo Ji
Pathogens 2021, 10(11), 1363; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10111363 - 21 Oct 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1931
Abstract
The colonization of Staphylococcus aureus, especially methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), has a detrimental effect on the respiratory care of pediatric patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). In addition to being resistant to multiple antibiotics, S. aureus also has the ability to form biofilms, [...] Read more.
The colonization of Staphylococcus aureus, especially methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), has a detrimental effect on the respiratory care of pediatric patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). In addition to being resistant to multiple antibiotics, S. aureus also has the ability to form biofilms, which makes the infection more difficult to treat and eradicate. In this study, we examined the ability of S. aureus strains isolated from pediatric patients with CF to form biofilms. We screened a transposon mutant library of MRSA and identified a putative cobalt transporter ATP binding domain (cbiO) that is required for biofilm formation. We discovered that deleting cbiO creating a cbiO null mutant in CFSa36 (an MRSA strain isolated from a patient with cystic fibrosis) significantly hinders the ability of CFSa36 to form biofilm. The complementation of cbiO restored the ability of the cbiO deletion mutant to generate biofilm. Interestingly, we revealed that incorporating extra copper ions to the chemically defined medium (CDM) complemented the function of cbiO for biofilm formation in a dose-dependent manner, while the addition of extra iron ions in CDM enhanced the effect of cbiO null mutation on biofilm formation. In addition, neither the addition of certain extra amounts of copper ions nor iron ions in CDM had an impact on bacterial growth. Taken together, our findings suggest that cbiO mediates biofilm formation by affecting the transportation of copper ions in the MRSA CFSa36 strain. This study provides new insights into the molecular basis of biofilm formation by S. aureus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Staphylococcus Infections in Humans and Animals)
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 785 KiB  
Article
Molecular Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Human and Food Samples in Northern Algeria
by Rachid Achek, Hosny El-Adawy, Helmut Hotzel, Ashraf Hendam, Herbert Tomaso, Ralf Ehricht, Heinrich Neubauer, Ibrahim Nabi, Taha Mossadak Hamdi and Stefan Monecke
Pathogens 2021, 10(10), 1276; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10101276 - 3 Oct 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3829
Abstract
Staphylococcus aureus is a commensal resident of the skin and nasal cavities of humans and can cause various infections. Some toxigenic strains can contaminate food matrices and cause foodborne intoxications. The present study aimed to provide relevant information (clonal complex lineages, agr types, [...] Read more.
Staphylococcus aureus is a commensal resident of the skin and nasal cavities of humans and can cause various infections. Some toxigenic strains can contaminate food matrices and cause foodborne intoxications. The present study aimed to provide relevant information (clonal complex lineages, agr types, virulence and antimicrobial resistance-associated genes) based on DNA microarray analyses as well as the origins and dissemination of several circulating clones of 60 Staphylococcus aureus isolated from food matrices (n = 24), clinical samples (n = 20), and nasal carriers (n = 16) in northern Algeria. Staphylococcus aureus were genotyped into 14 different clonal complexes. Out of 60 S. aureus, 13 and 10 isolates belonged to CC1-MSSA and CC97-MSSA, respectively. The CC 80-MRSA-IV was the predominant S. aureus strain in clinical isolates. The accessory gene regulator allele agr group III was mainly found among clinical isolates (70.4%). Panton–Valentine leukocidin genes lukF/lukS-PV were detected in 13.3% of isolates that all belonged to CC80-MRSA. The lukF/S-hlg, hlgA, and hla genes encoding for hemolysins and leucocidin components were detected in all Staphylococcusaureus isolates. Clinical and food isolates harbored more often the antibiotic resistance genes markers. Seventeen (28.3%) methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carrying the mecA gene localized on a SCCmec type IV element were identified. The penicillinase operon (blaZ/I/R) was found in 71.7% (43/60) of isolates. Food isolates belonging to CC97-MSSA carried several antibiotic resistance genes (blaZ, ermB, aphA3, sat, tetM, and tetK). The results of this study showed that all clones were found in their typical host, but interestingly, some nasal carriers had isolates assigned to CC705 thought to be absent in humans. The detection of MRSA strains among food isolates should be considered as a potential public health risk. Therefore, controlling the antibiotics prescription for a rational use in human and animal infections is mandatory. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Staphylococcus Infections in Humans and Animals)
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 285 KiB  
Article
Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Infection of Diabetic Foot Ulcers at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Accra, Ghana
by Ramzy B. Anafo, Yacoba Atiase, Nicholas T. K. D. Dayie, Fleischer C. N. Kotey, Patience B. Tetteh-Quarcoo, Samuel Duodu, Mary-Magdalene Osei, Khalid J. Alzahrani and Eric S. Donkor
Pathogens 2021, 10(8), 937; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10080937 - 24 Jul 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3180
Abstract
Aim: This study investigated the spectrum of bacteria infecting the ulcers of individuals with diabetes at the Korle Bu Teaching Hospital in Accra, Ghana, focusing on Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), with respect to their prevalence, factors [...] Read more.
Aim: This study investigated the spectrum of bacteria infecting the ulcers of individuals with diabetes at the Korle Bu Teaching Hospital in Accra, Ghana, focusing on Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), with respect to their prevalence, factors predisposing to their infection of the ulcers, and antimicrobial resistance patterns. Methodology: This cross-sectional study was conducted at The Ulcer Clinic, Department of Surgery, Korle Bu Teaching Hospital, involving 100 diabetic foot ulcer patients. The ulcer of each study participant was swabbed and cultured bacteriologically, following standard procedures. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done for all S. aureus isolated, using the Kirby-Bauer method. Results: In total, 96% of the participants had their ulcers infected—32.3% (n = 31) of these had their ulcers infected with one bacterium, 47.9% (n = 46) with two bacteria, 18.8% (n = 18) with three bacteria, and 1.0% (n = 1) with four bacteria. The prevalence of S. aureus and MRSA were 19% and 6%, respectively. The distribution of the other bacteria was as follows: coagulase-negative Staphylococci (CoNS) (54%), Escherichia coli (24%), Pseudomonas spp. (19%), Citrobacter koseri and Morganella morgana (12% each), Klebsiella oxytoca (11%), Proteus vulgaris (8%), Enterococcus spp. (6%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (5%), Proteus mirabilis and Enterobacter spp. (4%), Klebsiella spp. (2%), and Streptococcus spp. (1%). The resistance rates of S. aureus decreased across penicillin (100%, n = 19), tetracycline (47.4%, n = 9), cotrimoxazole (42.1%, n = 8), cefoxitin (31.6%, n = 6), erythromycin and clindamycin (26.3% each, n = 5), norfloxacin and gentamicin (15.8% each, n = 3), rifampicin (10.5%, n = 2), linezolid (5.3%, n = 1), and fusidic acid (0.0%, n = 0). The proportion of multidrug resistance was 47.4% (n = 9). Except for foot ulcer infection with coagulase-negative Staphylococci, which was protective of S. aureus infection of the ulcers (OR = 0.029, p = 0.001, 95% CI = 0.004–0.231), no predictor of S. aureus, MRSA, or polymicrobial ulcer infection was identified. Conclusions: The prevalence of S. aureus and MRSA infection of the diabetic foot ulcers were high, but lower than those of the predominant infector, coagulase-negative Staphylococci and the next highest infecting agent, E. coli. Diabetic foot ulcers’ infection with coagulase-negative Staphylococci protected against their infection with S. aureus. The prevalence of multidrug resistance was high, highlighting the need to further intensify antimicrobial stewardship programmes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Staphylococcus Infections in Humans and Animals)
16 pages, 3396 KiB  
Article
Antistaphylococcal Activity of the FtsZ Inhibitor C109
by Gabriele Trespidi, Viola Camilla Scoffone, Giulia Barbieri, Federica Marchesini, Aseel Abualshaar, Tom Coenye, Francesca Ungaro, Vadim Makarov, Roberta Migliavacca, Edda De Rossi and Silvia Buroni
Pathogens 2021, 10(7), 886; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10070886 - 13 Jul 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2650
Abstract
Staphylococcus aureus infections represent a great concern due to their versatility and involvement in different types of diseases. The shortage of available clinical options, especially to treat multiresistant strains, makes the discovery of new effective compounds essential. Here we describe the activity of [...] Read more.
Staphylococcus aureus infections represent a great concern due to their versatility and involvement in different types of diseases. The shortage of available clinical options, especially to treat multiresistant strains, makes the discovery of new effective compounds essential. Here we describe the activity of the previously described cell division inhibitor C109 against methicillin-sensitive and -resistant S. aureus strains. Antibiofilm activity was assessed using microtiter plates, confocal microscopy, and in an in vitro biofilm wound model. The ability of C109 to block FtsZ GTPase activity and polymerization was tested in vitro. Altogether, the results show that the FtsZ inhibitor C109 has activity against a wide range of S. aureus strains and support its use as an antistaphylococcal compound. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Staphylococcus Infections in Humans and Animals)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 21881 KiB  
Article
Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci Clones Are Widely Distributed in the Hospital and Community
by Luiza Pinheiro-Hubinger, Danilo Flávio Moraes Riboli, Lígia Maria Abraão, Eliane Patricia Lino Pereira Franchi and Maria de Lourdes Ribeiro de Souza da Cunha
Pathogens 2021, 10(7), 792; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10070792 - 23 Jun 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2549
Abstract
Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) may be considered contaminants when isolated from clinical specimens but may also be a cause of true infection. This study aimed to compare the clonality and SCCmec type of a collection of CoNS isolated from blood cultures of inpatients, [...] Read more.
Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) may be considered contaminants when isolated from clinical specimens but may also be a cause of true infection. This study aimed to compare the clonality and SCCmec type of a collection of CoNS isolated from blood cultures of inpatients, nasal swabs of healthy individuals, and patients with chronic wounds, all from the same community, using SCCmec typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and MLST. Staphylococcus epidermidis, exhibited high clonal diversity, but hospital and community clusters were observed. Nosocomial S. epidermidis clones belonged to sequence types ST2, ST6, and ST23. Some Staphylococcus haemolyticus clones were found to circulate in the hospital and community, while Staphylococcus saprophyticus exhibited very high clonal diversity. Staphylococcus lugdunensis, Staphylococcus warneri, and Staphylococcus capitis revealed several isolates belonging to the same clone in the hospital and community. The detection of different SCCmec types within the same cluster indicated high diversity. S. epidermidis was associated with SCCmec I and III, S. haemolyticus with I and II, S. capitis with type V, Staphylococcus hominis with mec complex type A and ccr1, and S. warneri and S. saprophyticus with SCCmec I. The generation of elements and new combinations of cassette genes were highly associated with CoNS isolates, suggesting that SCCmec may not be a good marker of clonality in these bacteria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Staphylococcus Infections in Humans and Animals)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 1110 KiB  
Article
Identification of the Multiresistance Gene poxtA in Oxazolidinone-Susceptible Staphylococcus haemolyticus and Staphylococcus saprophyticus of Pig and Feed Origins
by Lin Chen, Jian-Xin Hu, Chang Liu, Jiao Liu, Zhen-Bao Ma, Zi-Yun Tang, Ya-Fei Li and Zhen-Ling Zeng
Pathogens 2021, 10(5), 601; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10050601 - 14 May 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2385
Abstract
Previous studies on the prevalence and transmission mechanism of oxazolidinone resistance gene poxtA in CoNS are lacking, which this study addresses. By screening 763 CoNS isolates from different sources of several livestock farms in Guangdong, China, 2018–2020, we identified that the poxtA was [...] Read more.
Previous studies on the prevalence and transmission mechanism of oxazolidinone resistance gene poxtA in CoNS are lacking, which this study addresses. By screening 763 CoNS isolates from different sources of several livestock farms in Guangdong, China, 2018–2020, we identified that the poxtA was present in seven CoNS isolates of pig and feed origins. Species identification and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) confirmed that seven poxtA-positive CoNS isolates were composed of five ST64-Staphylococcus haemolyticus and two Staphylococcus saprophyticus isolates. All poxtA-positive Staphylococcus haemolyticus isolates shared similar pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns. Transformation assays demonstrated all poxtA-positive isolates were able to transfer poxtA gene to Staphylococcus aureus RN4220. S1-PFGE and whole-genome sequencing (WGS) revealed the presence of poxtA-carrying plasmids in size around 54.7 kb. The plasmid pY80 was 55,758 bp in size and harbored the heavy metal resistance gene czcD and antimicrobial resistance genes, poxtA, aadD, fexB and tet(L). The regions (IS1216E-poxtA-IS1216E) in plasmid pY80 were identified in Staphylococcus spp. and Enterococcus spp. with different genetic and source backgrounds. In conclusion, this was the first report about the poxtA gene in Staphylococcus haemolyticus and Staphylococcus saprophyticus, and IS1216 may play an important role in the dissemination of poxtA among different Gram-positive bacteria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Staphylococcus Infections in Humans and Animals)
Show Figures

Figure 1

9 pages, 1199 KiB  
Article
Lessons Learned from an Experience with Vancomycin-Intermediate Staphylococcus aureus Outbreak in a Newly Built Secondary Hospital in Korea
by Min Hyung Kim, Yong Chan Kim, Heejung Kim, Hyuk Min Lee, Ju Hyun Lee, Da Ae Kim, Chanhee Kim, Jin Young Park and Yoon Soo Park
Pathogens 2021, 10(5), 564; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10050564 - 6 May 2021
Viewed by 1993
Abstract
A vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (VISA) outbreak occurred in an intensive care unit (ICU) in South Korea. We aimed to investigate the condition that led to the VISA outbreak and seek measures to prevent further spread of the multidrug-resistant organism. A total of three [...] Read more.
A vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (VISA) outbreak occurred in an intensive care unit (ICU) in South Korea. We aimed to investigate the condition that led to the VISA outbreak and seek measures to prevent further spread of the multidrug-resistant organism. A total of three VISA isolates were obtained from two patients and a health care worker (HCW) in a newly built 450-bed secondary hospital. Extensive screening of close contacts for VISA in terms of space sharing and physical contact, irrespective of contact time, was performed. Furthermore, multilocus sequence type, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec type, and spa type profiles were determined for all VISA isolates. The relationship between vancomycin use and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of S. aureus was also investigated. Molecular typing showed that the strains of the three VISA isolates were identical, indicating horizontal hospital transmission. We assumed that VISA colonised in the HCW could have transmitted to the two patients, which resulted in one infection and one colonisation. The affected HCW was excused from work and was decolonised with mupirocin. Five weeks after the interventions, no additional VISA isolates were identified. No relationship between vancomycin use and MIC of S. aureus was identified. Extensive screening of contacts in addition to decolonisation is crucial in preventing the further spread of VISA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Staphylococcus Infections in Humans and Animals)
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 9302 KiB  
Article
Integrative Analysis of miRNA and mRNA Expression Profiles in Mammary Glands of Holstein Cows Artificially Infected with Staphylococcus aureus
by Xiaolong Wang, Yongliang Fan, Yifan He, Ziyin Han, Zaicheng Gong, Yalan Peng, Yining Meng, Yongjiang Mao, Zhangping Yang and Yi Yang
Pathogens 2021, 10(5), 506; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10050506 - 22 Apr 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2476
Abstract
Staphylococcus aureus- induced mastitis is one of the most intractable problems for the dairy industry, which causes loss of milk yield and early slaughter of cows worldwide. Few studies have used a comprehensive approach based on the integrative analysis of miRNA and [...] Read more.
Staphylococcus aureus- induced mastitis is one of the most intractable problems for the dairy industry, which causes loss of milk yield and early slaughter of cows worldwide. Few studies have used a comprehensive approach based on the integrative analysis of miRNA and mRNA expression profiles to explore molecular mechanism in bovine mastitis caused by S. aureus. In this study, S. aureus (A1, B1 and C1) and sterile phosphate buffered saline (PBS) (A2, B2 and C2) were introduced to different udder quarters of three individual cows, and transcriptome sequencing and microarrays were utilized to detected miRNA and gene expression in mammary glands from the challenged and control groups. A total of 77 differentially expressed microRNAs (DE miRNAs) and 1625 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified. Gene Ontology (GO) annotation and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis showed that multiple DEGs were enriched in significant terms and pathways associated with immunity and inflammation. Integrative analysis between DE miRNAs and DEGs proved that miR-664b, miR-23b-3p, miR-331-5p, miR-19b and miR-2431-3p were potential factors regulating the expression levels of CD14 Molecule (CD14), G protein subunit gamma 2 (GNG2), interleukin 17A (IL17A), collagen type IV alpha 1 chain (COL4A1), microtubule associated protein RP/EB family member 2 (MAPRE2), member of RAS oncogene family (RAP1B), LDOC1 regulator of NFKB signaling (LDOC1), low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) and S100 calcium binding protein A9 (S100A9) in bovine mastitis caused by S. aureus. These findings could enhance the understanding of the underlying immune response in bovine mammary glands against S. aureus infection and provide a useful foundation for future application of the miRNA–mRNA-based genetic regulatory network in the breeding cows resistant to S. aureus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Staphylococcus Infections in Humans and Animals)
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 759 KiB  
Article
The Prevalence of Virulence Determinants and Antibiotic Resistance Patterns in Methicillin—Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a Nursing Home in Poland
by Martyna Kasela, Agnieszka Grzegorczyk, Bożena Nowakowicz-Dębek and Anna Malm
Pathogens 2021, 10(4), 427; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10040427 - 3 Apr 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2062
Abstract
Nursing homes (NH) contribute to the regional spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Moreover, residents are vulnerable to the colonization and subsequent infection of MRSA etiology. We aimed at investigating the molecular and phenotypic characteristics of 21 MRSA collected from the residents and [...] Read more.
Nursing homes (NH) contribute to the regional spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Moreover, residents are vulnerable to the colonization and subsequent infection of MRSA etiology. We aimed at investigating the molecular and phenotypic characteristics of 21 MRSA collected from the residents and personnel in an NH (Lublin, Poland) during 2018. All MRSA were screened for 20 genes encoding virulence determinants (sea-see, eta, etb, tst, lukS-F-PV, eno, cna, ebpS, fib, bbp, fnbA, fnbB, icaADBC) and for resistance to 18 antimicrobials. To establish the relatedness and clonal complexes of MRSA in NH we applied multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat fingerprinting (MLVF), pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing. We identified four sequence types (ST) among two clonal complexes (CC): ST (CC22) known as EMRSA-15 as well as three novel STs—ST6295 (CC8), ST6293 (CC8) and ST6294. All tested MRSA were negative for sec, eta, etb, lukS-F-PV, bbp and ebpS genes. The most prevalent gene encoding toxin was sed (52.4%; n = 11/21), and adhesins were eno and fnbA (100%). Only 9.5% (n = 2/21) of MRSA were classified as multidrug-resistant. The emergence of novel MRSA with a unique virulence and the presence of epidemic clone EMRSA-15 creates challenges for controlling the spread of MRSA in NH. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Staphylococcus Infections in Humans and Animals)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 1990 KiB  
Article
Staphylococcus saccharolyticus Associated with Prosthetic Joint Infections: Clinical Features and Genomic Characteristics
by Bo Söderquist, Mastaneh Afshar, Anja Poehlein and Holger Brüggemann
Pathogens 2021, 10(4), 397; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10040397 - 26 Mar 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3621
Abstract
The anaerobic coagulase-negative staphylococcal species Staphylococcus saccharolyticus is a member of the normal skin microbiota. However, S. saccharolyticus is rarely found in clinical specimens and its pathogenic potential is unclear. The clinical data of prosthetic hip (n = 5) and shoulder (n = [...] Read more.
The anaerobic coagulase-negative staphylococcal species Staphylococcus saccharolyticus is a member of the normal skin microbiota. However, S. saccharolyticus is rarely found in clinical specimens and its pathogenic potential is unclear. The clinical data of prosthetic hip (n = 5) and shoulder (n = 2) joint implant-associated infections where S. saccharolyticus was detected in periprosthetic tissue specimens are described. The prosthetic hip joint infection cases presented as “aseptic” loosening and may represent chronic, insidious, low-grade prosthetic joint infections (PJIs), eventually resulting in loosening of prosthetic components. All cases were subjected to one-stage revision surgery and the long-term outcome was good. The shoulder joint infections had an acute onset. Polymicrobial growth, in all cases with Cutibacterium acnes, was found in 4/7 patients. All but one case were treated with long-term administration of beta-lactam antibiotics. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of the isolates was performed and potential virulence traits were identified. WGS could distinguish two phylogenetic clades (clades 1 and 2), which likely represent distinct subspecies of S. saccharolyticus. Little strain individuality was observed among strains from the same clade. Strains of clade 2 were exclusively associated with hip PJIs, whereas clade 1 strains originated from shoulder PJIs. It is possible that strains of the two clades colonize different skin habitats. In conclusion, S. saccharolyticus has the potential to cause PJIs that were previously regarded as aseptic loosening of prosthetic joint devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Staphylococcus Infections in Humans and Animals)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research, Other

20 pages, 430 KiB  
Review
Current Limitations of Staph Infection Diagnostics, and the Role for VOCs in Achieving Culture-Independent Detection
by Carrie L. Jenkins and Heather D. Bean
Pathogens 2023, 12(2), 181; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens12020181 - 24 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2255
Abstract
Staphylococci are broadly adaptable and their ability to grow in unique environments has been widely established, but the most common and clinically relevant staphylococcal niche is the skin and mucous membranes of mammals and birds. S. aureus causes severe infections in mammalian tissues [...] Read more.
Staphylococci are broadly adaptable and their ability to grow in unique environments has been widely established, but the most common and clinically relevant staphylococcal niche is the skin and mucous membranes of mammals and birds. S. aureus causes severe infections in mammalian tissues and organs, with high morbidities, mortalities, and treatment costs. S. epidermidis is an important human commensal but is also capable of deadly infections. Gold-standard diagnostic methods for staph infections currently rely upon retrieval and characterization of the infectious agent through various culture-based methods. Yet, obtaining a viable bacterial sample for in vitro identification of infection etiology remains a significant barrier in clinical diagnostics. The development of volatile organic compound (VOC) profiles for the detection and identification of pathogens is an area of intensive research, with significant efforts toward establishing breath tests for infections. This review describes the limitations of existing infection diagnostics, reviews the principles and advantages of VOC-based diagnostics, summarizes the analytical tools for VOC discovery and clinical detection, and highlights examples of how VOC biomarkers have been applied to diagnosing human and animal staph infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Staphylococcus Infections in Humans and Animals)
20 pages, 663 KiB  
Review
Biofilm Formation by Pathogenic Bacteria: Applying a Staphylococcus aureus Model to Appraise Potential Targets for Therapeutic Intervention
by Zahra Sedarat and Andrew W. Taylor-Robinson
Pathogens 2022, 11(4), 388; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11040388 - 23 Mar 2022
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 5490
Abstract
Carried in the nasal passages by up to 30% of humans, Staphylococcus aureus is recognized to be a successful opportunistic pathogen. It is a frequent cause of infections of the upper respiratory tract, including sinusitis, and of the skin, typically abscesses, as well [...] Read more.
Carried in the nasal passages by up to 30% of humans, Staphylococcus aureus is recognized to be a successful opportunistic pathogen. It is a frequent cause of infections of the upper respiratory tract, including sinusitis, and of the skin, typically abscesses, as well as of food poisoning and medical device contamination. The antimicrobial resistance of such, often chronic, health conditions is underpinned by the unique structure of bacterial biofilm, which is the focus of increasing research to try to overcome this serious public health challenge. Due to the protective barrier of an exopolysaccharide matrix, bacteria that are embedded within biofilm are highly resistant both to an infected individual’s immune response and to any treating antibiotics. An in-depth appraisal of the stepwise progression of biofilm formation by S. aureus, used as a model infection for all cases of bacterial antibiotic resistance, has enhanced understanding of this complicated microscopic structure and served to highlight possible intervention targets for both patient cure and community infection control. While antibiotic therapy offers a practical means of treatment and prevention, the most favorable results are achieved in combination with other methods. This review provides an overview of S. aureus biofilm development, outlines the current range of anti-biofilm agents that are used against each stage and summarizes their relative merits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Staphylococcus Infections in Humans and Animals)
Show Figures

Figure 1

32 pages, 7830 KiB  
Review
Ecology and Genetic Lineages of Nasal Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA Carriage in Healthy Persons with or without Animal-Related Occupational Risks of Colonization: A Review of Global Reports
by Idris Nasir Abdullahi, Carmen Lozano, Laura Ruiz-Ripa, Rosa Fernández-Fernández, Myriam Zarazaga and Carmen Torres
Pathogens 2021, 10(8), 1000; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10081000 - 8 Aug 2021
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 3893
Abstract
In this conceptual review, we thoroughly searched for appropriate English articles on nasal staphylococci carriage among healthy people with no reported risk of colonization (Group A), food handlers (Group B), veterinarians (Group C), and livestock farmers (Group D) published between 2000 and 2021. [...] Read more.
In this conceptual review, we thoroughly searched for appropriate English articles on nasal staphylococci carriage among healthy people with no reported risk of colonization (Group A), food handlers (Group B), veterinarians (Group C), and livestock farmers (Group D) published between 2000 and 2021. Random-effects analyses of proportions were performed to determine the pooled prevalence of S. aureus, MRSA, MRSA-CC398, and MSSA-CC398, as well as the prevalence of PVL-positive S. aureus from all eligible studies. A total of 166 eligible papers were evaluated for Groups A/B/C/D (n = 58/31/26/51). The pooled prevalence of S. aureus and MRSA in healthy humans of Groups A to D were 15.9, 7.8, 34.9, and 27.1%, and 0.8, 0.9, 8.6, and 13.5%, respectively. The pooled prevalence of MRSA-CC398 nasal carriage among healthy humans was as follows: Group A/B (<0.05%), Group C (1.4%), Group D (5.4%); and the following among Group D: pig farmers (8.4%) and dairy farmers (4.7%). The pooled prevalence of CC398 lineage among the MSSA and MRSA isolates from studies of the four groups were Group A (2.9 and 6.9%), B (1.5 and 0.0%), C (47.6% in MRSA), and D (11.5 and 58.8%). Moreover, MSSA-CC398 isolates of Groups A and B were mostly of spa-t571 (animal-independent clade), while those of Groups C and D were spa-t011 and t034. The MRSA-CC398 was predominately of t011 and t034 in all the groups (with few other spa-types, livestock-associated clades). The pooled prevalence of MSSA and MRSA isolates carrying the PVL encoding genes were 11.5 and 9.6% (ranges: 0.0–76.9 and 0.0–28.6%), respectively. Moreover, one PVL-positive MSSA-t011-CC398 isolate was detected in Group A. Contact with livestock and veterinary practice seems to increase the risk of carrying MRSA-CC398, but not in food handlers. Thus, this emphasizes the need for integrated molecular epidemiology of zoonotic staphylococci. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Staphylococcus Infections in Humans and Animals)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 1063 KiB  
Review
The Prevalence, Risk, and Management of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Infection in Diverse Populations across Canada: A Systematic Review
by Elena Mitevska, Britney Wong, Bas G. J. Surewaard and Craig N. Jenne
Pathogens 2021, 10(4), 393; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10040393 - 25 Mar 2021
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 4610
Abstract
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) first emerged after methicillin was introduced to combat penicillin resistance, and its prevalence in Canada has increased since the first MRSA outbreak in the early 1980s. We reviewed the existing literature on MRSA prevalence in Canada over time and [...] Read more.
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) first emerged after methicillin was introduced to combat penicillin resistance, and its prevalence in Canada has increased since the first MRSA outbreak in the early 1980s. We reviewed the existing literature on MRSA prevalence in Canada over time and in diverse populations across the country. MRSA prevalence increased steadily in the 1990s and 2000s and remains a public health concern in Canada, especially among vulnerable populations, such as rural, remote, and Indigenous communities. Antibiotic resistance patterns and risk factors for MRSA infection were also reported. All studies reported high susceptibility (>85%) to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, with no significant resistance reported for vancomycin, linezolid, or rifampin. While MRSA continues to have susceptibility to several antibiotics, the high and sometimes variable resistance rates to other drugs underscores the importance of antimicrobial stewardship. Risk factors for high MRSA infection rates related to infection control measures, low socioeconomic status, and personal demographic characteristics were also reported. Additional surveillance, infection control measures, enhanced anti-microbial stewardship, and community education programs are necessary to decrease MRSA prevalence and minimize the public health risk posed by this pathogen. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Staphylococcus Infections in Humans and Animals)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Other

Jump to: Research, Review

7 pages, 1325 KiB  
Case Report
Canine Staphylococcus argenteus: Case Report from The Netherlands
by Eelco F. J. Meijer, Anne van Renssen, Ianthe Maat, Linda van der Graaf-van Bloois, Birgitta Duim and Els M. Broens
Pathogens 2022, 11(2), 153; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11020153 - 26 Jan 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2688
Abstract
Staphylococcus argenteus has been reported worldwide in humans, while reported non-human cases are sparse. Its complete epidemiology, alongside its infectivity and pathogenicity in humans and non-humans, remain to be clarified. Here, we describe the first reported canine Staphylococcus argenteus, causing a deep [...] Read more.
Staphylococcus argenteus has been reported worldwide in humans, while reported non-human cases are sparse. Its complete epidemiology, alongside its infectivity and pathogenicity in humans and non-humans, remain to be clarified. Here, we describe the first reported canine Staphylococcus argenteus, causing a deep wound infection in a Labrador retriever after orthopedic surgery. The closed genome is reported, with phylogenic and genetic analyses, as well as extensive phenotypic antimicrobial susceptibility testing for human and veterinary antibiotics. No genetic explanation could be found for its interaction with a canine host, underscoring the intrinsic multispecies pathogenicity and potential (anthropo-)zoonotic spread of Staphylococcus argenteus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Staphylococcus Infections in Humans and Animals)
Show Figures

Figure 1

6 pages, 501 KiB  
Brief Report
Investigation and Follow-Up of a Staphylococcal Food Poisoning Outbreak Linked to the Consumption of Traditional Hand-Crafted Alm Cheese
by Virginia Filipello, Emanuela Bonometti, Massimo Campagnani, Irene Bertoletti, Angelo Romano, Fabio Zuccon, Chiara Campanella, Marina Nadia Losio and Guido Finazzi
Pathogens 2020, 9(12), 1064; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9121064 - 19 Dec 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2708
Abstract
Staphylococcal food poisoning (SFP) is one of the most important foodborne diseases. This work describes a SFP event linked to the consumption of alm cheese and involved three people belonging to the same family. Leftovers of the consumed cheese, samples from the grocery [...] Read more.
Staphylococcal food poisoning (SFP) is one of the most important foodborne diseases. This work describes a SFP event linked to the consumption of alm cheese and involved three people belonging to the same family. Leftovers of the consumed cheese, samples from the grocery store and the producing alm were collected and tested for Coagulase positive staphylococci (CPS) enumeration and for the presence of staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs). Isolates were typed with MLST, spa typing, and tested for SEs and methicillin resistance genes. An in vitro test evaluated SEs production in relation to bacterial growth. The presence of CPS and SEs was detected in all cheese samples and all isolates belonged to the same methicillin sensitive ST8/t13296 strain harbouring sed, ser and sej genes. The in vitro test showed the production of enterotoxins started from 105 CFU/mL. The farmer was prescribed with corrective actions that led to eradication of the contaminating strain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Staphylococcus Infections in Humans and Animals)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop