Epidemiology, Pathogenicity and Management Strategies of Plasmodiophora Brassicae

A special issue of Pathogens (ISSN 2076-0817). This special issue belongs to the section "Fungal Pathogens".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2021) | Viewed by 14432

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Ann-Charlotte Wallenhammar
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Rural Economy and Agricultural Society, HS Konsult AB, Orebro, Sweden
Interests: Plasmodiophora brassicae
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Julius Kühn-Institute, Institute for Plant Protection in Field Crops and Grassland, Braunschweig, Germany
Interests: plant diseases and crop protection; biology and pathology of Plasmodiophora brassicae; host plant resistance to P. brassicae; clubroot disease management; biological control; other fungal pathogens of oilseed rape
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Plasmodiophora brassicae Woronin, a soil-borne and obligate biotroph pathogen, is the causal agent of the clubroot disease of Brassica species worldwide. Once P. brassicae becomes established in a field, it rapidly builds up resting spores inside the roots of susceptible crops, and these can remain in the soil for more than 15 years. The disease has currently gained prominence as a major problem in most countries because of acid soils, short rotation time with brassica crops, the lack of effective cultural and/or fungicide control, poor drainage, above-average precipitation and/or humidity during early plant growth stages, and the lack of effective sources of genetic resistance. To date, control measures are limited and, in most cases, ineffective. Therefore, the use of resistant cultivars is the most efficient and practical way of controlling clubroot. However, the resistance can be overcome because of the high pathogenic variability of P. brassicae populations.

For this Special Issue of Pathogens, we invite you to submit a review or original research articles covering all aspects of the knowledge about Plasmodiophora brassicae. These include molecular and epidemiological features, virulence factors, pathogen–host interactions, plant resistance strategies, integrated disease management, biological controls, and climate changes.

We look forward to your contribution.

Dr. Ann-Charlotte Wallenhammar
Dr. Nazanin Zamani-Noor
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • Plasmodiophora brassicae
  • clubroot
  • biology
  • epidemiology
  • pathogenicity
  • pathotype variation
  • virulence factors
  • genetics
  • molecular tools and approaches
  • plant–pathogen interactions
  • integrated disease management
  • host resistance strategies
  • climate

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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15 pages, 1450 KiB  
Article
Variation of Glucosinolate Contents in Clubroot-Resistant and -Susceptible Brassica napus Cultivars in Response to Virulence of Plasmodiophora brassicae
Pathogens 2021, 10(5), 563; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10050563 - 06 May 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2121
Abstract
The present study investigated the changes in total and individual glucosinolates (GSLs) in roots and leaves of different clubroot-resistant and -susceptible oilseed rape cultivars following artificial inoculation with Plasmodiophora brassicae isolates with different virulence. The results showed significant differences in clubroot incidence and [...] Read more.
The present study investigated the changes in total and individual glucosinolates (GSLs) in roots and leaves of different clubroot-resistant and -susceptible oilseed rape cultivars following artificial inoculation with Plasmodiophora brassicae isolates with different virulence. The results showed significant differences in clubroot incidence and severity as well as in the amount of total and individual glucosinolates between oilseed rape cultivars in response to virulence of the pathogen. Single among with total aliphatic and total indolic glucosinolate contents were significantly lower in leaves of susceptible cultivars compared to resistant ones due to the infection. Similarly, single and total aliphatic as well as indolic glucosinolate contents in roots were lower in susceptible cultivars compared to resistant cultivars analyzed. The different isolates of P. brassicae seem to differ in their ability to reduce gluconasturtiin contents in the host. The more aggressive isolate P1 (+) might be able to suppress gluconasturtiin synthesis of the host in a more pronounced manner compared to the isolate P1. A possible interaction of breakdown products of glucobrassicin with the auxin receptor transport inhibitor response 1 (TIR1) is hypothesized and its possible effects on auxin signaling in roots and leaves of resistant and susceptible cultivars is discussed. A potential interplay between aliphatic and indolic glucosinolates that might be involved in water homeostasis in resistant cultivars is explained. Full article
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18 pages, 2120 KiB  
Article
Plasmodiophora brassicae Inoculum Density and Spatial Patterns at the Field Level and Relation to Soil Characteristics
Pathogens 2021, 10(5), 499; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10050499 - 21 Apr 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1976
Abstract
Clubroot, caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae, is an important soilborne disease of the Brassicaceae. Knowledge of the spatial dynamics of P. brassicae at the field level and the influence of soil properties on pathogen spatial patterns can improve understanding of clubroot epidemiology and [...] Read more.
Clubroot, caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae, is an important soilborne disease of the Brassicaceae. Knowledge of the spatial dynamics of P. brassicae at the field level and the influence of soil properties on pathogen spatial patterns can improve understanding of clubroot epidemiology and management. To study the spatial patterns of P. brassicae inoculum density and their relationship to different soil properties, four clubroot-infested fields in central Alberta, Canada, were sampled in 2017 and 2019, and P. brassicae inoculum density, soil pH, and boron, calcium, and magnesium concentrations were quantified. Spatial autocorrelation of the inoculum density was estimated for each of the fields in both years with the Moran’s I and semi-variograms. A Bayesian hierarchical spatial approach was used to model the relationship between P. brassicae inoculum density and the soil parameters. Patchiness of the pathogen was detected, with most patches located at the field edges and adjacent to the entrance. Infested patches grew in size from 2017 to 2019, with an average increase in diameter of 221.3 m and with this growth determined by the maximum inoculum density and active dispersal methods such as movement by machinery and wind. Soil pH, boron, calcium, and magnesium concentrations were not found to have an important effect on the inoculum density of P. brassicae. Full article
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18 pages, 9271 KiB  
Article
Influence of Soil-Borne Inoculum of Plasmodiophora brassicae Measured by qPCR on Disease Severity of Clubroot-Resistant Cultivars of Winter Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.)
Pathogens 2021, 10(4), 433; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10040433 - 06 Apr 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2366
Abstract
Use of resistant cultivars is considered the most effective tool in managing clubroot. Three clubroot-resistant commercial winter oilseed rape (OSR) cultivars and a susceptible ‘Cultivar mix’ were evaluated for disease severity index (DSI) and yield performance in field soils, selected for varying abundance [...] Read more.
Use of resistant cultivars is considered the most effective tool in managing clubroot. Three clubroot-resistant commercial winter oilseed rape (OSR) cultivars and a susceptible ‘Cultivar mix’ were evaluated for disease severity index (DSI) and yield performance in field soils, selected for varying abundance of natural inoculum of Plasmodiophora brassicae. Seven field trials were carried out during 2017–2019 in winter OSR crops, and comparative bioassays were performed in a growth chamber. Substantial variation in clubroot infection between years was observed in the field trials. For Cultivar mix, a negative correlation (y = −252.3ln(x) + 58,897.6) was found between inoculum density and seed yield in five trials, whereas no correlation was found for the resistant cultivars. In bioassays, Cultivar mix exhibited a significantly high correlation between DSIb and number of gene copies g−1 soil (R2 = 0.72). For resistant cvs., Mentor and Alister, correlation was R2 = 0.45 and 0.58, respectively, indicating that resistance was under pressure. In field trials, DSIf of the resistant cultivars was lower (<27). The recommendation is thus to use clubroot-resistant cultivars of OSR as part of Integrated Pest Management in situations where abundance of P. brassicae DNA exceeds 1300 gene copies g−1 soil. Full article
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15 pages, 1906 KiB  
Article
Greenhouse Evaluation of Clubroot Resistant-Brassica napus cv. Mendel and Its Efficacy Concerning Virulence and Soil Inoculum Levels of Plasmodiophora brassicae
Pathogens 2021, 10(2), 151; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10020151 - 02 Feb 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2164
Abstract
Clubroot resistance of oilseed rape (OSR) cultivars frequently relies on a major resistance gene originating from cv. Mendel. The efficacy of this resistance was studied in greenhouse experiments using two Plasmodiophora brassicae isolates, which were either virulent (P1(+)) or avirulent (P1) on Mendel. [...] Read more.
Clubroot resistance of oilseed rape (OSR) cultivars frequently relies on a major resistance gene originating from cv. Mendel. The efficacy of this resistance was studied in greenhouse experiments using two Plasmodiophora brassicae isolates, which were either virulent (P1(+)) or avirulent (P1) on Mendel. Seeds of clubroot-susceptible cultivar Visby and clubroot-resistant cultivar Mendel were sown in soil mixtures inoculated with different concentrations of resting spores (101, 103, 105, and 107 resting spores/g soil). Clubroot severity, plant height, shoot and root weight as well as resting spore propagation were assessed for each isolate and cultivar separately at four dates after sowing. The OSR cultivars behaved significantly different in the measured parameters. The threshold of inoculum density to cause disease depended strongly on the virulence of the pathogen and susceptibility of the host plant. In Visby grown in soil infested with P1, clubroot symptoms and increases in root weight and the number of propagated resting spores occurred at inoculum levels of 101 resting spores and higher, whereas Mendel was not affected in soils under the three lowest inoculum densities. In contrast, the P1(+) isolate led to earlier and more severe symptoms, heavier galls, and a significantly higher number of new resting spores in both cultivars. Full article
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17 pages, 3205 KiB  
Article
Country-Wide qPCR Based Assessment of Plasmodiophora brassicae Spread in Agricultural Soils and Recommendations for the Cultivation of Brassicaceae Crops in Poland
Pathogens 2020, 9(12), 1070; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9121070 - 20 Dec 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2482
Abstract
Clubroot is a damaging disease of oilseed rape and vegetable brassicas worldwide, caused by the soil-borne protist Plasmodiophora brassicae Wor. Due to the long life of resting spores, the assessment of the pathogen abundance in agricultural fields can serve as a guideline for [...] Read more.
Clubroot is a damaging disease of oilseed rape and vegetable brassicas worldwide, caused by the soil-borne protist Plasmodiophora brassicae Wor. Due to the long life of resting spores, the assessment of the pathogen abundance in agricultural fields can serve as a guideline for disease control at the country-wide level or the regional scale. Between 2013 and 2019, we collected 431 soil samples from fields cultivated with Brassicaceae crops throughout 16 provinces of Poland. The samples were subjected to qPCR based analysis of P. brassicae DNA concentration. From these data, the spore loads and gene copies g−1 soil were calculated and used to produce an assessment of the current clubroot risk potential at a country-wide and regional scale. The country-wide map, showing the spread of the pathogen in agricultural soils, was made using ArcGis software package implementing the interpolation with the Inverse Distance Weight method. The calculation of gene copies specific to P. brassicae helped to formulate the recommendations for farmers in respect to the cultivation guidelines. It showed a high risk of yield losses in defined regions of north, south-west and central Poland and an urgent need to undertake intensive preventative measures. Full article
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Review

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23 pages, 1994 KiB  
Review
Molecular Pathotyping of Plasmodiophora brassicae—Genomes, Marker Genes, and Obstacles
Pathogens 2021, 10(3), 259; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10030259 - 24 Feb 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2320
Abstract
Here we review the usefulness of the currently available genomic information for the molecular identification of pathotypes. We focused on effector candidates and genes implied to be pathotype specific and tried to connect reported marker genes to Plasmodiophora brassicae genome information. The potentials [...] Read more.
Here we review the usefulness of the currently available genomic information for the molecular identification of pathotypes. We focused on effector candidates and genes implied to be pathotype specific and tried to connect reported marker genes to Plasmodiophora brassicae genome information. The potentials for practical applications, current obstacles and future perspectives are discussed. Full article
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