Parasites: Epidemiology, Treatment and Control

A special issue of Pathogens (ISSN 2076-0817). This special issue belongs to the section "Parasitic Pathogens".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 August 2023) | Viewed by 19598

Special Issue Editors

Department of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Denmark
Interests: helminth infections; anthelmintic drug resistance; host–parasite interaction; anthelmintic drug discovery; biomarkers for host resistance to parasites; sustainable parasite control strategies
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Denmark
Interests: helminth infections; protozoan infections; parasite–nutrition interactions; gut health and microbiota; nutraceuticals and nonchemical approaches to controlling gut pathogens
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Parasites are one of the most significant health and welfare concerns for humans and animals and cause losses of billions of dollars annually in terms of reduced productivity and treatment and control costs. Parasitic diseases are caused by a wide variety of endo- (helminths, protozoa) and ectoparasites (for example ticks, lice, and flies) in both humans and animals. Parasites have been a primary focus of research in production and companion animals due to the higher rates of morbidity and mortality associated with certain parasitic infections along with reduced farm profitability in the case of production animals. In addition, parasitic zoonoses are one of the major public health concerns throughout the world; for example, soil-transmitted helminths infect more than 1.5 billion people (24% of the world population) worldwide. Treatment of parasitic infections has heavily relied on the use of antiparasitic drugs; however, rapidly developing drug resistance has been a big challenge. With fewer success stories in using vaccines against parasites, the development of sustainable control strategies has been challenging. Parasitology researchers are conducting extensive research to understand parasite biology, the prevalence and transmission patterns of parasitic diseases in the face of climate change, and the pathogenesis of parasitic infections in addition to developing sustainable treatment and control strategies.

Therefore, in this Special Issue of MDPI Pathogens, we invite parasitology researchers to submit high-quality research publications, including in the form of reviews and original research articles, within the area of epidemiology, treatment, and control of parasitic diseases in both humans and animals across the globe. This Special Issue will provide a platform to readers seeking a comprehensive overview and the latest knowledge and information regarding the diversity of parasitology research.

Dr. Ali Raza
Dr. Andrew Williams
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Pathogens is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • endoparasites
  • ectoparasites
  • zoonoses
  • epidemiology
  • treatment
  • control

Related Special Issue

Published Papers (13 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review, Other

10 pages, 444 KiB  
Article
Efficacy of Single-Dose Praziquantel for the Treatment of Schistosoma mansoni Infections among School Children in Rwanda
by Joseph Kabatende, Lazare Ntirenganya, Michael Mugisha, Abbie Barry, Eugene Ruberanziza, Emile Bienvenu, Ulf Bergman and Eleni Aklillu
Pathogens 2023, 12(9), 1170; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens12091170 - 17 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1064
Abstract
Preventive chemotherapy with single-dose praziquantel is the WHO-recommended intervention strategy to eliminate schistosomiasis as a public health problem in endemic countries. Surveillance of drugs used in mass drug administration (MDA) programs is recommended to evaluate its effectiveness in reducing transmissions. After a decade-long [...] Read more.
Preventive chemotherapy with single-dose praziquantel is the WHO-recommended intervention strategy to eliminate schistosomiasis as a public health problem in endemic countries. Surveillance of drugs used in mass drug administration (MDA) programs is recommended to evaluate its effectiveness in reducing transmissions. After a decade-long implementation of a school-based MDA program in Rwanda, we conducted efficacy surveillance of single-dose praziquantel MDA against S. mansoni infection. Two weeks before MDA, stool examinations were performed to screen MDA-eligible school children (n = 4998) for S. mansoni infection using the Kato–Katz technique, and 265 (6.5%) children tested positive for the infection. All children received praziquantel and albendazole as preventive chemotherapy through the MDA campaign. Infected children were enrolled and followed for efficacy monitoring, and stool examination was repeated after three weeks post-MDA (n = 188). Before treatment, 173 (92%) had a light infection, and 15 (8%) had a moderate infection intensity. The primary and secondary outcomes were parasitological cure and egg reduction rates at three weeks post-treatment. The overall cure and egg reduction rates for S. mansoni infection were 97.9% (95% CI = 94.6–99.4) and 97.02%, respectively. Among the 173 children with light infection intensity, 170 (98.3%, 95% CI = 95.0–99.6) were cured, and among the 15 children who had moderate infection intensity, 14 (93.3%) were cured. No significant association between cure rate and pre-treatment infection intensity was observed. We conclude that single-dose praziquantel is efficacious against light-to-moderate S. mansoni infection. Preventive chemotherapy with praziquantel effectively reduces schistosome reservoirs and transmission among school-age children. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Parasites: Epidemiology, Treatment and Control)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 1243 KiB  
Article
Research on the Control of Gastrointestinal Strongyles in Sheep by Using Lotus corniculatus or Cichorium intybus in Feed
by Călin-Alexandru Cireșan, Ileana Cocan, Ersilia Alexa, Liliana Cărpinișan, Cătălin Bogdan Sîrbu, Diana Obiștioiu, Beatrice Ana-Maria Jitea, Tiana Florea and Gheorghe Dărăbuș
Pathogens 2023, 12(8), 986; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens12080986 - 27 Jul 2023
Viewed by 835
Abstract
The general practice of sheep farmers in gastrointestinal helminth control is based on the use of commercial drugs, making chemoresistance very common. Considering this, our study focused on the biological control of gastrointestinal parasitism using high-tannin plant hay. Three groups of 30 animals [...] Read more.
The general practice of sheep farmers in gastrointestinal helminth control is based on the use of commercial drugs, making chemoresistance very common. Considering this, our study focused on the biological control of gastrointestinal parasitism using high-tannin plant hay. Three groups of 30 animals each were formed. The control group was additionally fed meadow hay, while the other two groups received chicory (group 2) and bird’s foot trefoil hay (group 3). The number of gastrointestinal strongyle eggs, shed through faeces (EPG), was surveyed for 28 days for all animals. The amounts of total tannins for meadow, chicory, and Lotus corniculatus hay supplements were 13.92 mg/g, 78.59 mg/g, and 94.43 mg/g, while their condensed tannin contents were 2.58 mg/g, 29.84 mg/g, and 15.94 mg/g, respectively. Compared to experimental day 0, there was an increase in EPG of 80.83% in the control group, a decrease of 24.72% in group 2, and a 20% decrease in group 3, by day 28. The p-value was <0.05 between group 1 and the other groups, showing significant differences between the control and experimental groups. The decrease in EPG rates in the experimental groups compared to the control group demonstrates an antiparasitic effect of Lotus corniculatus and chicory. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Parasites: Epidemiology, Treatment and Control)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 604 KiB  
Article
Community Health-Education Intervention Trial against Human Taenia solium Taeniasis/Cysticercosis in Central and Southern Zones of Tanzania
by George Makingi, Bernard Ngowi, Ernatus Mkupasi, Christina Wilson, Andrea Sylvia Winkler, Jahashi Nzalawahe and Helena Ngowi
Pathogens 2023, 12(7), 955; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens12070955 - 20 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1243
Abstract
Poor knowledge of human T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis and insufficient sanitary and hygienic practices have been associated with the persistence of human T. solium infections in endemic areas. Community health education intervention measures were implemented in 42 villages of Kongwa and Songwe Districts to [...] Read more.
Poor knowledge of human T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis and insufficient sanitary and hygienic practices have been associated with the persistence of human T. solium infections in endemic areas. Community health education intervention measures were implemented in 42 villages of Kongwa and Songwe Districts to increase knowledge, improve good practices against infection and reduce incidences of human cysticercosis transmission using a health education package. The health education package comprised of leaflet, poster and a booklet The 42 villages were allocated into intervention group and control group, and each group consisted of 21 villages. Baseline and post-intervention information on social demography, knowledge, safe practices and incidences of human cysticercosis was collected from both village groups. The impact of the intervention was evaluated by comparing changes in knowledge, preventive practices related to human T. solium infections and the cumulative incidence of human cysticercosis between intervention and control villages. There was no significant difference in mean knowledge scores and preventive practice mean scores between the control and intervention groups at baseline. However, there were significantly higher knowledge mean scores in the intervention group compared to the control group at one year post-intervention (2.06 ± 1.45 vs. 0.94 ± 1.18, p < 0.001). There was no significant difference in the mean practice scores between the intervention and the control group at one year post-intervention (2.49 ± 1.13 vs. 2.40 ± 1.13, p = 0.31). Furthermore, there was no significant difference in the prevalence of human T. solium cysticercosis between the intervention and the control group at the baseline (1.4% vs. 1.4%, p = 0.97) by Ag-Elisa, and at one year post-intervention the cumulative incidence of human cysticercosis was 1.9 and 1.2 per cent in the control and intervention group, respectively. There was no significant difference in the cumulative incidence of human cysticercosis between the intervention and the control group at one year post-intervention (p > 0.05). Community health-education intervention is effective at improving the knowledge of human T. solium infections. The improvement in preventive practices and reduction in incidences of human cysticercosis are a gradual process, they may require sanitary and hygienic improvement and more time after the intervention to see improved changes. The study recommends a sustainable public health education on T. solium infections using the health education package through one health approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Parasites: Epidemiology, Treatment and Control)
Show Figures

Figure 1

21 pages, 2283 KiB  
Article
Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Leishmania infantum in Morocco as Revealed by Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) Approach
by Sara El Mazini, Mourad Barhoumi, Idris Mhaidi, Othmane Daoui, Mouad Ait Kbaich, Sofia El Kacem, Imane El idrissi Saik, Myriam Riyad, Khadija Bekhti, Ikram Guizani and Meryem Lemrani
Pathogens 2023, 12(6), 785; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens12060785 - 31 May 2023
Viewed by 1207
Abstract
Leishmania infantum is endemic in Morocco, and it causes both visceral (VL) and cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). In this study, the multilocus sequence typing (MLST) approach was used to investigate the phylogeny and population structure of Leishmania infantum strains isolated from CL and VL [...] Read more.
Leishmania infantum is endemic in Morocco, and it causes both visceral (VL) and cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). In this study, the multilocus sequence typing (MLST) approach was used to investigate the phylogeny and population structure of Leishmania infantum strains isolated from CL and VL patients and the canine reservoir in different leishmaniasis endemic foci in Morocco. For this purpose, eight loci (pgm, alat, me, fh, g6pd, pgd, gpi and cytb) were amplified in 40 samples, out of which 31 were successfully sequenced. The genetic diversity analysis detected a high degree of intraspecific genetic variability among the studied strains. The phylogenetic and the haplotype analyses showed that most of the strains from the same geographical areas clustered together. The recombination among Leishmania infantum strains was revealed through a splits tree analysis and the number of recombination events. Moreover, the assessment of the gene flow between Leishmania infantum and Leishmania tropica through phylogenetic analysis and haplotype diversity in two endemic foci where the two species were sympatric showed no genetic exchange between the two species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Parasites: Epidemiology, Treatment and Control)
Show Figures

Figure 1

8 pages, 622 KiB  
Communication
Plasmodium falciparum Chloroquine-pfcrt Resistant Haplotypes in Brazilian Endemic Areas Four Decades after CQ Withdrawn
by Rebecca de Abreu-Fernandes, Natália Ketrin Almeida-de-Oliveira, Bianca Ervatti Gama, Larissa Rodrigues Gomes, Aline Rosa De Lavigne Mello, Lucas Tavares de Queiroz, Jacqueline de Aguiar Barros, Maria das Graças Costa Alecrim, Rodrigo Medeiros de Souza, Lilian Rose Pratt-Riccio, Patrícia Brasil, Cláudio Tadeu Daniel-Ribeiro and Maria de Fátima Ferreira-da-Cruz
Pathogens 2023, 12(5), 731; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens12050731 - 17 May 2023
Viewed by 1379
Abstract
(1) Background: Malaria is a public health problem worldwide. Despite global efforts to control it, antimalarial drug resistance remains a great challenge. In 2009, our team identified, for the first time in Brazil, chloroquine (CQ)-susceptible Plasmodium falciparum parasites in isolates from the Brazilian [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Malaria is a public health problem worldwide. Despite global efforts to control it, antimalarial drug resistance remains a great challenge. In 2009, our team identified, for the first time in Brazil, chloroquine (CQ)-susceptible Plasmodium falciparum parasites in isolates from the Brazilian Amazon. The present study extends those observations to include survey samples from 2010 to 2018 from the Amazonas and Acre states for the purpose of tracking pfcrt molecular changes in P. falciparum parasites. (2) Objective: to investigate SNPs in the P. falciparum gene associated with chemoresistance to CQ (pfcrt). (3) Methods: Sixty-six P. falciparum samples from the Amazonas and Acre states were collected from 2010 to 2018 in patients diagnosed at the Reference Research Center for Treatment and Diagnosis of Malaria (CPD-Mal/Fiocruz), FMT-HVD and Acre Health Units. These samples were subjected to PCR and DNA Sanger sequencing to identify mutations in pfcrt (C72S, M74I, N75E, and K76T). (4) Results: Of the 66 P. falciparum samples genotyped for pfcrt, 94% carried CQ-resistant genotypes and only 4 showed a CQ pfcrt sensitive-wild type genotype, i.e., 1 from Barcelos and 3 from Manaus. (5) Conclusion: CQ-resistant P. falciparum populations are fixed, and thus, CQ cannot be reintroduced in malaria falciparum therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Parasites: Epidemiology, Treatment and Control)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 1764 KiB  
Article
The Brown Alga Bifurcaria bifurcata Presents an Anthelmintic Activity on All Developmental Stages of the Parasitic Nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri
by Morgane Miclon, Élise Courtot, Fabrice Guégnard, Océane Lenhof, Leslie Boudesocque-Delaye, Maria Matard-Mann, Pi Nyvall Collén, Philippe Castagnone-Sereno and Cédric Neveu
Pathogens 2023, 12(4), 540; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens12040540 - 30 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1209
Abstract
The current control of gastrointestinal (GI) parasitic nematodes mainly relies on the widespread use of anthelmintics, which has inevitably led to resistance. Therefore, there is an urgent need to find new sources of antiparasitic compounds. Macroalgae represent a rich source of active molecules [...] Read more.
The current control of gastrointestinal (GI) parasitic nematodes mainly relies on the widespread use of anthelmintics, which has inevitably led to resistance. Therefore, there is an urgent need to find new sources of antiparasitic compounds. Macroalgae represent a rich source of active molecules and are widely described as having medicinal properties. In the present study, we investigated the potential anthelmintic activity of aqueous extracts from three species of algae (Bifurcaria bifurcata, Grateloupia turuturu and Osmundea pinnatifida) on the murine parasite Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri. Using a set of complementary in vitro tests, including larval development assays, egg hatching tests and nematicidal activity assays on larvae and adults, we report the nematicidal activity of aqueous extracts of B. bifurcata. In addition, aqueous extract fractionation using liquid/liquid partitioning with a solvent of increasing polarity was performed in order to identify the groups of active molecules underlying the anthelmintic activity. Non-polar extracts (heptane, ethyl acetate) demonstrated high anthelmintic potential, highlighting the role of non-polar metabolites such as terpenes. Here, we highlight the strong anthelmintic potential of the brown alga B. bifurcata on a mouse model of GI parasites, thus confirming the strong interest in algae as natural alternatives for the control of parasitic nematodes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Parasites: Epidemiology, Treatment and Control)
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 1192 KiB  
Article
Development of In Vitro Assays with the Canine Hookworm Uncinaria stenocephala and Assessment of Natural Plant Products for Anti-Parasitic Activity
by Heidi A. Geisshirt, Charlotte S. Bonde, Caroline Marcussen, Helena Mejer and Andrew R. Williams
Pathogens 2023, 12(4), 536; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens12040536 - 29 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1494
Abstract
Enteric helminth infection is an increasing concern in companion animals due to reports of resistance to commonly used anthelmintic drugs. Thus, the assessment of new therapeutic options such as bioactive dietary additives is of high importance. Here, we adapted egg hatch, larval migration, [...] Read more.
Enteric helminth infection is an increasing concern in companion animals due to reports of resistance to commonly used anthelmintic drugs. Thus, the assessment of new therapeutic options such as bioactive dietary additives is of high importance. Here, we adapted egg hatch, larval migration, and larval motility assays to screen extracts of several natural ingredients against the canine hookworm Uncinaria stenocephala, a prevalent parasite of dogs in northern Europe. Egg hatch and larval migration assays were established showing that the anthelmintic drugs levamisole and albendazole had strong anti-parasitic activity against U. stenocephala, validating the use of these assays for the assessment of novel anti-parasitic substances. Subsequently, we identified that extracts from the seaweed Saccharina latissima, but not extracts from grape seed or chicory, significantly inhibited both hatching and larval migration. Finally, we showed that α-linolenic acid, a putative anti-parasitic compound from S. latissima, also exhibited anti-parasitic activity. Collectively, our results established a platform for the screening for anthelmintic resistance or novel drug candidates against U. stenocephala and highlighted the potential use of seaweed extracts as a functional food component to help control hookworm infection in dogs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Parasites: Epidemiology, Treatment and Control)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 632 KiB  
Article
Monitoring the Status of Soil-Transmitted Helminthiases in Non-Endemic Implementation Units: A Case Study of Borgu in Northcentral Nigeria
by Babatunde Adewale, Hammed Mogaji, Joshua Balogun, Emmanuel Balogun, Francisca Olamiju and De’Broski Herbert
Pathogens 2023, 12(3), 491; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens12030491 - 21 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1444
Abstract
Nigeria remains the most endemic country in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) for soil-transmitted helminthiases (STH). In line with ongoing monitoring plans, we present findings from a recent analysis of STH epidemiological data in Borgu, one of the non-endemic implementation units for STH in the [...] Read more.
Nigeria remains the most endemic country in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) for soil-transmitted helminthiases (STH). In line with ongoing monitoring plans, we present findings from a recent analysis of STH epidemiological data in Borgu, one of the non-endemic implementation units for STH in the northcentral region of Nigeria. An overall prevalence of 8.8% was recorded for STH infection, which corresponds to a 51.9% decline from the 18.3% reported in 2013. All the infected participants (36 out of 410) had a low intensity of infection. However, more than two-thirds (69%) of the children do not have access to latrine facilities, and 45% of them walk barefoot. Prevalence was significantly associated with community, age, and parental occupation. About 21–25% reduced odds were reported in some of the study communities, and children whose parents were traders had 20 times lower odds of infection compared to those whose parents were farmers. The ongoing preventive chemotherapy program for lymphatic filariasis in the area could be responsible for the huge reduction in prevalence and intensity estimates for STH. It is therefore important to invest in monitoring transmission dynamics in other non-endemic areas to arrest emerging threats through the provision of complementary interventions including WASH facilities and other health educational tools. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Parasites: Epidemiology, Treatment and Control)
Show Figures

Figure 1

8 pages, 390 KiB  
Article
Resistance to Cypermethrin Is Widespread in Cattle Ticks (Rhipicephalus microplus) in the Province of Punjab, Pakistan: In Vitro Diagnosis of Acaricide Resistance
by Zia ud Din Sindhu, Muhammad Usman Naseer, Ali Raza, Bilal Aslam, Javed Ahmad, Rao Zahid Abbas, Muhammad Kasib Khan, Muhammad Imran, Muhammad Arif Zafar and Baharullah Khattak
Pathogens 2022, 11(11), 1293; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11111293 - 04 Nov 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1783
Abstract
Control of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (R.) microplus mainly relies on chemical acaricides and cypermethrin is the most widely used acaricide in Pakistan. Farmers frequently complain about its low efficacy, thus, the present study was designed to quantify the frequency of [...] Read more.
Control of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (R.) microplus mainly relies on chemical acaricides and cypermethrin is the most widely used acaricide in Pakistan. Farmers frequently complain about its low efficacy, thus, the present study was designed to quantify the frequency of cypermethrin resistance in cattle ticks. Engorged female R. microplus were collected and tested for the efficacy of cypermethrin using the FAO-recommended larval packet test. Resistance factors (RF) were estimated at both the lethal concentration for 50% (LC50) and 99% (LC99) of ticks. Thirty-three samples were tested, of which 8/33 (24.24%) were classified as resistant based on the RF50, and all 33 were classified as resistant based on the RF99. In District Sargodha, when only the RF50 was considered, 45.5% of samples were classified as resistant, but at RF99, all tested samples were identified as resistant. In District Okara, the variation in RF50 estimates was 2.2–8.3 and variation in RF99 estimates was 10.6–1139.8. Similar results were found in District Attock, where variations in RF50 were 0.8–8.5 and RF99 ranged from 9–237.3. The study showed that cypermethrin resistance is prevalent in these three districts of Pakistan and is likely to be overestimated by classification based on the RF99. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Parasites: Epidemiology, Treatment and Control)
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 3500 KiB  
Article
Tsetse Flies Infected with Trypanosomes in Three Active Human African Trypanosomiasis Foci of the Republic of Congo
by Irina Bemba, Arsene Lenga, Herman Parfait Awono-Ambene and Christophe Antonio-Nkondjio
Pathogens 2022, 11(11), 1275; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11111275 - 31 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1311
Abstract
Introduction: Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is a neglected tropical disease still endemic in the Republic of Congo. Despite the continuous detection of HAT cases in the country, there is still not enough data on trypanosome infections in tsetse flies, trypanosome species and tsetse [...] Read more.
Introduction: Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is a neglected tropical disease still endemic in the Republic of Congo. Despite the continuous detection of HAT cases in the country, there is still not enough data on trypanosome infections in tsetse flies, trypanosome species and tsetse flies’ species distribution in endemic foci. The present study was intended to fill this gap and improve understanding of trypanosome circulation in three active foci in the centre and south of Congo. Methods: Pyramid traps were set in various places in villages to collect tsetse flies both during the rainy and dry seasons. Once collected, tsetse flies were identified using morphological keys. DNA extracted from flies was processed by PCR for species identification and for detection of trypanosome presence. A second PCR was run for different trypanosome species identification. Results: A total of 1291 tsetse flies were collected. The average apparent density of flies per day was 0.043 in Mpouya, 0.73 in Ngabé and 2.79 in Loudima. Glossina fuscipes quazensis was the predominant tsetse fly collected in Ngabé and Mpouya, while Glossina palpalis palpalis was the only tsetse fly found in Loudima. A total of 224 (17.7%) flies were detected infected by trypanosomes; 100 (7.91%) by Trypanosoma congolense savannah, 22 (1.74%) by Trypanosoma congolense forest, 15 (1.19%) by Trypanosoma vivax, 83 (6.56%) by Trypanosoma brucei (s.l.) and 2 (0.16%) undetermined species. No T Trypanosoma brucei gambiense was found. A total of 57 co-infections between T. brucei (s.l.) and T. congolense savannah or T. brucei (s.l.) and T. congolense forest were found only in G. p. palpalis. Loudima recorded the highest number of infected tsetse flies. Conclusion: The study provided updated information on the distribution of tsetse fly populations as well as on Trypanosoma species circulating in tsetse flies in the different active HAT foci in Congo. These data suggested a high risk of potential transmission of animal trypanosomes in these foci, thus stressing the need for active surveillance in this endemic area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Parasites: Epidemiology, Treatment and Control)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 1661 KiB  
Article
Malaria Detection Accelerated: Combing a High-Throughput NanoZoomer Platform with a ParasiteMacro Algorithm
by Shoaib Ashraf, Areeba Khalid, Arend L. de Vos, Yanfang Feng, Petra Rohrbach and Tayyaba Hasan
Pathogens 2022, 11(10), 1182; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11101182 - 14 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1837
Abstract
Eradication of malaria, a mosquito-borne parasitic disease that hijacks human red blood cells, is a global priority. Microscopy remains the gold standard hallmark for diagnosis and estimation of parasitemia for malaria, to date. However, this approach is time-consuming and requires much expertise especially [...] Read more.
Eradication of malaria, a mosquito-borne parasitic disease that hijacks human red blood cells, is a global priority. Microscopy remains the gold standard hallmark for diagnosis and estimation of parasitemia for malaria, to date. However, this approach is time-consuming and requires much expertise especially in malaria-endemic countries or in areas with low-density malaria infection. Thus, there is a need for accurate malaria diagnosis/parasitemia estimation with standardized, fast, and more reliable methods. To this end, we performed a proof-of-concept study using the automated imaging (NanoZoomer) platform to detect the malarial parasite in infected blood. The approach can be used as a steppingstone for malaria diagnosis and parasitemia estimation. Additionally, we created an algorithm (ParasiteMacro) compatible with free online imaging software (ImageJ) that can be used with low magnification objectives (e.g., 5×, 10×, and 20×) both in the NanoZoomer and routine microscope. The novel approach to estimate malarial parasitemia based on modern technologies compared to manual light microscopy demonstrated 100% sensitivity, 87% specificity, a 100% negative predictive value (NPV) and a 93% positive predictive value (PPV). The manual and automated malaria counts showed a good Pearson correlation for low- (R2 = 0.9377, r = 0.9683 and p < 0.0001) as well as high- parasitemia (R2 = 0.8170, r = 0.9044 and p < 0.0001) with low estimation errors. Our robust strategy that identifies and quantifies malaria can play a pivotal role in disease control strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Parasites: Epidemiology, Treatment and Control)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research, Other

23 pages, 1677 KiB  
Review
Importance of ABC Transporters in the Survival of Parasitic Nematodes and the Prospect for the Development of Novel Control Strategies
by Ali Raza, Andrew R. Williams and Muhammad Mustafa Abeer
Pathogens 2023, 12(6), 755; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens12060755 - 24 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1595
Abstract
ABC transporters, a family of ATP-dependent transmembrane proteins, are responsible for the active transport of a wide range of molecules across cell membranes, including drugs, toxins, and nutrients. Nematodes possess a great diversity of ABC transporters; however, only P-glycoproteins have been well-characterized compared [...] Read more.
ABC transporters, a family of ATP-dependent transmembrane proteins, are responsible for the active transport of a wide range of molecules across cell membranes, including drugs, toxins, and nutrients. Nematodes possess a great diversity of ABC transporters; however, only P-glycoproteins have been well-characterized compared to other classes. The ABC transport proteins have been implicated in developing resistance to various classes of anthelmintic drugs in parasitic nematodes; their role in plant and human parasitic nematodes still needs further investigation. Therefore, ABC transport proteins offer a potential opportunity to develop nematode control strategies. Multidrug resistance inhibitors are becoming more attractive for controlling nematodes due to their potential to increase drug efficacy in two ways: (i) by limiting drug efflux from nematodes, thereby increasing the amount of drug that reaches its target site, and (ii) by reducing drug excretion by host animals, thereby enhancing drug bioavailability. This article reviews the role of ABC transporters in the survival of parasitic nematodes, including the genes involved, their regulation and physiological roles, as well as recent developments in their characterization. It also discusses the association of ABC transporters with anthelmintic resistance and the possibility of targeting them with next-generation inhibitors or nutraceuticals (e.g., polyphenols) to control parasitic infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Parasites: Epidemiology, Treatment and Control)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Other

Jump to: Research, Review

30 pages, 6833 KiB  
Systematic Review
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitosis in Guinea: Systematic Review of the Literature and Meta-Analysis
by Timothé Guilavogui, Stéphane Verdun, Akoï Koïvogui, Eric Viscogliosi and Gabriela Certad
Pathogens 2023, 12(2), 336; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens12020336 - 16 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1571
Abstract
Background: Intestinal parasitosis constitute a major public health issue, particularly in sub-tropical and tropical areas. Even though they are classified as neglected tropical diseases, no national study has been carried out recently in Guinea to estimate the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis. Objective: A [...] Read more.
Background: Intestinal parasitosis constitute a major public health issue, particularly in sub-tropical and tropical areas. Even though they are classified as neglected tropical diseases, no national study has been carried out recently in Guinea to estimate the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis. Objective: A systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to determine the overall prevalence of intestinal parasitosis in Guinea. Method: The PRISMA method was used to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis. The studies carried out in order to study intestinal parasitosis in Guinea and published between 2010 and 2020 were searched in online public databases. The prevalence of parasitosis was calculated by a random-effects meta-analysis. Subgroup comparisons were performed using Q-tests. Statistical analyses were performed with the R software. This review was registered with PROSPERO under the identification number CRD42022349743. Results: 69 studies were selected out of 1230 studies identified in online public databases. The meta-analysis involved 44,186 people with an overall prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections of 52%. Conclusions: This is the first study in Guinea to assess the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in different regions of the country. It was found that intestinal parasitosis are a real health problem in Guinea, hence, the need to put in place national strategies for regular control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Parasites: Epidemiology, Treatment and Control)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop