Advances in the Control of the Helminthosis in Domestic Animals

A special issue of Pathogens (ISSN 2076-0817). This special issue belongs to the section "Parasitic Pathogens".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 September 2022) | Viewed by 22505

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Departamento de Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Viçosa (UFV), Viçosa 36570-000, Brazil
Interests: Preventive Veterinary Medicine; biological control; chemical control of parasites; nematophagous fungi; predatory fungus; parasitic nematodes of animals; nematodes, helminths and nematode-trapping fungi
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Helminthosis represents a global problem that is not only attributed to financial losses, but also to losses caused by damage to animal health. To overcome this problem, the most common behavior of owners and breeders is to resort to the use of anthelmintic chemicals. However, this alternative has often presented unsatisfactory results, since the occurrence of the development of resistance by parasites to commercially available antiparasitic drugs has been reported frequently in several countries. Changes in consumer perspective regarding animal welfare in production and sustainability have conquered a significant share of the market as a result of demand for chemical-free products. Among the advances for the control of helminthosis, we have the biological control, vaccines, resistant breeds, nanotechnology and even new anthelmintics, whether chemical or phytotherapeutic, that are necessary for the dynamics of the control of helminthosis.

Prof. Dr. Jackson Victor de Araújo
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • chemical or biological control
  • vaccines
  • phytotherapeutics
  • resistant breeds

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Editorial

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3 pages, 198 KiB  
Editorial
Advances in the Control of the Helminthosis in Domestic Animals
by Jackson Victor de Araújo
Pathogens 2023, 12(9), 1107; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens12091107 - 30 Aug 2023
Viewed by 628
Abstract
The damage caused by parasitic worms is related to delays in production, the cost of prophylactic and curative treatments and, in extreme cases, the death of animals [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in the Control of the Helminthosis in Domestic Animals)

Research

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11 pages, 3754 KiB  
Article
Efficiency of Experimental Formulation Containing Duddingtonia flagrans and Pochonia chlamydosporia against Moniezia expansa Eggs
by Giancarlo Bomfim Ribeiro, Ially de Almeida Moura, André Ricardo e Silva, Jackson Victor de Araújo, Caio Márcio de Oliveira Monteiro, Júlia dos Santos Fonseca, Ana Patrícia David de Oliveira and Wendell Marcelo de Souza Perinotto
Pathogens 2023, 12(8), 1028; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens12081028 - 10 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1564
Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the experimental formulation containing chlamydospores of Duddingtonia flagrans and Pochonia chlamydosporia fungi, against Moniezia expansa. Two experiments were carried out. The first experiment evaluated the in vitro efficacy using 1 g of the experimental [...] Read more.
This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the experimental formulation containing chlamydospores of Duddingtonia flagrans and Pochonia chlamydosporia fungi, against Moniezia expansa. Two experiments were carried out. The first experiment evaluated the in vitro efficacy using 1 g of the experimental formulation (V1) added to 100 M. expansa eggs and the control (V2) (without the fungal formulation). Intact eggs or eggs with alterations were counted in order to evaluate their effectiveness. The second experiment evaluated the action of the fungal formulation on M. expansa eggs after passing through the gastrointestinal tract of goats. Three groups were identified as B1, B2, and B3, which received 1.0, 1.5 g of experimental fungal formulation, and placebo, respectively. In experiment 1, all the eggs in V1 were subjected to the predatory action of fungi, while in V2, the eggs remained intact. In experiment 2, the reduction of eggs in groups B1 and B2 were 49% and 57% 24 h after ingestion, 60% and 63% 48 h after, and 48% and 58% 72 h after. The predatory capacity against M. expansa eggs shown in the tests demonstrated that experimental fungal formulation has the potential to be used on integrated helminth control programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in the Control of the Helminthosis in Domestic Animals)
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19 pages, 3160 KiB  
Article
Assembly and Analysis of Haemonchus contortus Transcriptome as a Tool for the Knowledge of Ivermectin Resistance Mechanisms
by David Emanuel Reyes-Guerrero, Verónica Jiménez-Jacinto, Rogelio Alejandro Alonso-Morales, Miguel Ángel Alonso-Díaz, Jocelyn Maza-Lopez, René Camas-Pereyra, Agustín Olmedo-Juárez, Rosa Isabel Higuera-Piedrahita and María Eugenia López-Arellano
Pathogens 2023, 12(3), 499; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens12030499 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1932
Abstract
Haemonchus contortus (Hc) is an important parasitic nematode of small ruminants. In this study we assembled the transcriptome of Hc as a model to contribute to the knowledge about the profile of the differential gene expression between two Mexican Hc strains under different [...] Read more.
Haemonchus contortus (Hc) is an important parasitic nematode of small ruminants. In this study we assembled the transcriptome of Hc as a model to contribute to the knowledge about the profile of the differential gene expression between two Mexican Hc strains under different anthelmintic resistance statuses, one susceptible and the other resistant to ivermectin (IVMs and IVMr, respectively), in order to improve and/or to have new strategies of control and diagnosis. The transcript sequence reads were assembled and annotated. Overall, ~127 Mbp were assembled and distributed into 77,422 transcript sequences, and 4394 transcripts of the de novo transcriptome were matched base on at least one of the following criteria: (1) Phylum Nemathelminthes and Platyhelminthes, important for animal health care, and (2) ≥55% of sequence identity with other organisms. The gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis (GOEA) was performed to study the level of gene regulation to IVMr and IVMs strains using Log Fold Change (LFC) filtering values ≥ 1 and ≥ 2. The upregulated-displayed genes obtained via GOEA were: 1993 (for LFC ≥ 1) and 1241 (for LFC ≥ 2) in IVMr and 1929 (for LFC ≥ 1) and 835 (for LFC ≥ 2) in IVMs. The enriched GO terms upregulated per category identified the intracellular structure, intracellular membrane-bounded organelle and integral component of the cell membrane as some principal cellular components. Meanwhile, efflux transmembrane transporter activity, ABC-type xenobiotic transporter activity and ATPase-coupled transmembrane transporter activity were associated with molecular function. Responses to nematicide activity, pharyngeal pumping and positive regulation of synaptic assembly were classified as biological processes that might be involved in events related to the anthelmintic resistance (AR) and nematode biology. The filtering analysis of both LFC values showed similar genes related to AR. This study deepens our knowledge about the mechanisms behind the processes of H. contortus in order to help in tool production and to facilitate the reduction of AR and promote the development of other control strategies, such as anthelmintic drug targets and vaccines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in the Control of the Helminthosis in Domestic Animals)
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12 pages, 1433 KiB  
Article
A New Comestible Formulation of Parasiticide Fungi to Reduce the Risk of Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections in a Canine Shelter
by Cándido Viña, Rami Salmo, María Vilá Pena, Antonio Miguel Palomero, José Ángel Hernández, Cristiana Cazapal-Monteiro, María Sol Arias, Rita Sánchez-Andrade and Adolfo Paz-Silva
Pathogens 2022, 11(11), 1391; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11111391 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1412
Abstract
Dogs cared for in a shelter are dewormed every three–four months, but they all become infected one–two months later by the soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, Trichuris vulpis, and Ancylostoma caninum. For the purpose of reducing their risk [...] Read more.
Dogs cared for in a shelter are dewormed every three–four months, but they all become infected one–two months later by the soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, Trichuris vulpis, and Ancylostoma caninum. For the purpose of reducing their risk of infection by decreasing the survival of helminths’ infective stages in soil, chlamydospores of two parasiticide fungi, Mucor circinelloides (ovicide) and Duddingtonia flagrans (larvicide) were formulated as handmade edible gelatins and given three days per week for 17 months to 18 dogs (DRF, dogs receiving fungi); a second group was maintained without fungi (CD, control dogs). All individuals were dewormed at months 0, 3, 7, 10 and 13, and it was observed that the levels of helminths egg-output were reduced by 96–98% fourteen days after each treatment. Fecal egg counts of STHs were similar in both groups until the 6th–8th months, and then remained significantly lower in DRF than in CD (42–100% ascarids; 30–100% trichurids and ancylostomatids). According to the results, and considering that gelatin treats have always been fully accepted, it is concluded that this new formulation offers an efficient solution to decrease the risk of infection among dogs maintained in shelters, and is therefore recommended. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in the Control of the Helminthosis in Domestic Animals)
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15 pages, 3500 KiB  
Article
Oxalis tetraphylla (Class: Magnoliopsidae) Possess Flavonoid Phytoconstituents with Nematocidal Activity against Haemonchus contortus
by Ana Yuridia Ocampo-Gutiérrez, Víctor Manuel Hernández-Velázquez, Alejandro Zamilpa, María Eugenia López-Arellano, Agustín Olmedo-Juárez, Rosa Isabel Higuera-Piedrahita, Edgar Jesús Delgado-Núñez, Manasés González-Cortázar and Pedro Mendoza-de Gives
Pathogens 2022, 11(9), 1024; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11091024 - 8 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1430
Abstract
The nematocidal activity of an Oxalis tetraphylla hydroalcoholic extract against the nematode Haemonchus contortus (Hc) was assessed in vitro and the major compounds associated with nematocidal activity were identified. One hydroalcoholic extract was obtained from O. tetraphylla stems and leaves ( [...] Read more.
The nematocidal activity of an Oxalis tetraphylla hydroalcoholic extract against the nematode Haemonchus contortus (Hc) was assessed in vitro and the major compounds associated with nematocidal activity were identified. One hydroalcoholic extract was obtained from O. tetraphylla stems and leaves (Ot HE-SLE). The in vitro lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC90) against both eggs and exsheathed Hc infective larvae (L3) were assessed. Ot HE-SLE showed a potent ovicidal activity (LC50 = 0.213 mg/mL; LC90 = 0.71 mg/mL) and larvicidal effect (LC50 = 28.01 mg/mL; LC90 = 69.3 mg/mL). Later on, the extract was bipartitioned to obtain an ethyl acetate phase (EtOAc-Ph) and an aqueous phase (Aq-Ph). Both phases were assessed against Hc eggs at 0.25 and 1.0 mg/mL concentrations. The results with EtOAc-Ph showed 93.6% ovicidal activity, while 96.6% was recorded with Aq-Ph at 48 h post-confrontation (PC). In the case of larvicidal activity, both phases were assessed at 28 mg/mL; Aq-Ph showed >80% larvicidal activity 24 and 72 h PC, while EtOAc-Ph did not show important activity. HPLC analysis showed the presence of coumaric acid and flavonols. Flavonol compounds were the major compounds and were associated with the nematocidal activity. Additionally, the Aq-Ph that showed the highest activity was purified, and the fraction F3 showed the highest nematocidal activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in the Control of the Helminthosis in Domestic Animals)
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7 pages, 444 KiB  
Article
Efficacy of a Fungal Formulation with the Nematophagous Fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia in the Biological Control of Bovine Nematodiosis
by Júlia dos Santos Fonseca, Vinícius Monteiro Ferreira, Samuel Galvão de Freitas, Ítalo Stoupa Vieira and Jackson Victor de Araújo
Pathogens 2022, 11(6), 695; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11060695 - 16 Jun 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1659
Abstract
In the control of bovine worms, biological control by nematophagous fungi stands out, especially Pochoniachlamydosporia which causes the destruction of helminth eggs. This study aims to test the effectiveness of a formulation containing the nematophagous fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia isolated for the biological control [...] Read more.
In the control of bovine worms, biological control by nematophagous fungi stands out, especially Pochoniachlamydosporia which causes the destruction of helminth eggs. This study aims to test the effectiveness of a formulation containing the nematophagous fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia isolated for the biological control of bovine nematodiosis. Twelve cattle were divided into two groups: control group (GC) and the group that received the formulation (GT). Feces and pasture samples were collected for the research of gastrointestinal nematodes. Lung worms and trematodes were investigated. The animals were weighed monthly. The averages of temperature and rainfall were recorded. The supply of the fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia was not effective in reducing the eggs per gram of feces of gastrointestinal nematodes (EPG) of the animals, not differing statistically (p > 0.05) between the groups. The mean values of larvae recovered in the pasture did not differ significantly (p > 0.05). The genus Haemonchus sp. was the most prevalent. There was no correlation between the number of larvae with temperature and rainfall (p > 0.05). There was a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) in the penultimate weighing of the experiment. The formulation containing Pochonia chlamydosporia was not efficient in the biological control of bovine gastrointestinal nematodes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in the Control of the Helminthosis in Domestic Animals)
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8 pages, 1372 KiB  
Article
The Use of Pythium oligandrum in the Biological Control of Roundworm Infection in Dogs and Cats
by Iasmina Luca, Marius Stelian Ilie, Tiana Florea, Adrian Olariu-Jurca, Adrian Stancu and Gheorghe Dărăbuş
Pathogens 2022, 11(3), 367; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11030367 - 17 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2538
Abstract
Pythium oligandrum is an oomycete used in veterinary medicine to treat dermatophytosis in animals. The ovicidal potential against various types of parasite eggs has not been investigated. Ascarids are very common in young animals and the resistance of eggs in the external environment [...] Read more.
Pythium oligandrum is an oomycete used in veterinary medicine to treat dermatophytosis in animals. The ovicidal potential against various types of parasite eggs has not been investigated. Ascarids are very common in young animals and the resistance of eggs in the external environment is very high. A commercial product containing P. oligandrum was used in the present study. Its ovicidal action against Toxocara spp. eggs was investigated. Thus, two categories of media (soil and sandstone) were used, on which the ascarid eggs were dispersed. The commercial product was prepared as a solution and was applied according to the manufacturer. The treatment scheme indicated in case of animals with dermatophytosis was used. Thus, the external natural conditions were recreated in the laboratory, in order to establish whether there is any applicability for this oomycete in the biological control of some parasitic diseases. The results indicated an ovicidal action of Pythium oligandrum, supporting the prospects of its use in the decontamination methods of various surfaces or environments where ascarid eggs from carnivores are found. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in the Control of the Helminthosis in Domestic Animals)
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13 pages, 1264 KiB  
Article
Impact of Sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) Pellets on Parasitological Status, Antibody Responses, and Antioxidant Parameters in Lambs Infected with Haemonchus contortus
by Michaela Komáromyová, Daniel Petrič, Katarína Kucková, Dominika Batťányi, Michal Babják, Michaela Urda Dolinská, Alžbeta Königová, Daniel Barčák, Emília Dvorožňáková, Klaudia Čobanová, Zora Váradyová and Marián Várady
Pathogens 2022, 11(3), 301; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11030301 - 27 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2106
Abstract
Our study analyzed the parasitological status, antibody responses, and antioxidant parameters of lambs experimentally infected with a gastrointestinal nematode during the consumption of sainfoin pellets (SFPs) for 14 d. Twenty-four lambs infected with Haemonchus contortus were separated into two groups: untreated animals (control) [...] Read more.
Our study analyzed the parasitological status, antibody responses, and antioxidant parameters of lambs experimentally infected with a gastrointestinal nematode during the consumption of sainfoin pellets (SFPs) for 14 d. Twenty-four lambs infected with Haemonchus contortus were separated into two groups: untreated animals (control) and animals treated with SFPs (600 g dry matter/d). SFP treatment began on day (D) 30 post-infection. The number of eggs per gram (EPG) of feces was quantified on D18, D23, D26, D30, D33, D37, D40, and D44. The mean reductions in EPG on D40 and D44 were 33.6 and 36.7%, respectively. The number of abomasal worms was lower for the SFP than the control group (p < 0.05). SFP treatment did not significantly affect either the total or the local antibody response (p > 0.05). The blood activity of glutathione peroxidase was affected by the treatment (p < 0.022). Adult worms were selected for scanning electron microscopy after necropsy, but surface structures of adult H. contortus females did not differ between the groups. The treatment of lambs with SFPs directly affected the dynamics of infection, probably indirectly by mobilizing the antioxidant defensive system and antibody response thus improving animal resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in the Control of the Helminthosis in Domestic Animals)
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13 pages, 1811 KiB  
Article
Immunization Trials with Recombinant Major Sperm Protein of the Bovine Lungworm Dictyocaulus viviparus
by Andrea Springer, Christian von Holtum, Georg von Samson-Himmelstjerna and Christina Strube
Pathogens 2022, 11(1), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11010055 - 2 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1990
Abstract
The lungworm Dictyocaulus viviparus is one of the most economically important bovine parasites in temperate climate regions. Following infection, D. viviparus induces a temporary protective immunity, and a vaccine based on attenuated, infective larvae is commercially available. However, due to several disadvantages of [...] Read more.
The lungworm Dictyocaulus viviparus is one of the most economically important bovine parasites in temperate climate regions. Following infection, D. viviparus induces a temporary protective immunity, and a vaccine based on attenuated, infective larvae is commercially available. However, due to several disadvantages of the live vaccine, the development of a recombinant subunit vaccine is highly desirable. Therefore, the major sperm protein (MSP), which is essential for the parasite’s reproduction, was tested as a recombinantly Escherichia coli-expressed glutathione-S-transferase (GST)-fused vaccine antigen in immunization trials with two different adjuvants, Quil A and Al(OH)3. Calves (N = 4 per group) were immunized on study day (SD) 0, 21 and 42 and given a challenge infection on SD 63–65. The two control groups received only the respective adjuvant. Based on geometric means (GM), a 53.64% reduction in larvae per female worm was observed in the rMSP Quil A group vs. its control group (arithmetic means (AM): 54.43%), but this difference was not statistically significant. In the rMSP Al(OH)3 group, the mean number of larvae per female worm was even higher than in the respective control group (GM: 9.24%, AM: 14.14%). Furthermore, male and female worm burdens and the absolute number of larvae did not differ significantly, while the Al(OH)3 control group harbored significantly longer worms than the vaccinated group. Vaccinated animals showed a rise in rMSP-specific antibodies, particularly IgG and its subclass IgG1, and the native protein was detected by immunoblots. Although rMSP alone did not lead to significantly reduced worm fecundity, it might still prove useful as part of a multi-component vaccine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in the Control of the Helminthosis in Domestic Animals)
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Review

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17 pages, 403 KiB  
Review
Understanding Animal-Plant-Parasite Interactions to Improve the Management of Gastrointestinal Nematodes in Grazing Ruminants
by Patrizia Ana Bricarello, Cibele Longo, Raquel Abdallah da Rocha and Maria José Hötzel
Pathogens 2023, 12(4), 531; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens12040531 - 29 Mar 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2315
Abstract
Grazing systems have great potential to promote animal welfare by allowing animals to express natural behaviours, but they also present risks to the animals. Diseases caused by gastrointestinal nematodes are some of the most important causes of poor ruminant health and welfare in [...] Read more.
Grazing systems have great potential to promote animal welfare by allowing animals to express natural behaviours, but they also present risks to the animals. Diseases caused by gastrointestinal nematodes are some of the most important causes of poor ruminant health and welfare in grazing systems and cause important economic losses. Reduced growth, health, reproduction and fitness, and negative affective states that indicate suffering are some of the negative effects on welfare in animals infected by gastrointestinal nematode parasitism. Conventional forms of control are based on anthelmintics, but their growing inefficiency due to resistance to many drugs, their potential for contamination of soil and products, and negative public opinion indicate an urgency to seek alternatives. We can learn to deal with these challenges by observing biological aspects of the parasite and the host’s behaviour to develop managements that have a multidimensional view that vary in time and space. Improving animal welfare in the context of the parasitic challenge in grazing systems should be seen as a priority to ensure the sustainability of livestock production. Among the measures to control gastrointestinal nematodes and increase animal welfare in grazing systems are the management and decontamination of pastures, offering multispecies pastures, and grazing strategies such as co-grazing with other species that have different grazing behaviours, rotational grazing with short grazing periods, and improved nutrition. Genetic selection to improve herd or flock parasite resistance to gastrointestinal nematode infection may also be incorporated into a holistic control plan, aiming at a substantial reduction in the use of anthelmintics and endectocides to make grazing systems more sustainable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in the Control of the Helminthosis in Domestic Animals)
14 pages, 736 KiB  
Review
Individual and Combined Application of Nematophagous Fungi as Biological Control Agents against Gastrointestinal Nematodes in Domestic Animals
by Shuoshuo Li, Da Wang, Jianchuan Gong and Ying Zhang
Pathogens 2022, 11(2), 172; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11020172 - 27 Jan 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3550
Abstract
Gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs) are a group of parasites that threaten livestock yields, and the consequent economic losses have led to major concern in the agricultural industry worldwide. The high frequency of anthelmintic resistance amongst GINs has prompted the search for sustainable alternatives. Recently, [...] Read more.
Gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs) are a group of parasites that threaten livestock yields, and the consequent economic losses have led to major concern in the agricultural industry worldwide. The high frequency of anthelmintic resistance amongst GINs has prompted the search for sustainable alternatives. Recently, a substantial number of both in vitro and in vivo experiments have shown that biological controls based on predatory fungi and ovicidal fungi are the most promising alternatives to chemical controls. In this respect, the morphological characteristics of the most representative species of these two large groups of fungi, their nematicidal activity and mechanisms of action against GINs, have been increasingly studied. Given the limitation of the independent use of a single nematophagous fungus (NF), combined applications which combine multiple fungi, or fungi and chemical controls, have become increasingly popular, although these new strategies still have antagonistic effects on the candidates. In this review, we summarize both the advantages and disadvantages of the individual fungi and the combined applications identified to date to minimize recurring infections or to disrupt the life cycle of GINs. The need to discover novel and high-efficiency nematicidal isolates and the application of our understanding to the appropriate selection of associated applications are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in the Control of the Helminthosis in Domestic Animals)
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