Aquatic Animal Pathogens: Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, Preventive and Therapeutic Measures and Host–Pathogen Relationships

A special issue of Pathogens (ISSN 2076-0817). This special issue belongs to the section "Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 July 2024 | Viewed by 6286

Special Issue Editors

College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712000, China
Interests: aquatic bacteriology; aquatic virology; aquatic animal immunology; fish vaccines; fish disease resistance genes; host–pathogen interaction
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province for Fishes Conservation and Utilization in the Upper Reaches of the Yangtze River, Neijiang Normal University, Neijiang 641000, China
Interests: fish pathology; fish immunology; fish vaccines
Laboratory Animal Center, Southwest Medical University, Luzhou 646099, China
Interests: virus evolution; virus classification; pathogen identification; bacterial genome
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Department of Basic Veterinary, College of Veterinary Medicine, Sichuan Agricultural University, Wenjiang 611130, China
Interests: fish pathogen and pathology; fish immunology; fish vaccines

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Aquatic animal pathogens include a wide range of microorganisms, such as viruses, bacteria, parasites and fungi, and cause infectious diseases in aquaculture, threatening aquatic health worldwide. Therefore, the exchange of information derived from original research concerning all aspects of aquatic animal pathogens would be useful in establishing a local and global control strategy against their resulting diseases.

This Special Issue focuses on research regarding all aspects of disease in both wild and cultured aquatic animals. We invite you to submit original or review articles related to aquatic animal pathogens, especially encouraging the submission of manuscripts reporting on emerging aquatic animal diseases as well as innovative strategies and methods for their determination. We also accept original research and review articles about host–pathogen interactions, epidemiology, pathogenesis, pathology, diagnosis and potential preventive (e.g., vaccines, etc.) and therapeutic measures (such as Chinese herbs, etc.) against these aquatic animal pathogens. This Special Issue aims to provide novel knowledge in regard to aquatic animal pathogens, which is essential for the establishment of disease control.

Dr. Erlong Wang
Dr. Yang He
Dr. Zehui Yu
Prof. Dr. Kaiyu Wang
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • aquatic animal virus
  • aquatic animal bacteria
  • aquatic animal pathogen evolution
  • host–pathogen interaction
  • fish pathology
  • fish vaccines
  • immunostimulants
  • Chinese herbs in aquaculture

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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16 pages, 4095 KiB  
Article
Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification for the Fast Detection of Bonamia ostreae and Bonamia exitiosa in Flat Oysters
Pathogens 2024, 13(2), 132; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens13020132 - 30 Jan 2024
Viewed by 452
Abstract
The haplosporidian parasites Bonamia ostreae (BO) and B. exitiosa (BE) are serious oyster pathogens. Two independent laboratories evaluated fluorescence real-time loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays for rapidly detecting these parasites. Specific LAMP assays were designed on the BO actin-1 and BE actin genes. [...] Read more.
The haplosporidian parasites Bonamia ostreae (BO) and B. exitiosa (BE) are serious oyster pathogens. Two independent laboratories evaluated fluorescence real-time loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays for rapidly detecting these parasites. Specific LAMP assays were designed on the BO actin-1 and BE actin genes. A further generic assay was conceived on a conserved region of the 18S gene to detect both Bonamia species. The optimal reaction temperature varied from 65 to 67 °C depending on the test and instrument. Melting temperatures were 89.8–90.2 °C, 87.0–87.6 °C, and 86.2–86.6 °C for each of the BO, BE, and generic assays. The analytical sensitivity of these assays was 50 copies/µL in a 30 min run. The BO and BE test sensitivity was ~1 log lower than a real-time PCR, while the generic test sensitivity was similar to the real-time PCR. Both the BO and BE assays were shown to be specific; however, the generic assay potentially cross-reacts with Haplosporidium costale. The performance of the LAMP assays evaluated on samples of known status detected positives within 7–20 min with a test accuracy of 100% for the BO and generic tests and a 95.8% accuracy for BE. The ease of use, rapidity and affordability of these tests allow for field deployment. Full article
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15 pages, 8549 KiB  
Article
Molecular Characterization and Expression Analysis of IL-10 and IL-6 in Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)
Pathogens 2023, 12(7), 886; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens12070886 - 29 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1070
Abstract
IL-10 and IL-6 play important roles in protecting against inflammation and clearing pathogens from the body. In this study, homologous compounds of IL-10 and IL-6 were identified in channel catfish, and their immune responses were analyzed. The CDS sequences of IL-10 and IL-6 [...] Read more.
IL-10 and IL-6 play important roles in protecting against inflammation and clearing pathogens from the body. In this study, homologous compounds of IL-10 and IL-6 were identified in channel catfish, and their immune responses were analyzed. The CDS sequences of IL-10 and IL-6 were 549 bp and 642 bp, respectively, and showed the highest homology with Ameiurus melas. In addition, the expression of the IL-10 and IL-6 genes was ubiquitous in 10 tissues examined. IL-10 is highly expressed in the liver and slightly expressed in the gill. The high expression of the IL-6 gene was observed in the spleen, heart, and gonad, with the lowest levels in the liver. LPS, Poly(I:C), PHA, and PMA showed a highly significant increase in IL-10 and IL-6 expression 48 h after CCK stimulation (p < 0.01). Otherwise, Yersinia ruckeri, Streptococcus iniae, channel catfish virus, and deltamethrin induced IL-10 and IL-6 expression, varying in intensity between different organs. Our results suggest that IL-10 and IL-6 are involved in the immune response of the host against the pathogen. Full article
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20 pages, 3832 KiB  
Article
Investigating the Ability of Edwardsiella ictaluri and Flavobacterium covae to Persist within Commercial Catfish Pond Sediments under Laboratory Conditions
Pathogens 2023, 12(7), 871; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens12070871 - 25 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1021
Abstract
Two prevalent bacterial diseases in catfish aquaculture are enteric septicemia of catfish and columnaris disease caused by Edwardsiella ictaluri and Flavobacterium covae, respectively. Chronic and recurring outbreaks of these bacterial pathogens result in significant economic losses for producers annually. Determining if these [...] Read more.
Two prevalent bacterial diseases in catfish aquaculture are enteric septicemia of catfish and columnaris disease caused by Edwardsiella ictaluri and Flavobacterium covae, respectively. Chronic and recurring outbreaks of these bacterial pathogens result in significant economic losses for producers annually. Determining if these pathogens can persist within sediments of commercial ponds is paramount. Experimental persistence trials (PT) were conducted to evaluate the persistence of E. ictaluri and F. covae in pond sediments. Twelve test chambers containing 120 g of sterilized sediment from four commercial catfish ponds were inoculated with either E. ictaluri (S97-773) or F. covae (ALG-00-530) and filled with 8 L of disinfected water. At 1, 2, 4-, 6-, 8-, and 15-days post-inoculation, 1 g of sediment was removed, and colony-forming units (CFU) were enumerated on selective media using 6 × 6 drop plate methods. E. ictaluri population peaked on Day 3 at 6.4 ± 0.5 log10 CFU g−1. Correlation analysis revealed no correlation between the sediment physicochemical parameters and E. ictaluri log10 CFU g−1. However, no viable F. covae colonies were recovered after two PT attempts. Future studies to improve understanding of E. ictaluri pathogenesis and persistence, and potential F. covae persistence in pond bottom sediments are needed. Full article
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22 pages, 3625 KiB  
Article
Genome Characteristics of Two Ranavirus Isolates from Mandarin Fish and Largemouth Bass
Pathogens 2023, 12(5), 730; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens12050730 - 17 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1166
Abstract
Ranaviruses are promiscuous pathogens that threaten lower vertebrates globally. In the present study, two ranaviruses (SCRaV and MSRaV) were isolated from two fishes of the order Perciformes: mandarin fish (Siniperca chuatsi) and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). The two ranaviruses [...] Read more.
Ranaviruses are promiscuous pathogens that threaten lower vertebrates globally. In the present study, two ranaviruses (SCRaV and MSRaV) were isolated from two fishes of the order Perciformes: mandarin fish (Siniperca chuatsi) and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). The two ranaviruses both induced cytopathic effects in cultured cells from fish and amphibians and have the typical morphologic characteristics of ranaviruses. Complete genomes of the two ranaviruses were then sequenced and analyzed. Genomes of SCRaV and MSRaV have a length of 99, 405, and 99, 171 bp, respectively, and both contain 105 predicted open reading frames (ORFs). Eleven of the predicted proteins have differences between SCRaV and MSRaV, in which only one (79L) possessed a relatively large difference. A comparison of the sequenced six ranaviruses from the two fish species worldwide revealed that sequence identities of the six proteins (11R, 19R, 34L, 68L, 77L, and 103R) were related to the place where the virus was isolated. However, there were obvious differences in protein sequence identities between the two viruses and iridoviruses from other hosts, with more than half lower than 55%. Especially, 12 proteins of the two isolates had no homologs in viruses from other hosts. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that ranaviruses from the two fishes clustered in one clade. Further genome alignment showed five groups of genome arrangements of ranaviruses based on the locally collinear blocks, in which the ranaviruses, including SCRaV and MSRaV, constitute the fifth group. These results provide new information on the ranaviruses infecting fishes of Perciformes and also are useful for further research of functional genomics of the type of ranaviruses. Full article
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14 pages, 3107 KiB  
Case Report
The Characterisation of Lactococcus garvieae Isolated in an Outbreak of Septicaemic Disease in Farmed Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, Linnaues 1758) in Italy
Pathogens 2024, 13(1), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens13010049 - 04 Jan 2024
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Abstract
In aquaculture, Lactococcus garvieae is a common fish pathogen that can cause significant economic losses in several fresh and saltwater species. Despite the extensive range of hosts, L. garvieae infection in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) has rarely been reported. During the [...] Read more.
In aquaculture, Lactococcus garvieae is a common fish pathogen that can cause significant economic losses in several fresh and saltwater species. Despite the extensive range of hosts, L. garvieae infection in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) has rarely been reported. During the summer of 2023, an outbreak occurred in an inland farm in the Gulf of Follonica (Tuscany, Italy). Fish of various sizes were affected, showing apathy, inappetence, erratic swimming and eye lesions, while the mortality was low (2–3% per month). Anatomopathological examinations suggested a septicaemic infection characterised by melanosis, diffuse redness (skin and fins), paleness (gills and internal organs), haemorrhages and splenomegaly. Seventy swabs from the viscera of 14 subjects were collected and colonies similar to Streptococcus spp. grew from all the samples. Lactococcus garvieae was identified via the biochemical tests, API20STREP, MALDI-TOF, 16S rDNA and whole genome sequencing. Genetical characterisation revealed remarkable differences between this isolate and the strains previously isolated in Italian fish farms. Feed treatments with flumequine and erythromycin were ineffective. Considering the limited effects of antimicrobials, preventive measures, such as vaccination and biosecurity, should be implemented. Full article
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7 pages, 1076 KiB  
Brief Report
Prevalence of Infectious Hypodermal and Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus (IHHNV) in Farmed Procambarus clarkii of the Middle and Lower Reaches of the Yangtze River in China
Pathogens 2023, 12(8), 1038; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens12081038 - 14 Aug 2023
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Abstract
Procambarus clarkii is an important economic aquaculture species worldwide. Infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) infects numerous crustacean hosts, including P. clarkii. However, there have been few reports on the prevalence of IHHNV in P. clarkii. In this study, 200 [...] Read more.
Procambarus clarkii is an important economic aquaculture species worldwide. Infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) infects numerous crustacean hosts, including P. clarkii. However, there have been few reports on the prevalence of IHHNV in P. clarkii. In this study, 200 farmed P. clarkii were collected from Anhui, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Hunan, Hubei, and Sichuan provinces in China. PCR detection was employed per the protocol by the World Organization for Animal Health (WOAH) to identify and detect the presence of IHHNV. The positive rate of IHHNV in different provinces ranged from 16.7 to 56.7%, and the overall IHHNV-positive rate was 38.5%. IHHNV strains isolated in this study related closely to infectious IHHNV and split into two major distinct branches. Besides, the IHHNV strains shared a high homology (93.4–99.4%). These findings suggest that a high prevalence of IHHNV was established in farmed P. clarkii in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River. Full article
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