Novel Insights into Parasitic Infections and Diseases

A special issue of Pathogens (ISSN 2076-0817). This special issue belongs to the section "Parasitic Pathogens".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 May 2023) | Viewed by 6101

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Parasitology and Parasitic Diseases, University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine of Cluj-Napoca, Calea Mănăștur 3-5, 400372 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Interests: veterinary parasitology; helminthology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

It is impossible to estimate the global economic losses caused by parasites, but piecemeal data indicate that zoonotic parasites causing human illnesses lead to economic losses of billions of dollars annually. Malaria is likely the most debilitating of these, with an estimation of 241 million cases reported worldwide in 2020. Furthermore, in 2000, over 20 million people were infected with Onchocerca volvulus, and Entamoeba histolytica is another major parasite of humans, with one-tenth of the world's population, or 500 million people, reported to be infected in 1997, and new diseases are continuously emerging.

Meanwhile, roundworms, pinworms, sarcoptic mange, threadworms, vector-borne filariases, and ticks are the most common parasites in animals. Global warming, human migration, and the trade of live animals are just some of the major factors contributing to the spread of these parasites.

In conclusion, parasitic infections represent a continuous challenge; even for cases of well-known parasitic diseases, there will always be a need to acquire new knowledge.

In this stimulating context, Pathogens is launching a Special Issue entitled “Novel insights into parasitic infections and diseases”, which will provide the scientific community with new information and knowledge from high-quality articles exploring these topics.

This Special Issue is open for the submission of both research and review articles. Potential topics for consideration include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • Parasites and parasitic diseases of domestic animals;  epidemiology, new insights into pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment, and control strategies
  • Food- and vector-borne zoonoses

Prof. Dr. Calin Gherman
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • animal parasites
  • zoonoses
  • livestock
  • pet species
  • human parasites

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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13 pages, 1505 KiB  
Article
Molecular Confirmation of Accipiter Birds of Prey as Definitive Hosts of Numerous Sarcocystis Species, including Sarcocystis sp., Closely Related to Pathogenic S. calchasi
by Tautvilė Šukytė, Dalius Butkauskas, Evelina Juozaitytė-Ngugu, Saulius Švažas and Petras Prakas
Pathogens 2023, 12(6), 752; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens12060752 - 23 May 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 956
Abstract
The present study aimed to test intestinal scrapings of the Northern Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) and the Eurasian Sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus) from Lithuania for S. calchasi and other Sarcocystis species characterised by bird–bird life cycles. The protozoan parasite Sarcocystis [...] Read more.
The present study aimed to test intestinal scrapings of the Northern Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) and the Eurasian Sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus) from Lithuania for S. calchasi and other Sarcocystis species characterised by bird–bird life cycles. The protozoan parasite Sarcocystis calchasi can cause respiratory and neurological diseases in a variety of birds; however, the distribution of this parasite is not well-examined. Sarcocystis species were identified with nested PCR and sequencing of the partial ITS1 region. Sporocysts and/or sporulated oocysts of Sarcocystis spp. were observed in 16 (100%) Northern Goshawks and 9 (56.3%) Eurasian Sparrowhawks. Four species, S. columbae, S. halieti, S. turdusi, and S. wobeseri, were confirmed in the Eurasian Sparrowhawk. Apart from the latter four species, S. calchasi, S. cornixi, S. kutkienae, and S. lari were established in the Northern Goshawk. A higher prevalence of Sarcocystis spp. and species richness in Northern Goshawks is associated with the differences in the diet of two examined Accipiter species. This study is the first report of S. calchasi in Lithuania. Furthermore, the genetically distinct species Sarcocystis spp. 23LTAcc, which is most closely related to S. calchasi, was found in three Northern Goshawks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Insights into Parasitic Infections and Diseases)
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30 pages, 4989 KiB  
Article
Protozoan Parasites of Iranian Freshwater Fishes: Review, Composition, Classification, and Modeling Distribution
by Maryam Barzegar, Mehdi Raissy and Shokoofeh Shamsi
Pathogens 2023, 12(5), 651; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens12050651 - 27 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1754
Abstract
This article investigates the occurrence and distribution of parasitic protozoa of Iranian freshwater fishes (both farmed and wild). Our search shows 26 known parasitic protozoan species were recorded from 52 freshwater fish species across different ecoregions of Iran. Most of these fish are [...] Read more.
This article investigates the occurrence and distribution of parasitic protozoa of Iranian freshwater fishes (both farmed and wild). Our search shows 26 known parasitic protozoan species were recorded from 52 freshwater fish species across different ecoregions of Iran. Most of these fish are edible. While none of the identified protozoan parasites are of zoonotic importance, our study does not exclude presence of zoonotic species in Iranian fishes. Present data suggest the northern and western regions of the country are the main macrohabitat of protozoa (35 parasitic records reported), with the greatest concentration of parasitic protozoa occurring in the Urmia basin in Iran’s northwest. The clustered distribution pattern of protozoa among freshwater fish was also more evident in the northern and western parts of the country. The gills and skin were the most infected microhabitats for parasitic protozoa. The highest number of parasites was observed in the fish family Cyprinidae with nine species found in the native fish, Capoeta capoeta. The most diverse host range was observed in the holotrich ciliate, Ichthyophthirius multifiliis isolated from 46 cyprinid species in 39 different locations. However, due to the great richness of fish and extreme habitat diversity, parts of the parasite fauna of Iranian freshwater fish are still poorly understood. Furthermore, current and future changes in climate and environmental parameters, and anthropogenic interventions are likely to affect fish hosts and their parasites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Insights into Parasitic Infections and Diseases)
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15 pages, 1963 KiB  
Article
Retrospective Survey of Human Trichinellosis in a Romanian Infectious Diseases Hospital over a Thirty-Year Interval—The Never-Ending Story
by Mihaela Lupșe, Angela Monica Ionică, Mirela Flonta, Mihai Aronel Rus and Violeta Briciu
Pathogens 2023, 12(3), 369; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens12030369 - 23 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1132
Abstract
Trichinellosis remains a food-safety risk in Romania due to cultural traditions and food behavior. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the epidemiological, clinical and therapeutical data of all human trichinellosis cases in patients admitted to an Infectious Diseases Hospital from [...] Read more.
Trichinellosis remains a food-safety risk in Romania due to cultural traditions and food behavior. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the epidemiological, clinical and therapeutical data of all human trichinellosis cases in patients admitted to an Infectious Diseases Hospital from northwestern Romania during a thirty-year interval. Between 1 January 1988 and 31 December 2018, a total of 558 patients were hospitalized with the diagnosis of trichinellosis. The number of cases/year varied between 1 and 86. The source of infection was known for 524 patients, represented by domestic pig meat (n = 484; 92.37%) and wild boar (n = 40; 7.63%). Most patients (410; 73.48%) presented were part of family or group outbreaks. Demographical and clinical data of patients will be presented. Antiparasitic therapy was prescribed in 99.46% of cases, and corticosteroids were prescribed in 77.06% of patients. In total, 48 patients (8.6%) presented complications of trichinellosis: 44 for a single complication (neurological, cardiovascular or respiratory); the others multiple complications. Pregnancy was documented in five patients. No fatalities occurred during the study period. Although the number of hospitalized patients has decreased in the last years, trichinellosis still remains an important public health problem in northwestern Romania. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Insights into Parasitic Infections and Diseases)
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14 pages, 1991 KiB  
Case Report
A Rare Case of Strongyloides stercoralis Hyperinfection in a Diabetic Patient from Romania—Case Report and Review of the Literature
by Carmen Costache, Ioana Alina Colosi, Vlad Sever Neculicioiu, Diana Ioana Florian, Bobe Petrushev, Alexandra Vasvari and Andrada Seicean
Pathogens 2023, 12(4), 530; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens12040530 - 29 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1836
Abstract
Severe cases of strongyloidiasis are most often associated with multiple causes of immune suppression, such as corticoid treatment and HTLV (human T-lymphotropic virus) coinfection. Diabetes is not traditionally considered a risk factor for the development of severe strongyloidiasis. We report a rare case [...] Read more.
Severe cases of strongyloidiasis are most often associated with multiple causes of immune suppression, such as corticoid treatment and HTLV (human T-lymphotropic virus) coinfection. Diabetes is not traditionally considered a risk factor for the development of severe strongyloidiasis. We report a rare case of autochthonous severe strongyloidiasis in Romania, a European country with a temperate climate. A 71-year-old patient with no prior travel history was admitted with multiple gastrointestinal complaints and recent weight loss. CT (computed tomography) scans indicated duodenal wall thickening, and duodenal endoscopy evidenced mucosal inflammation, ulcerations and partial duodenal obstruction at D4. Microscopic examination of stool samples and biopsy specimens from the gastric and duodenal mucosa revealed an increased larval burden characteristic of Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection. Sequential treatment with albendazole and ivermectin achieved parasitological cure and complete recovery. The novelty of our case stems from the scarcity of severe strongyloidiasis cases reported in Europe and especially in Romania, the absence of other risk factors in our patient aside from diabetes, the involvement of the gastric mucosa and the rare presentation as partial duodenal obstruction. This case highlights the importance of considering strongyloidiasis as a differential diagnosis, even in temperate climates where cases are sporadic, in cases in which immune suppression is not evident and in the absence of eosinophilia. The case is presented in the context of the first literature review examining the relationship between severe strongyloidiasis and diabetes, emphasizing diabetes as a possible risk factor for severe strongyloidiasis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Insights into Parasitic Infections and Diseases)
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