Infinite and Finite Nuclear Matter (INFINUM)

A special issue of Particles (ISSN 2571-712X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 April 2024) | Viewed by 8207

Special Issue Editors


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1. Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, RU-141980 Dubna, Russia
2. Department of Physics, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Matej Bel University, SK-97401 Banska Bystrica, Slovakia
Interests: hadron physics; hadronic resonances; neutron stars; many-body-effects; Hadron properties in nuclear matter; heavy-ion collisions
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Guest Editor
Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna, Russia
Interests: physics of atomic nuclei

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Guest Editor
Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia
Interests: lattice QCD; equation of state of strongly interacting matter; rotating quark-gluon plasma

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Guest Editor
INFN Sezione di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Catania, Via Santa Sofia 64, I-95123 Catania, Italy
Interests: nuclear physics; neutron stars
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The phase diagram of nuclear matter assumes possibilities of various nontrivial medium effects and phase transformations. These possibilities should be checked thoroughly, both experimentally and theoretically. The atomic nucleus plays a central role in our understanding of the fundamental forces of nature and the emergent phenomena that occur at various scales of physics. New experiments on NICA at JINR will provide us with new important information about the structure of dense nonequilibrium strongly interacting nuclear matter. Nuclear physics underlies the complex structures of materials studied in quantum chemistry and condensed matter physics. Nuclear matter, being an extrapolation of finite nuclei to the infinite particle number, is a product of the same strong interaction. The nuclear structure, nuclear decays, and nuclear reactions determine the origin of elements produced in neutron star mergers and star evolution. The description of compact neutron and hybrid stars requires knowledge of the equation of state of infinite nuclear matter.

The goal of this Special Issue in the Particle journal is to join the efforts of researchers actively working in the field of many-body physics, physics of atomic nuclei, astrophysics, and physics of nucleus–nucleus collisions. Many problems are interrelated and require active cooperation among researchers working in various areas. Invited and contributed talks on recent advancements in the description of finite nuclei and nuclear matter will be organized in topical sessions, which would stimulate cooperation between the two communities. This Special Issue should provide a platform for discussions, exchanging ideas, and, eventually, for further progress in the field. Potential topics include, but are not limited to:

  • hadronic equation of state in various temperature–density regimes
  • phase transitions and fluctuations;
  • strangeness in heavy-ion collisions and compact stars;
  • role of pions and Delta-isobars and hyperons;
  • photon and dilepton production in heavy-ion collision;
  • cluster formation and deformed nuclei;
  • vorticity, magnetic fields, and spin physics;
  • giant resonances;
  • heavy-ion experiments at BNL and JINR. 

Dr. Evgeni Kolomeitsev
Dr. Nikolai Antonenko
Prof. Dr. David Blaschke
Prof. Dr. Victor Braguta
Dr. Isaac Vidaña
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • nucleus-nucleus collisions
  • neutron stars
  • cluster formation
  • vortices
  • hadronic equation of state
  • deformed nuclei
  • giant resonances in nuclei

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

8 pages, 748 KiB  
Communication
Experimental Study of Cold Dense Nuclear Matter
by Maria Patsyuk, Timur Atovullaev, Goran Johansson, Dmitriy Klimanskiy, Vasilisa Lenivenko, Sergey Nepochatykh and Eli Piasetzky
Particles 2024, 7(1), 229-236; https://doi.org/10.3390/particles7010013 - 8 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1019
Abstract
The fundamental theory of nuclear interactions, Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), operates in terms of quarks and gluons at higher resolution. At low resolution the relevant degrees of freedom are nucleons. Two-nucleon Short-Range Correlations (SRC) help to interconnect these two descriptions. SRCs are temporary fluctuations [...] Read more.
The fundamental theory of nuclear interactions, Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), operates in terms of quarks and gluons at higher resolution. At low resolution the relevant degrees of freedom are nucleons. Two-nucleon Short-Range Correlations (SRC) help to interconnect these two descriptions. SRCs are temporary fluctuations of strongly interacting close pairs of nucleons. The distance between the two nucleons is comparable to their radii and their relative momenta are larger than the fermi sea level. According to the electron scattering experiments held in the last decade, SRCs have far-reaching impacts on many-body systems, the nucleon-nucleon interactions, and nuclear substructure. The modern experiments with ion beams and cryogenic liquid hydrogen target make it possible to study properties of the nuclear fragments after quasi-elastic knockout of a single nucleon or an SRC pair. Here we review the status and perspectives of the SRC program in so-called inverse kinematics at JINR (Dubna, Russia). The first SRC experiment at the BM@N spectrometer (2018) with 4 GeV/c/nucleon carbon beam has shown that detection of an intact 11B nucleus after interaction selects out the quasi-elastic knockout reaction with minimal contribution of initial- and final-state interactions. Also, 25 events of SRC-breakups showed agreement in SRC properties as known from electron beam experiments. The analysis of the second measurement of SRC at BM@N held in 2022 with an improved setup is currently ongoing. The SRC project at JINR moved to a new experimental area in 2023, where the next measurement is being planned in terms of experimental setup and physics goals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infinite and Finite Nuclear Matter (INFINUM))
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10 pages, 833 KiB  
Article
Diquarks and Λ0/π+, Ξ/π+ Ratios in the Framework of the EPNJL Model
by Alexandra Friesen and Yuriy Kalinovsky
Particles 2023, 6(4), 876-885; https://doi.org/10.3390/particles6040056 - 10 Oct 2023
Viewed by 879
Abstract
The applicability of the effective models to the description of baryons and the behaviour of ratios of strange baryons to pions is discussed. In the framework of the EPNJL model, the Bethe–Salpeter equation is used to find masses of baryons, which are considered [...] Read more.
The applicability of the effective models to the description of baryons and the behaviour of ratios of strange baryons to pions is discussed. In the framework of the EPNJL model, the Bethe–Salpeter equation is used to find masses of baryons, which are considered to be in a diquark-quark state. Baryon melting is discussed at a finite chemical potential, and a flavor dependence of the hadronic deconfinement temperature is pointed out. It is shown that the description of the diquark-quark state at finite chemical potential is limited due to the occurrence of Bose condensate. This effect is strongly manifested in the description of light diquarks and baryons. Both the Λ0/π+ and Ξ/π+ ratios show a sharp behaviour as functions of the T/μB variable, where T and μB are calculated along the melting lines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infinite and Finite Nuclear Matter (INFINUM))
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17 pages, 2187 KiB  
Article
Hyperonic Interactions in Neutron Stars
by Semyon Mikheev, Dmitry Lanskoy, Artur Nasakin and Tatiana Tretyakova
Particles 2023, 6(3), 847-863; https://doi.org/10.3390/particles6030054 - 8 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1270
Abstract
The matter of neutron stars is characterised by the density of the order of typical nuclear densities; hence, it can be described with methods of nuclear physics. However, at high densities, some effects that are absent in nuclear and hypernuclear physics can appear, [...] Read more.
The matter of neutron stars is characterised by the density of the order of typical nuclear densities; hence, it can be described with methods of nuclear physics. However, at high densities, some effects that are absent in nuclear and hypernuclear physics can appear, and this makes neutron stars a good place for studying the properties of baryonic interactions. In the present work, we consider neutron stars consisting of nucleons, leptons and Λ hyperons with Skyrme baryonic forces. We study the character of the ΛN interactions taking place in neutron stars at high densities. In particular, we show the difference between three-body ΛNN and density-dependent ΛN forces. We also demonstrate that the Skyrme ΛN forces proportional to nuclear density are better suited for the modelling of neutron stars than the forces proportional to fractional powers of density. Finally, we emphasize the importance of the point of appearance of hyperons in a further search for parameterizations which are suitable for describing neutron stars. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infinite and Finite Nuclear Matter (INFINUM))
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13 pages, 1145 KiB  
Article
Lee–Yang Zeroes in the Baryon Fugacity Plane: The Role of High Densities
by Nikolai Gerasimeniuk, Vitaly Bornyakov, Vladimir Goy, Roman Rogalyov, Anatolii Korneev, Alexander Molochkov and Atsushi Nakamura
Particles 2023, 6(3), 834-846; https://doi.org/10.3390/particles6030053 - 7 Sep 2023
Viewed by 952
Abstract
We compute the canonical partition functions and the Lee–Yang zeros in Nf=2 lattice QCD at temperature T=1.20Tc lying above the Roberge–Weiss phase transition temperature TRW. The phase transition is characterized by the discontinuities [...] Read more.
We compute the canonical partition functions and the Lee–Yang zeros in Nf=2 lattice QCD at temperature T=1.20Tc lying above the Roberge–Weiss phase transition temperature TRW. The phase transition is characterized by the discontinuities in the baryon number density at specific values of imaginary baryon chemical potential. We further develop our method to compute the canonical partition functions using the asymptotic expression for respective integral. Then, we compute the Lee–Yang zeros and study their behavior in the limit of high baryon density. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infinite and Finite Nuclear Matter (INFINUM))
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17 pages, 818 KiB  
Article
Stripping Model for Short GRBs: The Impact of Nuclear Data
by Andrey Yudin, Nikita Kramarev, Igor Panov and Anton Ignatovskiy
Particles 2023, 6(3), 784-800; https://doi.org/10.3390/particles6030050 - 24 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1128
Abstract
We investigate the impact of forthcoming nuclear data on the predictions of the neutron star (NS) stripping model for short gamma-ray bursts. The main area to which we pay attention is the NS crust. We show that the uncertain properties of the NS [...] Read more.
We investigate the impact of forthcoming nuclear data on the predictions of the neutron star (NS) stripping model for short gamma-ray bursts. The main area to which we pay attention is the NS crust. We show that the uncertain properties of the NS equation of state can significantly influence the stripping time tstr, the main dynamical parameter of the model. Based on the known time delay (tstr1.7 s) between the peak of the gravitational wave signal GW170817 and the detection of gamma photons from GRB170817A, we obtain new restrictions on the nuclear matter parameters, in particular, the symmetry energy slope parameter: L<114.5MeV. In addition, we study the process of nucleosynthesis in the outer and inner crusts of a low-mass NS. We show that the nucleosynthesis is strongly influenced by both the forthcoming nuclear data and the equation of state of the NS matter. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infinite and Finite Nuclear Matter (INFINUM))
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13 pages, 390 KiB  
Article
Net-Baryon Probability Distributions from Lattice Simulations
by Roman Rogalyov and Vladimir Goy
Particles 2023, 6(3), 771-783; https://doi.org/10.3390/particles6030049 - 23 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1011
Abstract
We use the results of lattice simulations of the net-baryon number density at imaginary baryon chemical potential in Nf=2 QCD to construct the equation of state of dense and hot strong-interacting matter both above the Roberge–Weiss temperature [...] Read more.
We use the results of lattice simulations of the net-baryon number density at imaginary baryon chemical potential in Nf=2 QCD to construct the equation of state of dense and hot strong-interacting matter both above the Roberge–Weiss temperature T>TRW and below the critical temperature T<Tc. For these cases, we also evaluate probability distributions of the net-baryon number, as well as the respective cumulants and moments. The consequences of the asymptotic behavior of these probability distributions for the problem of reconstruction of the net-baryon probability distributions from cumulants are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infinite and Finite Nuclear Matter (INFINUM))
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11 pages, 796 KiB  
Article
Neutrino Spectrum and Energy Loss Rates Due to Weak Processes on Hot 56Fe in Pre-Supernova Environment
by A. A. Dzhioev, A. V. Yudin, N. V. Dunina-Barkovskaya and A. I. Vdovin
Particles 2023, 6(3), 682-692; https://doi.org/10.3390/particles6030041 - 28 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1026
Abstract
Applying TQRPA calculations of Gamow–Teller strength functions in hot nuclei, we compute the (anti)neutrino spectra and energy loss rates arising from weak processes on hot 56Fe under pre-supernova conditions. We use a realistic pre-supernova model calculated by the stellar evolution code MESA. [...] Read more.
Applying TQRPA calculations of Gamow–Teller strength functions in hot nuclei, we compute the (anti)neutrino spectra and energy loss rates arising from weak processes on hot 56Fe under pre-supernova conditions. We use a realistic pre-supernova model calculated by the stellar evolution code MESA. Taking into account both charged and neutral current processes, we demonstrate that weak reactions with hot nuclei can produce high-energy (anti)neutrinos. We also show that, for hot nuclei, the energy loss via (anti)neutrino emission is significantly larger than that for nuclei in their ground state. It is found that the neutral current de-excitation via the νν¯-pair emission is presumably a dominant source of antineutrinos. In accordance with other studies, we confirm that the so-called single-state approximation for neutrino spectra might fail under certain pre-supernova conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infinite and Finite Nuclear Matter (INFINUM))
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