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Vitamin D in Insulin Resistance

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Micronutrients and Human Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (18 August 2023) | Viewed by 46525

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Guest Editor
1. Department of Human Sciences and Promotion of the Quality of Life, San Raffaele Roma Open University, Rome, Italy
2. Department of Endocrinology, Nutrition and Metabolic Diseases, IRCCS MultiMedica, Milan, Italy
Interests: obesity; insulin resistance; diabetes; bone health
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Vitamin D appears to play a key role in the regulation of glucose homeostasis in insulin-resistant states such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, and metabolic syndrome, in both sexes and through all stages of life. Serum vitamin D concentration has been reported to be inversely associated with glucose status, insulin resistance, beta-cell function, and risk of developing metabolic syndrome or polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Vitamin D has also been reported to play an important role in the maintenance of pancreatic beta-cell function, in the regulation of insulin secretion, and in the modulation of the response to insulin. Improvements in insulin resistance have been reported following vitamin D supplementation (either alone or in combination with other compounds) in different patient populations. In this Special Issue, we welcome review articles and research papers (observational or interventional studies) that explore the role of vitamin D in glucose metabolism and insulin-resistant states.

Dr. Caterina Conte
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • vitamin D
  • insulin resistance
  • obesity
  • prediabetes
  • type 2 diabetes
  • NAFLD
  • MAFLD
  • metabolic syndrome
  • polycystic ovarian syndrome
  • cardiovascular risk

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

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11 pages, 309 KiB  
Article
Vitamin D and Metabolic Syndrome in Working Age Subjects from an Obesity Clinic
by Luisella Vigna, Michela Carola Speciani, Amedea Silvia Tirelli, Francesca Bravi, Carlo La Vecchia, Caterina Conte and Francesca Gori
Nutrients 2023, 15(20), 4354; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15204354 - 12 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1236
Abstract
Serum vitamin D (VitD) levels have been inversely related with metabolic syndrome (MetS), although the direct impact of VitD is still debated. This study examined 879 subjects of working age from an obesity and occupational clinic in Milan, Italy. Among these participants, 316 [...] Read more.
Serum vitamin D (VitD) levels have been inversely related with metabolic syndrome (MetS), although the direct impact of VitD is still debated. This study examined 879 subjects of working age from an obesity and occupational clinic in Milan, Italy. Among these participants, 316 had MetS, while 563 did not. A multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine the odds ratios (ORs) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for MetS in relation to serum VitD levels. After controlling for age, sex, leisure time physical activity, and body mass index (BMI), individuals with VitD levels between 20 and 29.9 ng/dL, or at least 30 ng/dL, had approximately half the risk of developing MetS (OR: 0.52, 95% CI: 0.32–0.86 and OR: 0.50, 95% CI: 0.25–0.99, respectively) compared to those with VitD levels below 10 ng/dL. This study presents further evidence of the beneficial effect of adequate VitD levels on the risk of MetS in a population of overweight/obese workers, even after adjusting for BMI. This study supports the importance of testing for and—if required—supplementing VitD in individuals with metabolic risk factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D in Insulin Resistance)
10 pages, 283 KiB  
Article
Association between Serum Vitamin D and Metabolic Syndrome in a Sample of Adults in Lebanon
by Myriam Abboud, Rana Rizk, Suzan Haidar, Nadine Mahboub and Dimitrios Papandreou
Nutrients 2023, 15(5), 1129; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15051129 - 23 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1687
Abstract
The evidence on the association between vitamin D and metabolic syndrome (MetS) is inconclusive. This was a cross-sectional study to explore the relationship between vitamin D serum levels and MetS in a sample of Lebanese adults (n = 230), free of diseases [...] Read more.
The evidence on the association between vitamin D and metabolic syndrome (MetS) is inconclusive. This was a cross-sectional study to explore the relationship between vitamin D serum levels and MetS in a sample of Lebanese adults (n = 230), free of diseases that affect vitamin D metabolism, recruited from an urban large university and neighboring community. MetS was diagnosed according to the International Diabetes Federation criteria. A logistic regression analysis was performed taking MetS as the dependent variable, and vitamin D was forced into the model as an independent variable. The covariates included sociodemographic, dietary, and lifestyle variables. The mean (SD) serum vitamin D was 17.53 (12.40) ng/mL, and the prevalence of MetS was 44.3%. Serum vitamin D was not associated with MetS (OR = 0.99 (95% CI: 0.96, 1.02), p < 0.757), whereas the male sex, compared with the female sex and older age, was associated with higher odds of having MetS (OR = 5.92 (95% CI: 2.44, 14.33), p < 0.001 and OR = 1.08 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.11), p < 0.001, respectively). This result adds to the controversy in this field. Future interventional studies are warranted to better understand the relationship between vitamin D and MetS and metabolic abnormalities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D in Insulin Resistance)
13 pages, 571 KiB  
Article
The Weak Relationship between Vitamin D Compounds and Glucose Homeostasis Measures in Pregnant Women with Obesity: An Exploratory Sub-Analysis of the DALI Study
by Lilian Cristina Mendoza, Jürgen Harreiter, Gernot Desoye, David Simmons, Juan M. Adelantado, Alexandra Kautzky-Willer, Agnieszka Zawiejska, Ewa Wender-Ozegowska, Annunziata Lapolla, Maria G. Dalfra, Alessandra Bertolotto, Roland Devlieger, Fidelma Dunne, Elisabeth R. Mathiesen, Peter Damm, Lisse Lotte Andersen, Dorte Moller Jensen, David Hill, Mireille Nicoline Maria van Poppel and Rosa Corcoy
Nutrients 2022, 14(16), 3256; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14163256 - 9 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2025
Abstract
Studies on the relationship between vitamin D (VitD) and glucose homeostasis usually consider either total VitD or 25OHD3 but not 25OHD2 and epimers. We aimed to evaluate the cross-sectional association of VitD compounds with glucose homeostasis measurements in pregnant women with overweight/obesity participating [...] Read more.
Studies on the relationship between vitamin D (VitD) and glucose homeostasis usually consider either total VitD or 25OHD3 but not 25OHD2 and epimers. We aimed to evaluate the cross-sectional association of VitD compounds with glucose homeostasis measurements in pregnant women with overweight/obesity participating in the Vitamin D And Lifestyle Intervention for Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Prevention study. Methods: The analysis included 912 women. Inclusion criteria: <20 weeks gestation, body mass index ≥29 kg/m2 and information on exposure and outcome variables at baseline. Measurements: A 75 g OGTT at <20, 24–28 and 35–37 weeks gestation (except if previous diabetes diagnosis). Exposure variables: 25OHD2, 25OHD3 and C3-epimer. Outcome variables: fasting and post-challenge insulin sensitivity and secretion indices, corresponding disposition indices (DI), plasma glucose at fasting and 1 and 2 h, hyperglycemia in pregnancy (HiP). Statistics: Multivariate regression analyses with adjustment. Results: Baseline VitD sufficiency was 66.3%. Overall, VitD compounds did not show strong associations with any glucose homeostasis measures. 25OHD3 showed direct significant associations with: FPG at <20 and 24–28 weeks (standardized β coefficient (β) 0.124, p = 0.030 and 0.111, p = 0.026 respectively), 2 h plasma glucose at 24–28 weeks (β 0.120, p = 0.018), and insulin sensitivity (1/HOMA-IR, β 0.127, p = 0.027) at 35–37 weeks; it showed an inverse association with fasting DI (QUCKI*HOMA-β) at <20 and 24–28 weeks (β −0.124, p = 0.045 and β −0.148, p = 0.004 respectively). 25OHD2 showed direct associations with post-challenge insulin sensitivity (Matsuda, β 0.149, p = 0.048) at 24–28 weeks) and post-challenge DI (Matsuda*Stumvoll phase 1) at 24–28 and 35–37 weeks (β 0.168, p = 0.030, β 0.239, p = 0.006). No significant association with C3-epimer was observed at any time period. Conclusions: In these women with average baseline VitD in sufficiency range, VitD compounds did not show clear beneficial associations with glucose homeostasis measures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D in Insulin Resistance)
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15 pages, 309 KiB  
Article
Serum, Dietary, and Supplemental Vitamin D Levels and Insulin Resistance in 6294 Randomly Selected, Non-Diabetic U.S. Adults
by Larry A. Tucker
Nutrients 2022, 14(9), 1844; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14091844 - 28 Apr 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2480
Abstract
The primary aim of this study was to determine the associations between serum, dietary, and supplemental vitamin D levels and insulin resistance in 6294 non-diabetic U.S. adults. A total of 8 years of data from the 2011–2018 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey [...] Read more.
The primary aim of this study was to determine the associations between serum, dietary, and supplemental vitamin D levels and insulin resistance in 6294 non-diabetic U.S. adults. A total of 8 years of data from the 2011–2018 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and a cross-sectional design were utilized to answer the research questions. Serum vitamin D levels were quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Dietary and supplemental vitamin D intakes were assessed using the average of two 24 h dietary recalls taken 3–10 days apart. The homeostatic model assessment (HOMA), based on fasting glucose and fasting insulin levels, was employed to index insulin resistance. Demographic covariates were age, sex, race, and year of assessment. Differences in physical activity, body mass index (BMI), cigarette smoking, body weight, season, and energy intake were also controlled statistically. Serum levels of vitamin D differed significantly, and in a dose–response order, across quartiles of HOMA-IR, after adjusting for year, age, sex, and race (F = 30.3, p < 0.0001) and with all the covariates controlled (F = 5.4, p = 0.0029). Dietary vitamin D levels differed similarly across HOMA-IR quartiles, but to a lesser extent, respectively (F = 8.1, p = 0.0001; F = 2.9, p = 0.0437). Likewise, supplemental vitamin D levels also differed across the HOMA-IR quartiles, respectively (F = 3.5, p = 0.0205; F = 3.3, p = 0.0272). With all the covariates controlled, the odds of having insulin resistance were significantly greater for those in the lowest quartile of serum and supplemental vitamin D intake compared to the other quartiles combined. In conclusion, in this nationally representative sample, serum, dietary, and supplemental vitamin D were each predictive of insulin resistance, especially in those with low serum levels and those with no supplemental intake of vitamin D. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D in Insulin Resistance)
14 pages, 331 KiB  
Article
The Vitamin D Decrease in Children with Obesity Is Associated with the Development of Insulin Resistance during Puberty: The PUBMEP Study
by Liliane Viana Pires, Esther M. González-Gil, Augusto Anguita-Ruiz, Gloria Bueno, Mercedes Gil-Campos, Rocío Vázquez-Cobela, Alexandra Pérez-Ferreirós, Luis A. Moreno, Ángel Gil, Rosaura Leis and Concepción M. Aguilera
Nutrients 2021, 13(12), 4488; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13124488 - 15 Dec 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3761
Abstract
Obesity and cardiometabolic risk have been associated with vitamin D levels even in children. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the association between insulin resistance (IR), cardiometabolic risk factors, and vitamin D in children from prepubertal to pubertal stages. A [...] Read more.
Obesity and cardiometabolic risk have been associated with vitamin D levels even in children. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the association between insulin resistance (IR), cardiometabolic risk factors, and vitamin D in children from prepubertal to pubertal stages. A total of 76 children from the PUBMEP study, aged 4–12 years at baseline, were included. Children were evaluated in prepubertal and pubertal stages. Anthropometric measurements and selected cardiometabolic risk biomarkers, such as plasma glucose, blood lipids, insulin, adiponectin, leptin, and blood pressure, and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) were determined. Children were categorized by obesity degree and IR status combined before and after puberty. Paired t-test and multivariate linear regression analyses were conducted. During puberty, the increase in triacylglycerols, insulin, and HOMA-IR and the decrease in QUICKI were significantly associated with the reduction in 25(OH)D (B = −0.274, p = 0.032; B = −0.219, p = 0.019; B = −0.250, p = 0.013; B = 1.574, p = 0.013, respectively) after adjustment by BMI-z, sex, and pubertal stage. Otherwise, prepubertal non-IR children with overweight/obesity that became IR during puberty showed a significant decrease in 25(OH)D and HDL-c, and an increase in waist circumference and triacylglycerol concentrations (p < 0.05 for all) over time. These results suggest that changes in IR seem to be associated with an effect on 25(OH)D levels during puberty, especially in children with overweight. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D in Insulin Resistance)
12 pages, 2988 KiB  
Article
Lower Levels of Vitamin D Are Associated with an Increase in Insulin Resistance in Obese Brazilian Women
by Minna F. Schleu, Beatriz Barreto-Duarte, Maria B. Arriaga, Mariana Araujo-Pereira, Ana Marice Ladeia, Bruno B. Andrade and Maria L. Lima
Nutrients 2021, 13(9), 2979; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13092979 - 27 Aug 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2595
Abstract
Adult women are more likely to be obese than men. Moreover, there is evidence that obesity is a risk factor for increased insulin resistance (IR) and hypovitaminosis D (VITD), conditions related to metabolic and endocrinologic disturbance. We performed a cross-sectional study with 103 [...] Read more.
Adult women are more likely to be obese than men. Moreover, there is evidence that obesity is a risk factor for increased insulin resistance (IR) and hypovitaminosis D (VITD), conditions related to metabolic and endocrinologic disturbance. We performed a cross-sectional study with 103 women diagnosed with obesity, recruited between 2009 and 2013, in an obesity referral outpatient clinic in Bahia, Brazil. Laboratory and clinical characteristics were compared between the groups according to the degree of obesity (I, II and III), and levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] were used to define the VITD status (insufficiency and no insufficiency). We calculated the homeostatic model assessment-IR (HOMA-IR) index to assess insulin resistance in the groups. Our analyses revealed that HOMA-IR values and VITD levels were inversely correlated. Furthermore, we observed a distinct expression profile of values of laboratory markers according to 25(OH)D levels. Negative correlations were found between HOMA-IR and body mass index (BMI) in VITD insufficient participants but not in those with the sufficiency. Furthermore, multivariate regression demonstrated independent associations between lower levels of 25(OH)D and increased values of HOMA-IR. These findings suggests that lower levels of VITD are strongly associated with the increased IR in obese women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D in Insulin Resistance)
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13 pages, 489 KiB  
Article
Relationship between 25 Hydroxyvitamin D, Overweight/Obesity Status, Pro-Inflammatory and Oxidative Stress Markers in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Simplified Empirical Path Model
by Adriana Florinela Cătoi, Mihaela Iancu, Alina Elena Pârvu, Andra Diana Cecan, Cristina Bidian, Elisabeta Ioana Chera, Ioana Delia Pop and Adrian Maximilian Macri
Nutrients 2021, 13(8), 2889; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13082889 - 22 Aug 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3667
Abstract
Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in patients with overweight/obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Herein, we investigated the relationship between vitamin D status and overweight/obesity status, insulin resistance (IR), systemic inflammation as well as oxidative stress (OS). Anthropometric and laboratory assessments of [...] Read more.
Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in patients with overweight/obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Herein, we investigated the relationship between vitamin D status and overweight/obesity status, insulin resistance (IR), systemic inflammation as well as oxidative stress (OS). Anthropometric and laboratory assessments of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and glycemic, pro-inflammatory and OS biomarkers were performed in a sample of 47 patients with T2DM who were divided into categories based on overweight and degree of obesity. The main findings were: the overweight/obesity status correlated negatively with the degree of serum 25(OH)D deficiency (ρ = −0.27) with a trend towards statistical significance (p = 0.069); the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was significantly different (p = 0.024) in patients with 25(OH)D deficiency, as was total oxidant status (TOS) and oxidative stress index (OSI) in patients with severe serum 25(OH)D deficiency as compared to those with 25(OH)D over 20 ng/mL (TOS: p = 0.007, OSI: p = 0.008); and 25(OH)D had a negative indirect effect on TOS by body mass index (BMI), but BMI was not a significant mediator of the studied relationship. In a setting of overweight and increasing degree of obesity, patients with T2DM did not display decreasing values of 25(OH)D. Subjects with the lowest values of 25(OH)D presented the highest values of BMI. Patients with 25(OH)D deficiency were more insulin resistant and showed increased OS but no elevated systemic inflammation. The negative effect of 25(OH)D on TOS did not seem to involve BMI as a mediator. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D in Insulin Resistance)
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17 pages, 493 KiB  
Article
Correlation between Levels of Vitamins D3 and E in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Case-Control Study in Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
by Nurliyana Najwa Md Razip, Banulata Gopalsamy, Mohd Sokhini Abdul Mutalib, Sui Kiat Chang, Muhammad Mikhail Joseph Anthony Abdullah, Azrina Azlan, Zulida Rejali and Huzwah Khaza’ai
Nutrients 2021, 13(7), 2288; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13072288 - 1 Jul 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3650
Abstract
An overview of vitamins D3 and E suggests micronutrient deficiency contributes to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A case-control study was conducted to determine the status of plasma vitamins D3 and E isomers amongst diabetic Malaysians. Two groups were recruited for [...] Read more.
An overview of vitamins D3 and E suggests micronutrient deficiency contributes to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A case-control study was conducted to determine the status of plasma vitamins D3 and E isomers amongst diabetic Malaysians. Two groups were recruited for participation, one comprising fifty diabetic subjects (DM) and one comprising fifty non-diabetic (non-DM) subjects, in order to assess their plasma vitamin D3, calcium and vitamin E status. Glycaemic status (haemoglobin A1c, HbA1c; fasting blood glucose, FBG; C-Peptide) and lipid profiles (total cholesterol, TC; triglycerides, TG; low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, LDL-C; high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, HDL-C) were assessed, followed by anthropometric measurements. The Mann–Whitney U-test, Kruskal–Wallis and Spearman’s correlation coefficient were used to elucidate the association between levels of plasma vitamins D3 and E and T2DM. The vitamin D3 deficiency group (<20 ng/mL) showed a significant correlation (p < 0.05) with glycaemic status (HbA1c and FBG) and lipid profiles (HDL-C, LDL and TC). Spearman’s correlation demonstrated that vitamin D3 status is strongly correlated with HDL levels (p < 0.05). Similarly, plasma total vitamin E levels >4.9 μg/mL revealed significantly different FBG, HbA1c, C-Peptide, LDL, HDL and TC levels across both groups. Moreover, family history, smoking, waist circumference and HbA1c levels demonstrated a significant association (p < 0.05) with levels of vitamins D and E but not FBG and lipid profiles. This could be because the pre-diabetic status among the non-DM group influenced the outcomes of this study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D in Insulin Resistance)

Review

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16 pages, 1132 KiB  
Review
Vitamin D in Osteosarcopenic Obesity
by Luigi Di Filippo, Rebecca De Lorenzo, Andrea Giustina, Patrizia Rovere-Querini and Caterina Conte
Nutrients 2022, 14(9), 1816; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14091816 - 26 Apr 2022
Cited by 33 | Viewed by 6732
Abstract
Osteosarcopenic obesity is a unique clinical condition where low bone and muscle mass coexist in individuals with obesity. Alterations in adipose tissue, skeletal muscle and bone are strictly interconnected, and vitamin D plays key roles in several metabolic pathways that are involved in [...] Read more.
Osteosarcopenic obesity is a unique clinical condition where low bone and muscle mass coexist in individuals with obesity. Alterations in adipose tissue, skeletal muscle and bone are strictly interconnected, and vitamin D plays key roles in several metabolic pathways that are involved in maintaining musculoskeletal health and glucose homeostasis. We reviewed the available literature on mechanisms underlying osteosarcopenic obesity, with a focus on the role of vitamin D in the pathogenesis and treatment of the condition. We found that, although evidence from large observational studies and pre-clinical experiments strongly supports a role of vitamin D deficiency in the pathogenesis of osteosarcopenic obesity, the common belief that vitamin D improves musculoskeletal health lacks solid clinical evidence, as trials specifically aimed at assessing the effects of vitamin D supplementation in patients with osteosarcopenic obesity are not available, and trials that investigated the role of vitamin D on muscle and bone health in other patient populations either showed no or even detrimental effects. We conclude that large observational and interventional studies including individuals with osteosarcopenic obesity representative of different sex, age and race are needed to better define the role of vitamin D in the pathogenesis and treatment of this condition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D in Insulin Resistance)
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25 pages, 1026 KiB  
Review
Mechanisms Involved in the Relationship between Vitamin D and Insulin Resistance: Impact on Clinical Practice
by Victoria Contreras-Bolívar, Beatriz García-Fontana, Cristina García-Fontana and Manuel Muñoz-Torres
Nutrients 2021, 13(10), 3491; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103491 - 1 Oct 2021
Cited by 52 | Viewed by 13777
Abstract
Recent evidence has revealed anti-inflammatory properties of vitamin D as well as extra-skeletal activity. In this context, vitamin D seems to be involved in infections, autoimmune diseases, cardiometabolic diseases, and cancer development. In recent years, the relationship between vitamin D and insulin resistance [...] Read more.
Recent evidence has revealed anti-inflammatory properties of vitamin D as well as extra-skeletal activity. In this context, vitamin D seems to be involved in infections, autoimmune diseases, cardiometabolic diseases, and cancer development. In recent years, the relationship between vitamin D and insulin resistance has been a topic of growing interest. Low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels appear to be associated with most of the insulin resistance disorders described to date. In fact, vitamin D deficiency may be one of the factors accelerating the development of insulin resistance. Vitamin D deficiency is a common problem in the population and may be associated with the pathogenesis of diseases related to insulin resistance, such as obesity, diabetes, metabolic syndrome (MS) and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). An important question is the identification of 25(OH)D levels capable of generating an effect on insulin resistance, glucose metabolism and to decrease the risk of developing insulin resistance related disorders. The benefits of 25(OH)D supplementation/repletion on bone health are well known, and although there is a biological plausibility linking the status of vitamin D and insulin resistance supported by basic and clinical research findings, well-designed randomized clinical trials as well as basic research are necessary to know the molecular pathways involved in this association. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D in Insulin Resistance)
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Other

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11 pages, 596 KiB  
Systematic Review
Controversial Impact of Vitamin D Supplementation on Reducing Insulin Resistance and Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes in Patients with Prediabetes: A Systematic Review
by Agata Pieńkowska, Justyna Janicka, Michał Duda, Karena Dzwonnik, Kamila Lip, Aleksandra Mędza, Agnieszka Szlagatys-Sidorkiewicz and Michał Brzeziński
Nutrients 2023, 15(4), 983; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15040983 - 16 Feb 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2719
Abstract
Background: Prediabetes has become a worldwide health problem. Multiple clinical trials have been conducted to determine the potential benefits of vitamin D supplementation in preventing the conversion to diabetes, but the results are inconsistent. The aims of this study were to evaluate the [...] Read more.
Background: Prediabetes has become a worldwide health problem. Multiple clinical trials have been conducted to determine the potential benefits of vitamin D supplementation in preventing the conversion to diabetes, but the results are inconsistent. The aims of this study were to evaluate the current knowledge and to suggest recommendations for researchers on designing future trials regarding that matter. Methods: Four databases were searched for randomized control trials from the last 10 years about vitamin D and insulin resistance. The systematic electronic literature search identified 2645 studies, of which thirty-eight qualified for full-text reading and discussion. Finally, eight trials were included. Results: Final results of seven trials reported that supplementation of vitamin D does not reduce insulin resistance nor reduces the risk of diabetes mellitus type 2 development in prediabetes. Only one trial showed improvements in fasting glucose and HOMA-IR. Conclusions: Due to the great variation and biases in study designs, an unambiguous interpretation of the results is not possible. To eliminate those vulnerabilities in the future, we made certain suggestions for study design. Long-term and well-designed studies are still required. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D in Insulin Resistance)
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