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Use of “Omics”-Based Technologies for Exploring the Potential Health Benefits of Polyphenols

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutrigenetics and Nutrigenomics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 December 2021) | Viewed by 28902

Special Issue Editors

Institute of Apicultural Research, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, China
Interests: inflammation; polyphenols; propolis; gut health; microbiota; bees
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
1. Discipline of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Health, University of Canberra, Canberra 2617, ACT, Australia
2. Functional Foods and Nutrition Research (FFNR) Laboratory, University of Canberra, Ngunnawal Land 2617, Australia
3. University of Canberra Research Institute for Sport and Exercise (UCRISE), Canberra 2617, ACT, Australia
4. Discipline of Nutrition-Dietetics, Harokopio University, 17671 Athens, Greece
Interests: green tea; plant polyphenols; catechins; EGCG; bioactives, nutrition; the effects of resveratrol supplementation on obesity in humans; plant bioactives; nutraceuticals
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agro-Industry, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900, Thailand
Interests: algae; bioactive compounds; biorefinery; gastrointestinal digestion; gut health; metabolites; microbiota; plant extracts; polyphenols; polysaccharides
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Developments in “omics” approaches in recent decades have greatly increased our knowledge in many fields of science, including food and nutrition. Plant polyphenols are major groups of natural active substances, and potential health benefits, whether consumed as part of food, dietary supplements, or functional foods, have been extensively but not exhaustively investigated. Omics-based technologies (e.g., genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and transcriptomics) are particularly useful for multiple aspects of polyphenol-related studies, such as the investigation of characteristic secondary metabolite expression. Exploring novel sources of natural polyphenols and deep investigations on polyphenol-based nutritional interventions can provide single/multiple omics approaches to obtain and comprehensively understand potential mechanisms of action. Integrating “omics” techniques into polyphenols-related studies enables researchers to more adequately connect food and diet with health and diseases. Furthermore, we also noticed that there has also been a rapid growth in the wide applications of foodomics technologies for investigating the beneficial activities of polyphenols on human health, nutrition, and well-being.

In this Special Issue of Nutrients, we would like to invite authors to submit original manuscripts with the scope of the proposed topics. Submissions of original research; reviews of current scientific literature, including systematic reviews and meta-analyses; and short reports are welcomed.

Dr. Kai Wang
Prof. Dr. Nenad Naumovski
Dr. Suvimol Charoensiddhi
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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16 pages, 1722 KiB  
Article
Gut Microbiota Modulation, Anti-Diabetic and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Polyphenol Extract from Mung Bean Seed Coat (Vigna radiata L.)
by Suvimol Charoensiddhi, Wasaporn Preteseille Chanput and Sudathip Sae-tan
Nutrients 2022, 14(11), 2275; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14112275 - 28 May 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 4009
Abstract
The present study investigated the gut health, anti-diabetic, and anti-inflammatory activities of mung bean seed coat extract (MSE). MSE was obtained by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) using 50% ethanol as the extracting solvent. After 24 h of in vitro human fecal fermentation, MSE [...] Read more.
The present study investigated the gut health, anti-diabetic, and anti-inflammatory activities of mung bean seed coat extract (MSE). MSE was obtained by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) using 50% ethanol as the extracting solvent. After 24 h of in vitro human fecal fermentation, MSE exhibited higher productions of total short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) than those of the control group (CON) and other polyphenol-rich substrates, including gallic acid (GA) and vitexin (VIT) (p > 0.05), but still lower than the fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS). In 16S-rRNA next-generation sequencing, MSE regulated the composition of gut microbiota by stimulating the growth of the beneficial bacteria Enterococcus, Ruminococcus, Blautia, and Bacteroides and decreasing the growth of the potential pathogenic bacteria Escherichia-Shigella. Similarly, qPCR showed increased numbers of Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, and Prevotella, compared with those of CON (p < 0.05). MSE also reduced reactive oxygen species and increased glucose uptake in insulin-resistant HepG2 cells dose-dependently. The anti-inflammatory activity of MSE was observed in LPS-stimulated THP-1 monocytes with the reduction of TNFα, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 genes. The data demonstrated the potential applications of MSE as a dietary supplement with gut health benefits and its ability to mitigate diabetes and inflammatory-related diseases. Full article
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16 pages, 3074 KiB  
Article
Taxifolin Alleviates DSS-Induced Ulcerative Colitis by Acting on Gut Microbiome to Produce Butyric Acid
by Wei Li, Le Zhang, Qingbiao Xu, Wenbo Yang, Jianan Zhao, Ying Ren, Zhendong Yu and Libao Ma
Nutrients 2022, 14(5), 1069; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14051069 - 3 Mar 2022
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 4287
Abstract
Taxifolin is a bioflavonoid which has been used to treat Inflammatory Bowel Disease. However, taxifolin on DSS-induced colitis and gut health is still unclear. Here, we studied the effect of taxifolin on DSS-induced intestinal mucositis in mice. We measured the degree of intestinal [...] Read more.
Taxifolin is a bioflavonoid which has been used to treat Inflammatory Bowel Disease. However, taxifolin on DSS-induced colitis and gut health is still unclear. Here, we studied the effect of taxifolin on DSS-induced intestinal mucositis in mice. We measured the degree of intestinal mucosal injury and inflammatory response in DSS treated mice with or without taxifolin administration and studied the changes of fecal metabolites and intestinal microflora using 16S rRNA. The mechanism was further explored by fecal microbiota transplantation. The results showed that the weight loss and diarrhea score of the mice treated with taxifolin decreased in DSS-induced mice and longer colon length was displayed after taxifolin supplementation. Meanwhile, the expression of GPR41 and GPR43 in the colon was significantly increased by taxifolin treatment. Moreover, the expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in colon tissue was inhibited by taxifolin treatment. The fecal metabolism pattern changed significantly after DSS treatment, which was reversed by taxifolin treatment. Importantly, taxifolin significantly increased the levels of butyric acid and isobutyric acid in the feces of DSS-treated mice. In terms of gut flora, taxifolin reversed the changes of Akkermansia, and further decreased uncultured_bacterium_f_Muribaculaceae. Fecal transplantation from taxifolin-treated mice showed a lower diarrhea score, reduced inflammatory response in the colon, and reduced intestinal mucosal damage, which may be related to the increased level of butyric acid in fecal metabolites. In conclusion, this study provides evidence that taxifolin can ameliorate DSS-induced colitis by altering gut microbiota to increase the production of SCFAs. Full article
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15 pages, 3500 KiB  
Article
6-Shogaol Mitigates Sepsis-Associated Hepatic Injury through Transcriptional Regulation
by Xiaoxuan Guo, Jing Qiu and Yongzhong Qian
Nutrients 2021, 13(10), 3427; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103427 - 28 Sep 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2277
Abstract
Sepsis-associated liver dysfunction presents a significant public health problem. 6-Shogaol is the key bioactive component in dry ginger, which has antioxidant and anti-inflammation capacity. The present study aims to investigate the preventive effect of 6-shogaol on sepsis-induced liver injury. 6-Shogaol was administered to [...] Read more.
Sepsis-associated liver dysfunction presents a significant public health problem. 6-Shogaol is the key bioactive component in dry ginger, which has antioxidant and anti-inflammation capacity. The present study aims to investigate the preventive effect of 6-shogaol on sepsis-induced liver injury. 6-Shogaol was administered to mice for 7 consecutive days before being intraperitoneally injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). After 24 h, mice were sacrificed, and biochemical and transcriptomic analyses were performed. Our results demonstrated that 6-shogaol prevented LPS-induced impairment in antioxidant enzymes and elevation in malondialdehyde level in the liver. The hepatic inflammatory response was significantly suppressed by 6-shogaol through suppressing the MAPK/NFκB pathway. RNA-sequencing data analysis revealed that 41 overlapped genes between the LPS vs. control group and 6-shogaol vs. LPS group were identified, among which 36 genes were upregulated, and 5 genes were downregulated for the LPS vs. control group. These overlapped genes are enriched in inflammation-related pathways, e.g., TNF and NFκB. The mRNA expression of the overlapped genes was also verified in the LPS-induced BRL-3A cell model. In summary, 6-shogaol shows great potential as a natural chemopreventive agent to treat sepsis-associated hepatic disorders. Full article
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20 pages, 4164 KiB  
Article
Impact of Camellia japonica Bee Pollen Polyphenols on Hyperuricemia and Gut Microbiota in Potassium Oxonate-Induced Mice
by Yuanyuan Xu, Xirong Cao, Haoan Zhao, Erlin Yang, Yue Wang, Ni Cheng and Wei Cao
Nutrients 2021, 13(8), 2665; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13082665 - 30 Jul 2021
Cited by 42 | Viewed by 4764
Abstract
Camellia japonica bee pollen is one of the major types of bee pollen in China and exhibits antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. The aims of our study were to evaluate the effects and the possible mechanism of Camellia japonica bee pollen polyphenols on the [...] Read more.
Camellia japonica bee pollen is one of the major types of bee pollen in China and exhibits antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. The aims of our study were to evaluate the effects and the possible mechanism of Camellia japonica bee pollen polyphenols on the treatment of hyperuricemia induced by potassium oxonate (PO). The results showed that Camellia japonica bee pollen ethyl acetate extract (CPE-E) owned abundant phenolic compounds and strong antioxidant capabilities. Administration with CPE-E for two weeks greatly reduced serum uric acid and improved renal function. It inhibited liver xanthine oxidase (XOD) activity and regulated the expression of urate transporter 1 (URAT1), glucose transporter 9 (GLUT9), organic anion transporter 1 (OAT1), organic cation transporter 1 (OCT1) and ATP-binding cassette superfamily gmember 2 (ABCG2) in kidneys. Moreover, CPE-E suppressed the activation of the toll-like receptor 4/myeloid differentiation factor 88/nuclear factor-κB (TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB) signaling pathway and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome in PO-treated mice, and related inflammatory cytokines were reduced. CPE-E also modulated gut microbiota structure, showing that the abundance of Lactobacillus and Clostridiaceae increased in hyperuicemic mice. This study was conducted to explore the protective effect of CPE-E on hyperuricemia and provide new thoughts for the exploitation of Camellia japonica bee pollen. Full article
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Review

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17 pages, 2020 KiB  
Review
Understanding the Functional Activity of Polyphenols Using Omics-Based Approaches
by Wenjin Si, Yangdong Zhang, Xiang Li, Yufeng Du and Qingbiao Xu
Nutrients 2021, 13(11), 3953; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13113953 - 5 Nov 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 4111
Abstract
Plant polyphenols are the main category of natural active substances, and are distributed widely in vegetables, fruits, and plant-based processed foods. Polyphenols have a beneficial performance in preventing diseases and maintaining body health. However, its action mechanism has not been well understood. Foodomics [...] Read more.
Plant polyphenols are the main category of natural active substances, and are distributed widely in vegetables, fruits, and plant-based processed foods. Polyphenols have a beneficial performance in preventing diseases and maintaining body health. However, its action mechanism has not been well understood. Foodomics is a novel method to sequence and widely used in nutrition, combining genomics, proteomics, transcriptomics, microbiome, and metabolomics. Based on multi-omics technologies, foodomics provides abundant data to study functional activities of polyphenols. In this paper, physiological functions of various polyphenols based on foodomics and microbiome was discussed, especially the anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor activities and gut microbe regulation. In conclusion, omics (including microbiomics) is a useful approach to explore the bioactive activities of polyphenols in the nutrition and health of human and animals. Full article
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39 pages, 1926 KiB  
Review
Protective Mechanism of Edible Food Plants against Alcoholic Liver Disease with Special Mention to Polyphenolic Compounds
by Liang Zhao, Arshad Mehmood, Dongdong Yuan, Muhammad Usman, Mian Anjum Murtaza, Sanabil Yaqoob and Chengtao Wang
Nutrients 2021, 13(5), 1612; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13051612 - 11 May 2021
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 5554
Abstract
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is one type of liver disease, causing a global healthcare problem and mortality. The liver undergoes tissue damage by chronic alcohol consumption because it is the main site for metabolism of ethanol. Chronic alcohol exposure progresses from alcoholic fatty [...] Read more.
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is one type of liver disease, causing a global healthcare problem and mortality. The liver undergoes tissue damage by chronic alcohol consumption because it is the main site for metabolism of ethanol. Chronic alcohol exposure progresses from alcoholic fatty liver (AFL) to alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH), which further lead to fibrosis, cirrhosis, and even hepatocellular cancer. Therapeutic interventions to combat ALD are very limited such as use of corticosteroids. However, these therapeutic drugs are not effective for long-term usage. Therefore, additional effective and safe therapies to cope with ALD are urgently needed. Previous studies confirmed that edible food plants and their bioactive compounds exert a protective effect against ALD. In this review article, we summarized the hepatoprotective potential of edible food plants and their bioactive compounds. The underlying mechanism for the prevention of ALD by edible food plants was as follows: anti-oxidation, anti-inflammation, lipid regulation, inhibition of apoptosis, gut microbiota composition modulation, and anti-fibrosis. Full article
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