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The Link between Dietary Minerals and Human Health

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Micronutrients and Human Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2023) | Viewed by 37644

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Bromatology, Faculty of Pharmacy with the Division of Laboratory Medicine, Medical University of Bialystok, Adama Mickiewicza 2D Street, 15-222 Bialystok, Poland
Interests: the quality of food and food supplements in terms of the macro- and microelements; toxic elements content; food-drug interactions; the influence of nutrition and dietary habits on the human body mineral status and skin condition; the impact of eating patterns on nutritional and antioxidant status; the nutritional factors in the context of metabolic syndrome; mushrooms and bee products in supporting cancer treatment

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Guest Editor
Department of Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy with the Division of Laboratory Medicine, Medical University of Bialystok, Adama Mickiewicza 2C, 15-222 Bialystok, Poland
Interests: the mechanisms and effects of toxic action of xenobiotics; interactions between toxic heavy metals and macro- and microelements; the possibility of using essential nutritional factors in preventing health consequences of exposure to xenobiotics; the quality of herbal plants and food supplements in terms of the content of the essential and toxic elements; toxicological studies conducted according to the Good Laboratory Practice standard

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,    

Dietary minerals are essential for the proper development and functioning of the human body, and, therefore, have to be provided regularly within diets. Food can be a source of beneficial minerals and, on the other hand, can contain toxic elements. Inadequate (insufficient or excessive) dietary intake of macroelements (e.g., Ca, Mg, Na, and K) and microelements (e.g., Fe, Se, Cu, and Zn), as well as overexposure to toxic elements (e.g., Cd, Pb, As, and Hg), may be dangerous for human health at different stages of life.

The purpose of this Special Issue, “The Link Between Dietary Minerals and Human Health,” is to provide cutting-edge research, especially original (epidemiological, clinical, and experimental) and review articles (including systematic reviews and meta-analyses), regarding the diverse properties of various minerals and their importance in healthy conditions, including in the prevention of diseases and in supporting medical treatments.

Studies presenting the element concentrations in various food products, especially in products that have, so far, been little tested, are needed and can be used to assess the nutritional and toxicological impacts on consumers in different regions of the world. Studies on the impact of nutritional intervention on various disease states in children, adolescents, adults, and seniors are also welcome.

Dr. Renata Markiewicz-Żukowska
Prof. Dr. Małgorzata Brzóska
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • macroelements
  • microelements
  • toxic elements
  • food
  • dietary supplements
  • nutritional intervention
  • human health
  • prevention of diseases
  • support of medical treatment
  • animal and in vitro models supporting novel molecular understanding of the link between dietary minerals and human health

Published Papers (19 papers)

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Research

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13 pages, 1441 KiB  
Article
A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Exploring Variations in Copper Levels between Individuals with Malaria and Uninfected Controls
by Kwuntida Uthaisar Kotepui, Aongart Mahittikorn, Polrat Wilairatana, Frederick Ramirez Masangkay and Manas Kotepui
Nutrients 2023, 15(22), 4749; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15224749 - 10 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1010
Abstract
Micronutrient insufficiency has been implicated in malaria pathogenesis. However, the role of copper in malaria remains inconclusive. This study aimed to investigate the association between copper levels and malaria pathogenesis, providing a deeper understanding of copper’s role in the disease. A systematic review [...] Read more.
Micronutrient insufficiency has been implicated in malaria pathogenesis. However, the role of copper in malaria remains inconclusive. This study aimed to investigate the association between copper levels and malaria pathogenesis, providing a deeper understanding of copper’s role in the disease. A systematic review was conducted following the registered protocol in PROSPERO (CRD42023439732). Multiple databases, including Embase, MEDLINE, Ovid, PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar, were searched for relevant studies reporting blood copper levels in patients with malaria. The Joanna Briggs Institute critical appraisal checklist was used for assessing methodological quality. Qualitative and quantitative syntheses were employed, organizing, and summarizing the findings of the included studies. To calculate the standardized mean difference (Hedge’s g) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), a random-effects model was used. After screening the databases, 16 studies were included. Most studies (52.9%) reported that individuals with malaria had significantly higher copper levels than uninfected controls. The meta-analysis, based on 16 studies, showed no significant difference in copper levels between patients with malaria and uninfected controls overall (p = 0.39; Hedges’ g, 0.38; 95% CI, −0.48 to 1.25; I2, 98.73%). Subgroup analysis showed a significant difference in copper levels between patients with malaria and uninfected controls among studies conducted in Asia (p < 0.01; Hedges’ g, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.04 to 2.44; I2, 90.88%; five studies) and studies employing plasma blood samples (p < 0.01; Hedges’ g, 1.13; 95% CI, 0.60 to 2.07; I2, 93.11%; four studies). The qualitative synthesis of the reviewed studies suggests a complex relationship between copper levels and malaria. The meta-analysis results showed no significant difference in copper levels between patients with malaria and uninfected controls overall. However, subgroup analyses based on various factors, including continent and blood sample type, showed copper level variations. These findings highlight the need for further research to better understand the role of copper in malaria pathogenesis by considering geographical factors and the blood sample type used for copper level measurement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Link between Dietary Minerals and Human Health)
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12 pages, 446 KiB  
Article
Serum Iodine as a Potential Individual Iodine Status Biomarker: A Cohort Study of Mild Iodine Deficient Pregnant Women in China
by Xueqing Li, Pengcheng Tu, Simeng Gu, Zhe Mo, Lizhi Wu, Mingluan Xing, Zhijian Chen and Xiaofeng Wang
Nutrients 2023, 15(16), 3555; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15163555 - 11 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 875
Abstract
Iodine deficiency during pregnancy is a widespread public health concern, but indicators and methods for assessing iodine nutritional status are lacking. Serum iodine concentration (SIC) is an important iodine metabolism biomarker and can, to some extent, predict the risk of thyroid diseases, making [...] Read more.
Iodine deficiency during pregnancy is a widespread public health concern, but indicators and methods for assessing iodine nutritional status are lacking. Serum iodine concentration (SIC) is an important iodine metabolism biomarker and can, to some extent, predict the risk of thyroid diseases, making it a potential biomarker for assessing individual iodine nutrition levels. Our study aimed to analyze the relationship between SIC and thyroid function in a cohort of mild iodine deficient pregnant women in China in order to explore the potential of SIC as a biomarker of individual iodine status in pregnancy. A total of 1540 early pregnant women (gestation < 10 weeks) aged 18 to 45 years old were included in the final study from a Zhejiang multicenter population-based mother and child cohort. Repeated measures of SIC, urinary iodine concentration (UIC), and thyroid function were taken at approximately 10, 17, and 32 weeks of gestation. The SIC was statistically correlated with all thyroid function indexes in the first trimester, and a very strong positive correlation with FT4 over three trimesters (r = 0.449, 0.550, and 0.544, respectively). Pregnant women with an SIC < 72.4 µg/L were at a higher risk of hypothyroxinemia (adjusted OR = 8.911, 95% CI = 5.141–15.447) and iodine deficiency (adjusted OR = 1.244, 95% CI = 1.031–1.502), while those with an SIC > 93.9 µg/L were at a higher risk of thyrotoxicosis (adjusted OR = 11.064, 95% CI = 6.324–19.357) and excessive iodine (adjusted OR = 11.064, 95% CI = 6.324–19.357). In contrast, the UIC was not correlated with thyroid diseases (p > 0.05). These findings indicate that the SIC is a potential biomarker for assessing individual iodine nutrition and thyroid dysfunction in pregnant women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Link between Dietary Minerals and Human Health)
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17 pages, 2084 KiB  
Article
Bioavailability of Macroelements from Synbiotic Sheep’s Milk Ice Cream
by Magdalena Kowalczyk, Agata Znamirowska-Piotrowska, Magdalena Buniowska-Olejnik, Grzegorz Zaguła and Małgorzata Pawlos
Nutrients 2023, 15(14), 3230; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15143230 - 20 Jul 2023
Viewed by 974
Abstract
To determine the potential bioavailability of macroelements (Ca, Mg, P, K), probiotic ice cream samples (Lactaseibacillus paracasei L-26, Lactobacillus casei 431, Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5, Lactaseibacillus rhamnosus and Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis BB-12) from sheep’s milk with inulin, apple fiber and inulin, or apple [...] Read more.
To determine the potential bioavailability of macroelements (Ca, Mg, P, K), probiotic ice cream samples (Lactaseibacillus paracasei L-26, Lactobacillus casei 431, Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5, Lactaseibacillus rhamnosus and Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis BB-12) from sheep’s milk with inulin, apple fiber and inulin, or apple fiber and control samples were submitted to in vitro digestion in the mouth, stomach and small intestine. The bioavailability of calcium in the ice cream samples ranged from 40.63% to 54.40%, whereas that of magnesium was 55.64% to 44.42%. The highest bioavailability of calcium and magnesium was shown for the control samples. However, adding 4% inulin reduced the bioavailability of calcium by about 3–5% and magnesium only by about 5–6%. Adding 4% apple fiber reduced the bioavailability of calcium by as much as 6–12% and magnesium by 7–8%. The highest bioavailability of calcium was determined in ice cream with L. paracasei, and the highest bioavailability of magnesium was determined in ice cream with L. casei. The bioavailability of phosphorus in ice cream ranged from 47.82% to 50.94%. The highest bioavailability of phosphorus (>50%) was in sheep ice cream fermented by B. animalis. In the control ice cream, the bioavailability of potassium was about 60%. In ice cream with inulin, the bioavailability of potassium was lower by 3–4%, and in ice cream with apple fiber, the bioavailability of potassium was lower by up to 6–9%. The bioavailability of potassium was significantly influenced only by the addition of dietary fiber. The results of the study confirmed the beneficial effect of bacteria on the bioavailability of Ca, Mg and P. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Link between Dietary Minerals and Human Health)
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14 pages, 3629 KiB  
Article
Comparison of the Potential Relative Bioaccessibility of Zinc Supplements—In Vitro Studies
by Justyna Ośko, Wiktoria Pierlejewska and Małgorzata Grembecka
Nutrients 2023, 15(12), 2813; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15122813 - 20 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2504
Abstract
The aim of this study was to determine the potential relative bioaccessibility of zinc (Zn) from selected dietary supplements during in vitro digestion. The bioaccessibility of Zn was evaluated in dietary supplements differing in the pharmaceutical form, content, dose, and chemical form of [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to determine the potential relative bioaccessibility of zinc (Zn) from selected dietary supplements during in vitro digestion. The bioaccessibility of Zn was evaluated in dietary supplements differing in the pharmaceutical form, content, dose, and chemical form of the element. The content of Zn was determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The applied method was validated, and results were characterised by good linearity (R2 = 0.998), recovery (109%), and accuracy (0.02%). As a result of the tests conducted, it was found that the bioaccessibility of Zn from dietary supplements varied and ranged from 1.1% to 9.4%. The highest bioaccessibility was found for zinc diglycinate and the lowest for zinc sulphate. In 9 out of 10 tested dietary supplements, the determined Zn content was higher than the one declared by the producer (up to 161%). The estimated tolerable upper intake level (UL) was exceeded by five of the analysed dietary supplements (123–146%). The analysed dietary supplements were assessed in terms of compliance with the information contained on the product packaging, based on current Polish and European legal regulations. The qualitative assessment was performed according to the United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) guidelines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Link between Dietary Minerals and Human Health)
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16 pages, 4609 KiB  
Article
Impact of High Salt-Intake on a Natural Gut Ecosystem in Wildling Mice
by Alessio Cardilli, Ibrahim Hamad, Aleksandra Dyczko, Sofie Thijs, Jaco Vangronsveld, Dominik N. Müller, Stephan P. Rosshart and Markus Kleinewietfeld
Nutrients 2023, 15(7), 1565; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15071565 - 23 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1814
Abstract
The mammalian holobiont harbors a complex and interdependent mutualistic gut bacterial community. Shifts in the composition of this bacterial consortium are known to be a key element in host health, immunity and disease. Among many others, dietary habits are impactful drivers for a [...] Read more.
The mammalian holobiont harbors a complex and interdependent mutualistic gut bacterial community. Shifts in the composition of this bacterial consortium are known to be a key element in host health, immunity and disease. Among many others, dietary habits are impactful drivers for a potential disruption of the bacteria–host mutualistic interaction. In this context, we previously demonstrated that a high-salt diet (HSD) leads to a dysbiotic condition of murine gut microbiota, characterized by a decrease or depletion of well-known health-promoting gut bacteria. However, due to a controlled and sanitized environment, conventional laboratory mice (CLM) possess a less diverse gut microbiota compared to wild mice, leading to poor translational outcome for gut microbiome studies, since a reduced gut microbiota diversity could fail to depict the complex interdependent networks of the microbiome. Here, we evaluated the HSD effect on gut microbiota in CLM in comparison to wildling mice, which harbor a natural gut ecosystem more closely mimicking the situation in humans. Mice were treated with either control food or HSD and gut microbiota were profiled using amplicon-based methods targeting the 16S ribosomal gene. In line with previous findings, our results revealed that HSD induced significant loss of alpha diversity and extensive modulation of gut microbiota composition in CLM, characterized by the decrease in potentially beneficial bacteria from Firmicutes phylum such as the genera Lactobacillus, Roseburia, Tuzzerella, Anaerovorax and increase in Akkermansia and Parasutterella. However, HSD-treated wildling mice did not show the same changes in terms of alpha diversity and loss of Firmicutes bacteria as CLM, and more generally, wildlings exhibited only minor shifts in the gut microbiota composition upon HSD. In line with this, 16S-based functional analysis suggested only major shifts of gut microbiota ecological functions in CLM compared to wildling mice upon HSD. Our findings indicate that richer and wild-derived gut microbiota is more resistant to dietary interventions such as HSD, compared to gut microbiota of CLM, which may have important implications for future translational microbiome research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Link between Dietary Minerals and Human Health)
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18 pages, 1542 KiB  
Article
In Vitro Evaluation of Bioavailability of Se from Daily Food Rations and Dietary Supplements
by Piotr Bawiec, Jan Sawicki, Paulina Łasińska-Pracuta, Marcin Czop, Ireneusz Sowa, Katarzyna Iłowiecka and Wojciech Koch
Nutrients 2023, 15(6), 1511; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15061511 - 21 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1821
Abstract
Bioavailability refers to a fraction of a substance that is potentially absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and enters the systemic circulation (blood). This term is related to various substances, including minerals, that are present in a complex matrix of food which is consumed [...] Read more.
Bioavailability refers to a fraction of a substance that is potentially absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and enters the systemic circulation (blood). This term is related to various substances, including minerals, that are present in a complex matrix of food which is consumed every day as natural products and pharmaceutical preparations, e.g., dietary supplements. The purpose of the study was to assess the bioavailability of Se from selected dietary supplements, with the simultaneous assessment of the effect the diet type (standard, basic and high-residue diets) has on relative bioavailability. The research included a two-stage in vitro model of digestion using cellulose dialysis tubes of the food rations with the addition of dietary supplements. Se was determined using the ICP-OES method. The bioavailability of Se from dietary supplements, in the presence of food matrix, was determined to be within the range of 19.31–66.10%. Sodium selenate was characterized by the highest value of this parameter, followed by organic forms and sodium selenite. The basic diet, characterized by moderate protein and high carbohydrate and fiber contents, positively influenced the bioavailability of Se. The bioavailability of Se was also influenced by the pharmaceutical form of the product—the highest was for tablets, followed by capsules and coated tablets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Link between Dietary Minerals and Human Health)
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17 pages, 3222 KiB  
Article
The Toxicological Analysis and Toxicological Risk Assessment of Chosen Elemental Impurities (Ag, Au, Co, Cr, Cs, Li, Mo, Se, and Sr) in Green Tea (Camellia sinensis (L.)) Infusions
by Adrian Frydrych, Maciej Noga, Justyna Milan, Elżbieta Kondratowicz-Pietruszka, Mirosław Krośniak and Kamil Jurowski
Nutrients 2023, 15(6), 1460; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15061460 - 17 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1499
Abstract
Our study’s objective is to evaluate the potential health effects of elemental impurities (Ag, Au, Co, Cr, Cs, Li, Mo, Se, and Sr) found in green tea infusions (Camellia sinensis (L.)). The ICP-MS-based methodology was employed for elemental analysis and a detailed [...] Read more.
Our study’s objective is to evaluate the potential health effects of elemental impurities (Ag, Au, Co, Cr, Cs, Li, Mo, Se, and Sr) found in green tea infusions (Camellia sinensis (L.)). The ICP-MS-based methodology was employed for elemental analysis and a detailed health risk evaluation based on weekly consumption (μg/L of infusion/week). The provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI), established by the Joint FAO Expert Committee on infusion/week/month based on existing literature data, was then compared to the subjects with data from the available literature. The exposure of the study items to Co ranged from 0.07904 to 0.85421 μg/day. On the contrary, the ICH (International Council for Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Pharmaceuticals for Human Use) guidelines state that the established permitted daily exposure PDE (oral exposure) for Co is 50 μg/day. The PDE of lithium is around 560 μg/day, and according to our study, the estimated daily exposure of the evaluated products to Li fell between 0.0185 and 0.7170 μg/day. Our research also revealed modest concentrations of Cs (0.399–2.654 μg/L), Mo (0.0113–0.107 μg/L), and Sr (9.848–22.331 μg/L) in infusions. The recognized PDE for molybdenum is approximately 3400 μg/day. Only two samples contained silver, and when considering daily consumption, the predicted daily exposure to Ag is between 4.4994 and 0.03122 μg/day. The amounts of all evaluated elements in a daily dose of green tea infusions should not harm the consumer’s health. Further considerations should take aspects, such as constant change and environmental pollution, into account. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Link between Dietary Minerals and Human Health)
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21 pages, 1256 KiB  
Article
Disturbed Ratios between Essential and Toxic Trace Elements as Potential Biomarkers of Acute Ischemic Stroke
by Anna Mirończuk, Katarzyna Kapica-Topczewska, Katarzyna Socha, Jolanta Soroczyńska, Jacek Jamiołkowski, Monika Chorąży, Agata Czarnowska, Agnieszka Mitrosz, Alina Kułakowska and Jan Kochanowicz
Nutrients 2023, 15(6), 1434; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15061434 - 16 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1782
Abstract
Background: Cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) are known to be two of the metal contaminants that pose the greatest potential threat to human health. The purpose of this research study was to compare the levels of toxic metals (Cd, Pb) in patients with [...] Read more.
Background: Cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) are known to be two of the metal contaminants that pose the greatest potential threat to human health. The purpose of this research study was to compare the levels of toxic metals (Cd, Pb) in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS), with a control group in Podlaskie Voivodeship, Poland. The study also aimed to assess the correlations between toxic metals and clinical data in AIS patients, and to assess the potential effect of smoking. Materials and methods: The levels of mineral components in the collected blood samples were assessed by means of atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). Results: The Cd blood concentration was significantly higher in AIS patients as compared to the control group. We found that the molar ratios of Cd/Zn and Cd/Pb were significantly higher (p < 0.001; p < 0.001, respectively), when the molar ratios of Se/Pb, Se/Cd, and Cu/Cd were significantly lower (p = 0.01; p < 0.001; p < 0.001, respectively), in AIS patients as compared to control subjects. However, there were no considerable fluctuations in relation to the blood Pb concentration or molar ratios of Zn/Pb and Cu/Pb between our AIS patients and the control group. We also found that patients with internal carotid artery (ICA) atherosclerosis, particularly those with 20–50% ICA stenosis, had higher concentrations of Cd and Cd/Zn, but lower Cu/Cd and Se/Cd molar ratios. In the course of our analysis, we observed that current smokers among AIS patients had significantly higher blood-Cd concentrations, Cd/Zn and Cd/Pb molar ratios, and hemoglobin levels, but significantly lower HDL-C concentrations, Se/Cd, and Cu/Cd molar ratios. Conclusions: Our research has shown that the disruption of the metal balance plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of AIS. Furthermore, our results broaden those of previous studies on the exposure to Cd and Pb as risk factors for AIS. Further investigations are necessary to examine the probable mechanisms of Cd and Pb in the onset of ischemic stroke. The Cd/Zn molar ratio may be a useful biomarker of atherosclerosis in AIS patients. An accurate assessment of changes in the molar ratios of essential and toxic trace elements could serve as a valuable indicator of the nutritional status and levels of oxidative stress in AIS patients. It is critical to investigate the potential role of exposure to metal mixtures in AIS, due to its public health implications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Link between Dietary Minerals and Human Health)
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12 pages, 727 KiB  
Article
The Relationship between Dietary Calcium and Age-Related Macular Degeneration
by Yuan-Yuei Chen and Ying-Jen Chen
Nutrients 2023, 15(3), 671; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15030671 - 28 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2347
Abstract
Background: Mineral element supplements are widely used in the older adult population. However, little is known of their impact on the progression of age-related macular degeneration (ARMD). The aim of this study was to examine the association between dietary micronutrients and ARMD in [...] Read more.
Background: Mineral element supplements are widely used in the older adult population. However, little is known of their impact on the progression of age-related macular degeneration (ARMD). The aim of this study was to examine the association between dietary micronutrients and ARMD in older adults. Methods: We enrolled 5227 participants from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2005–2008) in this cross-sectional study. ARMD was evaluated using an ophthalmic digital imaging system and digital camera. Mineral element consumption was collected using a 24-hour dietary recall. The association between mineral element use and the presence of ARMD was determined by multivariable logistic regression. Results: After adjusting for relevant variables, dietary calcium was negatively associated with ARMD (OR: 680, 95%CI: 0.482–0.960). In contrast to dietary form, serum concentration of calcium was not associated with ARMD. Moreover, increased dietary calcium was associated with reduced ARMD (OR: 0.684, 95%CI: 0.468–1.000). Conclusion: A lower consumption of dietary calcium was significantly associated with a higher risk of ARMD. Further longitudinal studies are necessary to explore these findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Link between Dietary Minerals and Human Health)
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14 pages, 2049 KiB  
Article
Minerals and Trace Elements in 990 Beverages and Their Contribution to Dietary Reference Values for German Consumers
by Sebastian Schaffer, Gerald Rimbach, David Pieper, Niklas Hommen, Alexandra Fischer, Marc Birringer and Ulrike Seidel
Nutrients 2022, 14(22), 4899; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14224899 - 19 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1451
Abstract
Beverages are an integral part of human nutrition, yet little is known about their contribution to daily intakes of minerals and trace elements in German consumers. Using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, we determined the concentration of five minerals and six trace elements in [...] Read more.
Beverages are an integral part of human nutrition, yet little is known about their contribution to daily intakes of minerals and trace elements in German consumers. Using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, we determined the concentration of five minerals and six trace elements in beverage samples (n = 990, assigned to different beverage groups) collected throughout Germany. For a calculation of their relative contribution to the mineral supply, available beverage consumption data was combined with our quantitative analysis to calculate the average contribution of beverage groups to meet the respective dietary reference values currently used in Germany, Austria and Switzerland (D-A-CH region). Based on their presence in beverages and their consumption, the top three minerals are phosphorous, calcium and magnesium, and they, therefore, may reasonably contribute to the reference values. Among the trace elements, beverages mostly contributed to the manganese supply, whereas at the same time, concentrations of iron, cobalt and copper were low across all tested groups. Our study provides an overview of the assumed mineral and trace element intake via beverages in Germany and may, thus, serve as a foundation for a mineral and trace element database of beverages that needs to be expanded in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Link between Dietary Minerals and Human Health)
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32 pages, 7176 KiB  
Article
The Body Status of Manganese and Activity of This Element-Dependent Mitochondrial Superoxide Dismutase in a Rat Model of Human Exposure to Cadmium and Co-Administration of Aronia melanocarpa L. Extract
by Małgorzata M. Brzóska, Małgorzata Gałażyn-Sidorczuk, Magdalena Kozłowska and Nazar M. Smereczański
Nutrients 2022, 14(22), 4773; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14224773 - 11 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1276
Abstract
The impact of a polyphenol-rich 0.1% aqueous extract from Aronia melanocarpa L. berries (AE) on the body status of manganese (Mn) and the activity of this essential element-dependent mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) during treatment with cadmium (Cd) was investigated in a rat model [...] Read more.
The impact of a polyphenol-rich 0.1% aqueous extract from Aronia melanocarpa L. berries (AE) on the body status of manganese (Mn) and the activity of this essential element-dependent mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) during treatment with cadmium (Cd) was investigated in a rat model of low-level and moderate environmental human exposure to this xenobiotic (1 and 5 mg Cd/kg diet, respectively, for 3–24 months). The exposure to Cd, dose- and duration-dependently, affected the body status of Mn (apparent absorption, body retention, serum and tissue concentrations, content in some organs and total Mn body burden, and urinary and faecal excretion) and the activity of MnSOD in the mitochondria of the liver, kidney, and brain. The administration of AE during the exposure to Cd prevented or at least partially protected the animals from the perturbation of the metabolism of Mn, as well as ameliorated changes in the activity of MnSOD and the concentration of Mn and protected from Cd accumulation in the mitochondria. In conclusion, AE may protect from disorders in the body status of Mn and influence the antioxidative capacity of cells under chronic exposure to Cd. The findings confirm the protective impact of aronia berries products against Cd toxicity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Link between Dietary Minerals and Human Health)
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10 pages, 1201 KiB  
Article
Association of Urinary Iodine Concentration with Depressive Symptoms among Adults: NHANES 2007–2018
by Shumin Chen, Kaiwen Cui, Jia Luo and Dongfeng Zhang
Nutrients 2022, 14(19), 4165; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14194165 - 07 Oct 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2057
Abstract
The association between iodine status and depressive symptoms has not been investigated in the general population. Therefore, we drew 8935 participants from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007–2018 to explore their association. In NHANES, Inductively Coupled Plasma Dynamic Reaction Cell [...] Read more.
The association between iodine status and depressive symptoms has not been investigated in the general population. Therefore, we drew 8935 participants from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007–2018 to explore their association. In NHANES, Inductively Coupled Plasma Dynamic Reaction Cell Mass Spectroscopy was utilized to measure urinary iodine concentration (UIC), and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 was used to assess depressive symptoms. Meanwhile, we fitted logistic regression and restricted cubic spline models. We found that high UIC was associated with a higher prevalence of depressive symptoms than the normal UIC group (OR: 1.50, 95% CI: 1.04–2.16). This association was particularly pronounced and further strengthened among females (OR: 1.90, 95% CI: 1.19–3.01) and participants aged 40–59 (OR: 1.90, 95% CI: 1.11–3.25). Moreover, we found that low UIC was associated with a high prevalence of depressive symptoms among females (OR: 1.50, 95% CI: 1.02–2.18). Moreover, the dose-response relationship between UIC and depressive symptoms presented a general trend of decreased, steady transiently, and then increased. We found that participants with high UIC had a higher prevalence of depressive symptoms than those with normal UIC. Meanwhile, we also found that females with low UIC had higher odds of reporting depressive symptoms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Link between Dietary Minerals and Human Health)
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18 pages, 1933 KiB  
Article
Assessment of the Effect of Selenium Supplementation on Production of Selected Cytokines in Women with Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis
by Jadwiga Kryczyk-Kozioł, Ewelina Prochownik, Anna Błażewska-Gruszczyk, Marian Słowiaczek, Qian Sun, Lutz Schomburg, Ewa Ochab, Mirosław Bartyzel and Paweł Zagrodzki
Nutrients 2022, 14(14), 2869; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14142869 - 13 Jul 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2724
Abstract
The impact of selenium on the course of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT) was mainly assessed by monitoring the titer of antithyroid autoantibodies in most of the studies conducted hitherto. On the other hand, the imbalance in activity of T cells such as Th1, Th2, [...] Read more.
The impact of selenium on the course of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT) was mainly assessed by monitoring the titer of antithyroid autoantibodies in most of the studies conducted hitherto. On the other hand, the imbalance in activity of T cells such as Th1, Th2, Th17, and Treg may be relevant in the pathogenesis of this disease. Hence, the assessment of changes in the secretion of cytokines by these cells during selenium supplementation in patients with HT seems to be an important issue and was the main goal of this study. A further aim was to search for correlations among these cytokines, as well as markers of thyroid function, selenium/iodine status in the body, and other biochemical parameters. The group of 29 women with newly diagnosed Hashimoto’s thyroiditis was supplemented with selenium in a dose of 100 µg/day for 6 months. Immunological parameters: interferon γ, tumor necrosis factor α, chemokine CXCL10, interleukin 4, interleukin 1β, interleukin 17, transforming growth factor β, and C-reactive protein, as well as selenium status parameters were determined in serum twice, i.e., before and after supplementation. Selenium supplementation was associated with a change in the production of two cytokines: interferon γ and interleukin 1β, for which a decrease and an increase in concentration were observed, respectively. The partial least squares (PLS) model revealed the presence of many relevant correlations among analyzed parameters. The stage of HT development, degree of thyroid dysfunction, and selenium supplementation of diet are interdependent factors which shape the profile of some cytokines secreted by cells participating in the autoimmunity process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Link between Dietary Minerals and Human Health)
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17 pages, 2261 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Kohlrabi Sprouts on Various Thyroid Parameters in Iodine Deficiency- and Sulfadimethoxine-Induced Hypothyroid Rats
by Paweł Paśko, Krzysztof Okoń, Ewelina Prochownik, Mirosław Krośniak, Renata Francik, Jadwiga Kryczyk-Kozioł, Marta Grudzińska, Małgorzata Tyszka-Czochara, Mateusz Malinowski, Jakub Sikora, Agnieszka Galanty and Paweł Zagrodzki
Nutrients 2022, 14(14), 2802; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14142802 - 08 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1997
Abstract
Brassica sprouts, as the rich source of dietary glucosinolates, may have a negative effect on thyroid function. In this study, kohlrabi sprouts diet, combined with two models of rat hypothyroidism, was tested. TSH, thyroid hormones and histopathology analysis were completed with the evaluation [...] Read more.
Brassica sprouts, as the rich source of dietary glucosinolates, may have a negative effect on thyroid function. In this study, kohlrabi sprouts diet, combined with two models of rat hypothyroidism, was tested. TSH, thyroid hormones and histopathology analysis were completed with the evaluation of immunological, biochemical, haematological parameters, cytosolic glutathione peroxidase, thioredoxin reductase in the thyroid, and plasma glutathione peroxidase. A thermographic analysis was also adapted to confirm thyroid dysfunction. The levels of TSH, fT3 and fT4, antioxidant enzyme (GPX) as well as histopathology parameters remained unchanged following kohlrabi sprouts ingestion, only TR activity significantly increased in response to the sprouts. In hypothyroid animals, sprouts diet did not prevent thyroid damage. In comparison with the rats with iodine deficiency, kohlrabi sprouts diet decreased TNF-α level. Neither addition of the sprouts to the diet, nor sulfadimethoxine and iodine deficiency, caused negative changes in red blood cell parameters, glucose and uric acid concentrations, or kidney function. However, such a dietary intervention resulted in reduced WBC levels, and adversely interfered with liver function in rats, most likely due to a higher dietary intake of glucosinolates. Moreover, the possible impact of the breed of the rats on the evaluated parameters was indicated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Link between Dietary Minerals and Human Health)
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15 pages, 1413 KiB  
Article
Selenium Status in Paediatric Patients with Neurodevelopmental Diseases
by Christian L. Görlich, Qian Sun, Viola Roggenkamp, Julian Hackler, Sebastian Mehl, Waldemar B. Minich, Angela M. Kaindl and Lutz Schomburg
Nutrients 2022, 14(12), 2375; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14122375 - 08 Jun 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1910
Abstract
Neurodevelopmental diseases are often associated with other comorbidities, especially inflammatory processes. The disease may affect the trace element (TE) status, which in turn may affect disease severity and progression. Selenium (Se) is an essential TE required for the biosynthesis of selenoproteins including the [...] Read more.
Neurodevelopmental diseases are often associated with other comorbidities, especially inflammatory processes. The disease may affect the trace element (TE) status, which in turn may affect disease severity and progression. Selenium (Se) is an essential TE required for the biosynthesis of selenoproteins including the transporter selenoprotein P (SELENOP) and extracellular glutathione peroxidase (GPX3). SELENOP deficiency in transgenic mice resulted in a Se status-dependent phenotype characterized by impaired growth and disturbed neuronal development, with epileptic seizures on a Se-deficient diet. Therefore, we hypothesized that Se and SELENOP deficiencies may be prevalent in paediatric patients with a neurodevelopmental disease. In an exploratory cross-sectional study, serum samples from children with neurodevelopmental diseases (n = 147) were analysed for total serum Se, copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn) concentrations as well as for the TE biomarkers SELENOP, ceruloplasmin (CP), and GPX3 activity. Children with epilepsy displayed elevated Cu and Zn concentrations but no dysregulation of serum Se status. Significantly reduced SELENOP concentrations were found in association with intellectual disability (mean ± SD (standard deviation); 3.9 ± 0.9 mg/L vs. 4.4 ± 1.2 mg/L, p = 0.015). A particularly low GPX3 activity (mean ± SD; 172.4 ± 36.5 vs. 192.6 ± 46.8 U/L, p = 0.012) was observed in phacomatoses. Autoantibodies to SELENOP, known to impair Se transport, were not detected in any of the children. In conclusion, there was no general association between Se deficiency and epilepsy in this observational analysis, which does not exclude its relevance to individual cases. Sufficiently high SELENOP concentrations seem to be of relevance to the support of normal mental development. Decreased GPX3 activity in phacomatoses may be relevant to the characteristic skin lesions and merits further analysis. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine whether the observed differences are relevant to disease progression and whether correcting a diagnosed TE deficiency may confer health benefits to affected children. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Link between Dietary Minerals and Human Health)
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Review

Jump to: Research, Other

25 pages, 734 KiB  
Review
Selenium in Infants and Preschool Children Nutrition: A Literature Review
by Małgorzata Dobrzyńska, Katarzyna Kaczmarek, Juliusz Przysławski and Sławomira Drzymała-Czyż
Nutrients 2023, 15(21), 4668; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15214668 - 03 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1577
Abstract
Selenium (Se), an essential trace element, is fundamental to human health, playing an important role in the formation of thyroid hormones, DNA synthesis, the immune response, and fertility. There is a lack of comprehensive epidemiological research, particularly the serum Se concetration in healthy [...] Read more.
Selenium (Se), an essential trace element, is fundamental to human health, playing an important role in the formation of thyroid hormones, DNA synthesis, the immune response, and fertility. There is a lack of comprehensive epidemiological research, particularly the serum Se concetration in healthy infants and preschool children compared to the estimated dietary Se intake. However, Se deficiencies and exceeding the UL have been observed in infants and preschool children. Despite the observed irregularities in Se intake, there is a lack of nutritional recommendations for infants and preschool children. Therefore, the main objective of this literature review was to summarize what is known to date about Se levels and the risk of deficiency related to regular consumption in infants and preschool children. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Link between Dietary Minerals and Human Health)
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48 pages, 1726 KiB  
Review
Impact of Zinc Transport Mechanisms on Embryonic and Brain Development
by Jeremy Willekens and Loren W. Runnels
Nutrients 2022, 14(12), 2526; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14122526 - 17 Jun 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3387
Abstract
The trace element zinc (Zn) binds to over ten percent of proteins in eukaryotic cells. Zn flexible chemistry allows it to regulate the activity of hundreds of enzymes and influence scores of metabolic processes in cells throughout the body. Deficiency of Zn in [...] Read more.
The trace element zinc (Zn) binds to over ten percent of proteins in eukaryotic cells. Zn flexible chemistry allows it to regulate the activity of hundreds of enzymes and influence scores of metabolic processes in cells throughout the body. Deficiency of Zn in humans has a profound effect on development and in adults later in life, particularly in the brain, where Zn deficiency is linked to several neurological disorders. In this review, we will summarize the importance of Zn during development through a description of the outcomes of both genetic and early dietary Zn deficiency, focusing on the pathological consequences on the whole body and brain. The epidemiology and the symptomology of Zn deficiency in humans will be described, including the most studied inherited Zn deficiency disease, Acrodermatitis enteropathica. In addition, we will give an overview of the different forms and animal models of Zn deficiency, as well as the 24 Zn transporters, distributed into two families: the ZIPs and the ZnTs, which control the balance of Zn throughout the body. Lastly, we will describe the TRPM7 ion channel, which was recently shown to contribute to intestinal Zn absorption and has its own significant impact on early embryonic development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Link between Dietary Minerals and Human Health)
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Other

Jump to: Research, Review

25 pages, 439 KiB  
Systematic Review
The Role of Copper Intake in the Development and Management of Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review
by Sereen Eljazzar, Haya Abu-Hijleh, Dana Alkhatib, Sara Sokary, Shrooq Ismail, Ghadir Fakhri Al-Jayyousi and Reema Tayyem
Nutrients 2023, 15(7), 1655; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15071655 - 29 Mar 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2046
Abstract
Diabetes mellitus is a worldwide public health issue with numerous complications. Several risk factors are associated with diabetes, mainly due to patients following an unhealthy lifestyle. Copper is a crucial trace element, with various physiological actions. Different intake levels of copper might contribute [...] Read more.
Diabetes mellitus is a worldwide public health issue with numerous complications. Several risk factors are associated with diabetes, mainly due to patients following an unhealthy lifestyle. Copper is a crucial trace element, with various physiological actions. Different intake levels of copper might contribute to diabetes development due to its dual action as both an anti- and pro-oxidant. Aim: Due to the inconclusive findings regarding the relationship between copper consumption and the management of diabetes, we decided to conduct this extensive systematic review. Up to this date, no similar study has been available in the literature. In this review, we used the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. Relevant articles were identified by searching the electronic databases CINAHL, EMBASE and Medline from their respective index dates to September 2022 using keywords such as “Copper Intake” and “Type 2 Diabetes”. Any paper that has investigated copper exposure through supplementation or any other method that indicates copper intake in human subjects with type 2 diabetes and measures at least one of the outcomes of interest related to diabetes was included in this review. This review is comprised of 4 cross-sectional studies, 3 cohort studies, 2 RCTs, and 2 interventional studies. Two cohort studies found positive associations between copper intake and the risk of developing T2DM, while no significant association was found in the third study. Regarding diabetes outcomes in the four cross-sectional studies, two found inverse associations, one found a positive relationship, and one found no significant association. In interventional studies, all studies found a protective effect of copper, including the RCT, while one found no significant association. The results are inconsistent concerning the association between copper consumption and the likelihood of developing diabetes are inconsistent. Individuals should receive an adequate dietary amount of copper that is within the RDA levels (900 µg/day) to avoid copper deficiency or toxicity. Further studies, especially RCTs, are strongly needed to enable researchers to elucidate more robust conclusions regarding this association. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Link between Dietary Minerals and Human Health)
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10 pages, 1139 KiB  
Commentary
Phosphate Dysregulation and Metabolic Syndrome
by Nikolay Mironov, Mainul Haque, Azeddine Atfi and Mohammed S. Razzaque
Nutrients 2022, 14(21), 4477; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14214477 - 25 Oct 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2282
Abstract
Phosphorus is one of the most abundant minerals in the human body. It is essential for almost all biochemical activities through ATP formation, intracellular signal transduction, cell membrane formation, bone mineralization, DNA and RNA synthesis, and inflammation modulation through various inflammatory cytokines. Phosphorus [...] Read more.
Phosphorus is one of the most abundant minerals in the human body. It is essential for almost all biochemical activities through ATP formation, intracellular signal transduction, cell membrane formation, bone mineralization, DNA and RNA synthesis, and inflammation modulation through various inflammatory cytokines. Phosphorus levels must be optimally regulated, as any deviations may lead to substantial derangements in glucose homeostasis. Clinical studies have reported that hyperphosphatemia can increase an individual’s risk of developing metabolic syndrome. High phosphate burden has been shown to impair glucose metabolism by impairing pancreatic insulin secretion and increasing the risk of cardiometabolic disorders. Phosphate toxicity deserves more attention as metabolic syndrome is being seen more frequently worldwide and should be investigated further to determine the underlying mechanism of how phosphate burden may increase the cardiometabolic risk in the general population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Link between Dietary Minerals and Human Health)
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