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Food Variety and Nutrition Status

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutrition Methodology & Assessment".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 January 2020) | Viewed by 18496

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
CSIRO Health and Biosecurity, P.O. Box 10041, Adelaide SA 5000, Australia
Interests: population health; health behaviours; health policy
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
CSIRO Health and Biosecurity, P.O. Box 10041, Adelaide SA 5000, Australia
Interests: dietary assessment; dietary intake patterns; digital nutrition intervention

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Food variety is well recognised to be important for optimal nutritional status across the life course with few exceptions—which are usually temporary, for example, exclusive consumption of breast milk for newborns. As such, dietary guidelines worldwide promote that people eat a wide variety of foods as part of a nutritious diet.

Food variety refers to the consumption of a mixture of foods from a range of food groups. The number and type of different foods consumed may vary within a food group, by meals across the day, from day to day, by season, and over the life course.

Measuring food variety is challenging, and achieving consumption of a wide variety of foods is expected to have a range of modifiable determinants. Understanding the role of food variety in promoting nutrition and health status is important to protect health. Therefore, this Special Issue of Nutrients titled “Food Variety and Nutrition Status” has been developed to compile research on this important topic. To better understand this complex area, we welcome all types of study design, in various populations using a range of methodologies.

Potential topics may include but are not limited to:

  • Importance of food variety within a healthy diet;
  • Associations between food variety and nutritional status and/or risk of chronic disease;
  • Methodologies to measure food variety;
  • Intervention studies or population initiatives to increase food variety.

Dr. Malcolm Riley
Dr. Gilly Hendrie
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Food variety
  • Diet diversity
  • Obesity
  • Health outcomes
  • Diet quality
  • Food consumption patterns
  • Nutritional status

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

12 pages, 248 KiB  
Article
Dietary Diversity and All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality in Japanese Community-Dwelling Older Adults
by Rei Otsuka, Chikako Tange, Yukiko Nishita, Yuki Kato, Makiko Tomida, Tomoko Imai, Fujiko Ando and Hiroshi Shimokata
Nutrients 2020, 12(4), 1052; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041052 - 10 Apr 2020
Cited by 30 | Viewed by 3532
Abstract
We examined associations between dietary diversity and all-cause and cause-specific mortality in 386 men and 413 women (age range, 60–79 years at baseline) who took part in the National Institute for Longevity Sciences-Longitudinal Study of Aging study from 1997 to 2000. Dietary intake [...] Read more.
We examined associations between dietary diversity and all-cause and cause-specific mortality in 386 men and 413 women (age range, 60–79 years at baseline) who took part in the National Institute for Longevity Sciences-Longitudinal Study of Aging study from 1997 to 2000. Dietary intake was assessed using three-day dietary records and photographs. The Quantitative Index for Dietary Diversity was used to determine the dietary diversity among thirteen food groups. Dietary diversity score and each food intake were examined by sex-stratified tertiles, and hazard ratios (HR) were calculated to compare the risk for all-cause and cause-specific deaths across tertiles, after controlling for age, sex, body mass index, alcohol intake, smoking status, education, physical activity, and disease history. During a mean follow-up of 15.7 years, 289 subjects (36.2%) died. Compared to the subjects in the lowest tertile, the multivariate-adjusted HR for all-cause and cancer mortality was 0.69 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.51–0.94) and 0.57 (95% CI: 0.33–0.98), respectively (trend p < 0.05), in subjects in the highest tertile of dietary diversity. There were no significant associations between dietary diversity score and death from cardiovascular or cerebrovascular disease. Eating a variety of foods might contribute to longevity in older Japanese community dwellers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Variety and Nutrition Status)
10 pages, 299 KiB  
Article
The Relation between Eating Habits and Abdominal Fat, Anthropometry, PON1 and IL-6 Levels in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis
by Eraci Drehmer, Jose Luis Platero, Sandra Carrera-Juliá, Mari Luz Moreno, Asta Tvarijonaviciute, Marí Ángeles Navarro, María Mar López-Rodríguez and Jose Enrique de la Rubia Ortí
Nutrients 2020, 12(3), 744; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12030744 - 11 Mar 2020
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 3714
Abstract
Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease of an inflammatory, demyelinating and autoimmune nature. Diets with a high caloric density could be especially relevant in terms of the pathogenesis related to an increase in adipose tissue that is metabolically active and [...] Read more.
Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease of an inflammatory, demyelinating and autoimmune nature. Diets with a high caloric density could be especially relevant in terms of the pathogenesis related to an increase in adipose tissue that is metabolically active and releases mediators, which can induce systemic inflammation and an increased oxidation state. The aim of this study was to analyse the eating habits related to calorie intake and their impact on abdominal obesity associated with anthropometric variables, the activity of the oxidation marker paraoxonase 1 (PON1), and interleukin 6 (IL-6) levelsin MS patients. Methods: An analytical and quantitative observational study was conducted with a population of 57 MS patients. The dietary-nutritional anamnesis was gained through the Food Frequency Questionnaire and a food diary. Diet and eating habits have been analysed through the Easy Diet–Programa de gestión de la consulta® software. Anthropometric measurements were taken in order to determine the presence of abdominal obesity. In addition, PON1 was quantified in serum by means of automated spectrophotometric assays and IL-6 was quantified using the ELISA technique. Results: A normal calorie intake was determined for women, yet a slightly lower intake was observed in men. Carbohydrate consumption was below what was established, and protein and lipids were over, in both cases. Furthermore, most patients had abdominal obesity, with significantly higher body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), fat percentage and IL-6 levels. IL-6 is greatly correlated with waist circumference and WHtR. Conclusion: MS patients’ nutrient intake shows an imbalance between macronutrients. This seems to favour the abdominal obesity associated with high values of proinflammatory IL-6 that is not correlated with a lower activity of PON1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Variety and Nutrition Status)
16 pages, 1268 KiB  
Article
Dietary Habits of Saharawi Type II Diabetic Women Living in Algerian Refugee Camps: Relationship with Nutritional Status and Glycemic Profile
by Alessandro Leone, Alberto Battezzati, Sara Di Lello, Stefano Ravasenghi, Babahmed Mohamed-Iahdih, Saleh Mohamed Lamin Saleh and Simona Bertoli
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 568; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020568 - 22 Feb 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3938
Abstract
Diabetes is one of the main health problems among Saharawi refugees living in Algerian camps, especially for women. As is known, diet plays an important role in the management of diabetes. However, the dietary habits of Saharawi diabetic women are unknown. Therefore, we [...] Read more.
Diabetes is one of the main health problems among Saharawi refugees living in Algerian camps, especially for women. As is known, diet plays an important role in the management of diabetes. However, the dietary habits of Saharawi diabetic women are unknown. Therefore, we investigated the dietary habits and established their relationship with the nutritional status and glycemic profile of such women. We recruited 65 Saharawi type II diabetic women taking orally glucose-lowering drugs only. Dietary habits were investigated using qualitative 24 h recall carried out over three non-consecutive days. Anthropometric measurements were taken and blood parameters were measured. About 80% of the women were overweight and about three out of four women had uncompensated diabetes and were insulin resistant. The Saharawi diet was found to mainly include cereals, oils, sugars, vegetables (especially onions, tomatoes, and carrots), tea, and meat. Principal component analysis identified two major dietary patterns, the first one “healthy” and the second one “unhealthy”. Women in the higher tertile of adherence to the unhealthy dietary pattern had a higher homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA) index (b = 2.49; 95% CI: 0.41–4.57; p = 0.02) and circulating insulin (b = 4.52; 95% CI: 0.44–8.60; p = 0.03) than the women in the lowest tertile. Food policies should be oriented to improve the quality of diet of Saharawi diabetic women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Variety and Nutrition Status)
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19 pages, 339 KiB  
Article
Participatory Methods to Identify Perceived Healthy and Sustainable Traditional Culinary Preparations across Three Generations of Adults: Results from Chile’s Metropolitan Region and Region of La Araucanía
by Rebecca Kanter and Mariana León Villagra
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 489; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020489 - 14 Feb 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2199
Abstract
Traditional diets reflect different cultures and geographical locations, and may provide healthy diet options. In Chile, it is unknown whether traditional culinary preparations are still remembered, let alone consumed. Therefore, we adapted methods to identify traditional culinary preparations for healthy and sustainable dietary [...] Read more.
Traditional diets reflect different cultures and geographical locations, and may provide healthy diet options. In Chile, it is unknown whether traditional culinary preparations are still remembered, let alone consumed. Therefore, we adapted methods to identify traditional culinary preparations for healthy and sustainable dietary interventions. In Chile’s Metropolitan Region and the Region of La Araucanía, we collected data on the variety of traditional diets through cultural domain analyses: direct participant observation (n = 5); free listing in community workshops (n = 10); and pile sort activities within semi-structured individual interviews (n = 40). Each method was stratified by age (25–45 year, 46–65 year and ≥ 65 year) and ethnic group (first nations or not). About 600 preparations and single-ingredient foods were identified that differed both in frequency and variety by region. The foods most consumed and liked (n = 24–27) were ranked in terms of sustainability for public nutrition purposes. Methods originally designed to collect information about plants of indigenous peoples can be extended to collect data on the variety of existing traditional culinary preparations, globally. Context, both geographical and cultural, matters for understanding food variety, and its subsequent use in the design of healthy and sustainable diet interventions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Variety and Nutrition Status)
11 pages, 444 KiB  
Article
Small-Scale Livestock Production in Nepal Is Directly Associated with Children’s Increased Intakes of Eggs and Dairy, But Not Meat
by Elena T. Broaddus-Shea, Swetha Manohar, Andrew L. Thorne-Lyman, Shiva Bhandari, Bareng A. S. Nonyane, Peter J. Winch and Keith P. West, Jr.
Nutrients 2020, 12(1), 252; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12010252 - 18 Jan 2020
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 4262
Abstract
Animal source foods (ASF) provide nutrients essential to child growth and development yet remain infrequently consumed in rural Nepal. Agriculture and nutrition programs aim to increase ASF intake among children through small-scale animal husbandry projects. The relationship between livestock ownership and children’s consumption [...] Read more.
Animal source foods (ASF) provide nutrients essential to child growth and development yet remain infrequently consumed in rural Nepal. Agriculture and nutrition programs aim to increase ASF intake among children through small-scale animal husbandry projects. The relationship between livestock ownership and children’s consumption of ASF, however, is not well established. This study examined associations between livestock ownership and the frequency with which Nepali children consume eggs, dairy, and meat. We analyzed longitudinal 7-day food frequency data from sentinel surveillance sites of the Policy and Science of Health, Agriculture and Nutrition (PoSHAN) study. Data consisted of surveys from 485 Nepali farming households conducted twice per year for two years (a total of 1449 surveys). We used negative binomial regression analysis to examine the association between the number of cattle, poultry, and meat animals (small livestock) owned and children’s weekly dairy, egg, and meat intakes, respectively, adjusting for household expenditure on each food type, mother’s education level, caste/ethnicity, agroecological region, season, and child age and sex. We calculated predicted marginal values based on model estimates. Children consumed dairy 1.4 (95% CI 1.1–2.0), 2.3 (1.7–3.0) and 3.0 (2.1–4.2) more times per week in households owning 1, 2–4 and >4 cattle, respectively, compared to children in households without cattle. Children consumed eggs 2.8 (2.1–3.7) more times per week in households owning 1 or 2 chickens compared to children in households without chickens. Child intake of meat was higher only in households owning more than seven meat animals. Children’s intakes of dairy, eggs, and meat rose with household expenditure on these foods. Small-scale animal production may be an effective strategy for increasing children’s consumption of eggs and dairy, but not meat. Increasing household ability to access ASF via purchasing appears to be an important approach for raising children’s intakes of all three food types. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Variety and Nutrition Status)
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