Consumption of Bean and Human Health

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Phytochemicals and Human Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 October 2024 | Viewed by 15168

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
1. Department of Nutritional Sciences, Temerty Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 1A8, Canada
2. Toronto 3D Knowledge Synthesis and Clinical Trials unit and Clinical Nutrition and Risk Factor Modification Centre, St. Michael’s Hospital, Toronto, ON M5C 2T2, Canada
Interests: cardiovascular disease; dyslipidaemia; diabetes; obesity; systematic reviews and meta-analyses; nutrition; plant protein

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. Department of Nutritional Sciences, Temerty Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 1A8, Canada
2. Toronto 3D Knowledge Synthesis and Clinical Trials unit and Clinical Nutrition and Risk Factor Modification Centre, St. Michael’s Hospital, Toronto, ON M5C 2T2, Canada
Interests: cardiovascular disease; dyslipidaemia; diabetes; obesity; randomised controlled trials; systematic reviews and meta-analyses; nutritional epidemiology; nutrition; carbohydrate quality; glycaemic index; dietary fibre; dietary patterns; plant protein

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. Department of Nutritional Sciences, Temerty Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 1A8, Canada
2. Toronto 3D Knowledge Synthesis and Clinical Trials unit and Clinical Nutrition and Risk Factor Modification Centre, St. Michael’s Hospital, Toronto, ON M5C 2T2, Canada
Interests: cardiovascular disease; dyslipidaemia; diabetes; obesity; randomised controlled trials; systematic reviews and meta-analyses; nutrition; dietary patterns; carbohydrate quality; glycaemic index; sugars; plant protein; web- and mobile-based applications

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Dietary pulses are the dry edible seeds from a legume plant, rich in protein, fibre, iron, potassium, and folate and low on the glycaemic index. Soybeans are another food source rich in protein and minerals. For the purpose of this Special Issue, the term ‘beans’ will include dietary pulses (i.e., chickpeas, lentils, beans, and peas) and soybeans. Consumption of beans is associated with numerous health benefits, including reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease, hypertension, and obesity incidence. Although pulse production has increased globally in the past few decades, and despite dietary guidelines emphasising the inclusion of bean consumption to lower LDL-cholesterol, blood pressure, body weight, and to manage glycaemic control and increase fibre intake, the global bean consumption per capita has been relatively stable.

The objective of this Special Issue is to provide the public with the latest high-quality evidence of the effects of bean intake on human health, as well as sustainability, malnutrition, and food insecurity. Original research, systematic reviews and meta-analyses, and reviews on dietary pulses and/or soybeans and human health, sustainability, malnutrition, and food insecurity are welcome.

Dr. Sonia Blanco Mejia
Dr. Andreea Zurbau
Dr. Laura Chiavaroli
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • cardiovascular disease
  • hypertension
  • obesity
  • glycaemic index
  • plant protein
  • fibre
  • micronutrients
  • malnutrition
  • sustainability
  • food insecurity

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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15 pages, 275 KiB  
Article
Bean and Nut Intake Were Protective Factors for Comorbid Hypertension and Hyperuricemia in Chinese Adults: Results from China Nutrition and Health Surveillance (2015–2017)
by Wei Piao, Shujuan Li, Qiya Guo, Xue Cheng, Xiaoli Xu, Liyun Zhao and Dongmei Yu
Nutrients 2024, 16(2), 192; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16020192 - 6 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1166
Abstract
This study aimed to describe the prevalence of comorbid hypertension and hyperuricemia (HH) and detected the dietary factors for HH in Chinese adults aged 18 to 64 years. All of the data were collected from the China Nutrition and Health Surveillance 2015–2017, with [...] Read more.
This study aimed to describe the prevalence of comorbid hypertension and hyperuricemia (HH) and detected the dietary factors for HH in Chinese adults aged 18 to 64 years. All of the data were collected from the China Nutrition and Health Surveillance 2015–2017, with a stratified, multistage, random sampling method on a national scale. A total of 52,627 adult participants aged 18~64 years from the CNHS 2015–2017 were included in this study. HH was identified as SUA level cut-offs for males and females of 420 μmol/L and 360 μmol/L, respectively, with mean systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg and/or mean diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mmHg and/or received antihypertensive treatment within two weeks. The differences in HH prevalence between or among the subgroups were compared by the Rao–Scott chi-square test. The correlations between HH and covariates or metabolic factors were detected by a weighted two-level multivariate survey logistic regression. The total weighted sufficient intake ratios of beans and nuts, vegetables, and red meat were 59.1%, 46.6%, and 64.8%, respectively. The weighted prevalence of HH in the total participants was 4.7% (95% CI: 4.3–5.0%). The positive effects of bean and nut on HH were observed. The participants who had sufficient bean and nut intake showed lower risk for HH (for the total participants: OR = 0.734, 95% CI = 0.611–0.881). The prevalence of HH might have been a public health problem, and bean and nut intake might be a protective factor for HH in the Chinese population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Consumption of Bean and Human Health)
10 pages, 605 KiB  
Article
UK Chickpea Consumption Doubled from 2008/09–2018/19
by Inga Kutepova, Colin D. Rehm and Samara Joy Friend
Nutrients 2023, 15(22), 4784; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15224784 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1332
Abstract
Background: Only 9% of individuals in the United Kingdom (UK) meet the recommendation for dietary fibre intake. Little is known about chickpea consumption in the UK. Methods: Chickpea intake trends and sociodemographic patterns were analysed using the National Diet and Nutrition Survey Rolling [...] Read more.
Background: Only 9% of individuals in the United Kingdom (UK) meet the recommendation for dietary fibre intake. Little is known about chickpea consumption in the UK. Methods: Chickpea intake trends and sociodemographic patterns were analysed using the National Diet and Nutrition Survey Rolling Programme data collected from 2008/09 to 2018/19 among 15,655 individuals ≥1.5 years completing a four-day food diary. Chickpea consumers were identified based on a list of chickpea-containing foods, with the most consumed foods being hummus, boiled chickpeas, chickpea flour, and low/reduced-fat hummus. Micronutrient and food group intakes were compared between chickpea consumers and non-consumers; the Modified Healthy Dietary Score was also assessed, which measures adherence to UK dietary recommendations. Results: Chickpea consumption increased from 6.1% (2008–2012) to 12.3% (2016–2019). Among 1.5–3 years, consumption increased from 5.7% to 13.4%, and among 19–64 years, consumption increased from 7.1% to 14.4%. The percentage of individuals eating chickpeas was higher among individuals with higher incomes and more education. Healthy-weight adults were more likely to consume chickpeas compared to those who were overweight or obese. Compared to both bean and non-bean consumers, chickpea consumers ate significantly more dietary fibre, fruits and vegetables, pulses, nuts, and less red meat and processed meat products. Chickpea consumers also had a higher Modified Healthy Dietary Score. Conclusions: In the UK, chickpea consumption more than doubled from 2008/09 to 2018/19. Chickpea consumers had a higher diet quality than non-consumers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Consumption of Bean and Human Health)
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17 pages, 862 KiB  
Article
Minimal Effective Dose of Beans Required to Elicit a Significantly Lower Glycemic Response Than Commonly Consumed Starchy Foods: Predictions Based on In Vitro Digestion and Carbohydrate Analysis
by D. Dan Ramdath, Simone Renwick, Aileen Hawke, Davin G. Ramdath and Thomas M. S. Wolever
Nutrients 2023, 15(21), 4495; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15214495 - 24 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1047
Abstract
Beans elicit lower glycemic responses (GRs) than other starchy foods, but the minimum effective dose (MED) to reduce GR is unknown. We sought to determine the MED of beans compared to common starchy foods. Overnight-fasted healthy volunteers consumed ¼c (phase 1, n = [...] Read more.
Beans elicit lower glycemic responses (GRs) than other starchy foods, but the minimum effective dose (MED) to reduce GR is unknown. We sought to determine the MED of beans compared to common starchy foods. Overnight-fasted healthy volunteers consumed ¼c (phase 1, n = 24) or ½c (phase 2, n = 18) of black, cranberry, great northern, kidney, navy and pinto beans and corn, rice, pasta and potato (controls), with blood glucose measured before and for 2 h after eating. GRs (incremental areas under the curves, iAUCs) after beans were consumed were compared to those of controls by ANOVA followed by Dunnett’s test. To qualify for MED, beans had to elicit an effective reduction in GR, defined as a statistically significant reduction in iAUC of ≥20% (i.e., a relative glycemic response, RGR, ≤80). Outcomes from in vitro digestion were compared with in vivo RGR. Both doses of all six beans effectively reduced GR versus all four starchy controls, except for ¼c and ½c cranberry and pinto vs. corn, ¼c great northern and navy vs. corn and ¼c navy and pinto vs. potato. MED criteria were met for 18 comparisons of the ¼c servings, with four of the remaining six met by the ½c servings. The overall mean ± SEM RGR vs. controls was similar for the ¼c and ½c servings: 53 ± 4% and 56 ± 3%, respectively. By multiple regression analysis, RGR = 23.3 × RDS + 8.3 × SDS − 20.1 × RS + 39.5 × AS − 108.2 (rapidly digested starch, p < 0.001; slowly digested starch, p = 0.054; resistant starch, p = 0.18; available sugars, p = 0.005; model r = 0.98, p = 0.001). RGR correlated with in vitro glucose release (r = 0.92, p < 0.001). The MED of beans is ¼ cup. For n = 30 comparisons (n = 24 beans vs. controls, n = 6 controls vs. each other), an effective reduction in GR was predicted from in vitro carbohydrate analysis with 86% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Consumption of Bean and Human Health)
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18 pages, 5268 KiB  
Article
Protective Effects of White Kidney Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) against Diet-Induced Hepatic Steatosis in Mice Are Linked to Modification of Gut Microbiota and Its Metabolites
by Qiqian Feng, Zhitao Niu, Siqi Zhang, Li Wang, Lijun Dong, Dianzhi Hou and Sumei Zhou
Nutrients 2023, 15(13), 3033; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15133033 - 4 Jul 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3215
Abstract
Disturbances in the gut microbiota and its derived metabolites are closely related to the occurrence and development of hepatic steatosis. The white kidney bean (WKB), as an excellent source of protein, dietary fiber, and phytochemicals, has recently received widespread attention and might exhibit [...] Read more.
Disturbances in the gut microbiota and its derived metabolites are closely related to the occurrence and development of hepatic steatosis. The white kidney bean (WKB), as an excellent source of protein, dietary fiber, and phytochemicals, has recently received widespread attention and might exhibit beneficial effects on a high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hepatic steatosis via targeting gut microbiota and its metabolites. The results indicated that HFD, when supplemented with WKB for 12 weeks, could potently reduce obesity symptoms, serum lipid profiles, and glucose, as well as improve the insulin resistance and liver function markers in mice, thereby alleviating hepatic steatosis. An integrated fecal microbiome and metabolomics analysis further demonstrated that WKB was able to normalize HFD-induced gut dysbiosis in mice, thereby mediating the alterations of a wide range of metabolites. Particularly, WKB remarkably increased the relative abundance of probiotics (Akkermansiaceae, Bifidobacteriaceae, and norank_f_Muribaculaceae) and inhibited the growth of hazardous bacteria (Mucispirillum, Enterorhabdus, and Dubosiella) in diet-induced hepatic steatosis mice. Moreover, the significant differential metabolites altered by WKB were annotated in lipid metabolism, which could ameliorate hepatic steatosis via regulating glycerophospholipid metabolism. This study elucidated the role of WKB from the perspective of microbiome and metabolomics in preventing nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, which provides new insights for its application in functional foods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Consumption of Bean and Human Health)
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11 pages, 764 KiB  
Article
Legume Consumption and Blood Pressure Control in Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes and Hypertension: Cross-Sectional Findings from the TOSCA.IT Study
by Marilena Vitale, Annalisa Giosuè, Sabina Sieri, Vittorio Krogh, Elena Massimino, Angela Albarosa Rivellese, Gabriele Riccardi, Olga Vaccaro and Maria Masulli
Nutrients 2023, 15(13), 2895; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15132895 - 26 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1362
Abstract
Background: Our aims were to evaluate the relationship of habitual legume consumption with blood pressure (BP) control in a large cohort of people with T2D and hypertension, and to investigate whether specific nutritional components of legumes or other foods may contribute to regulate [...] Read more.
Background: Our aims were to evaluate the relationship of habitual legume consumption with blood pressure (BP) control in a large cohort of people with T2D and hypertension, and to investigate whether specific nutritional components of legumes or other foods may contribute to regulate BP levels. Methods: We studied 1897 participants with T2D and hypertension. Dietary habits were assessed through a validated food frequency questionnaire. Sex-specific quartiles of legume consumption were created. Results: Higher legume consumption was associated with a lower intake of energy, carbohydrates, glycaemic load, alcohol, and sodium, and a significantly greater intake of proteins, fat, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated, fibre, potassium, and polyphenols. Significantly lower systolic and diastolic BP values were observed in the highest vs. lowest quartile of legume consumption (132.9 ± 6.7 vs. 137.3 ± 7.0 mmHg, p < 0.001; 78.9 ± 4.1 vs. 81.0 ± 4.2 mmHg, p = 0.002; respectively), as well as the proportion of people meeting the treatment targets (61.3% vs. 37.4% and 71.3% vs. 52.4%, respectively, p < 0.01). This association was independent from other foods whose consumption is associated with the high legume intake. Conclusions: In people with T2D and hypertension, three servings of legumes per week are associated with significantly better BP control. This gives further support to current dietary guidelines in recommending the frequent consumption of legumes, as a “ready-to-use” dietary strategy to achieve optimal BP control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Consumption of Bean and Human Health)
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Review

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18 pages, 1984 KiB  
Review
Common Beans as a Source of Amino Acids and Cofactors for Collagen Biosynthesis
by Carolina Añazco, Paola G. Ojeda and Marion Guerrero-Wyss
Nutrients 2023, 15(21), 4561; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15214561 - 27 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3058
Abstract
Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are widely consumed in diets all over the world and have a significant impact on human health. Proteins, vitamins, minerals, phytochemicals, and other micro- and macronutrients are abundant in these legumes. On the other hand, collagens, the [...] Read more.
Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are widely consumed in diets all over the world and have a significant impact on human health. Proteins, vitamins, minerals, phytochemicals, and other micro- and macronutrients are abundant in these legumes. On the other hand, collagens, the most important constituent of extracellular matrices, account for approximately 25–30 percent of the overall total protein composition within the human body. Hence, the presence of amino acids and other dietary components, including glycine, proline, and lysine, which are constituents of the primary structure of the protein, is required for collagen formation. In this particular context, protein quality is associated with the availability of macronutrients such as the essential amino acid lysine, which can be acquired from meals containing beans. Lysine plays a critical role in the process of post-translational modifications facilitated with enzymes lysyl hydroxylase and lysyl oxidase, which are directly involved in the synthesis and maturation of collagens. Furthermore, collagen biogenesis is influenced by the cellular redox state, which includes important minerals and bioactive chemicals such as iron, copper, and certain quinone cofactors. This study provides a novel perspective on the significant macro- and micronutrients present in Phaseolus vulgaris L., as well as explores the potential application of amino acids and cofactors derived from this legume in the production of collagens and bioavailability. The utilization of macro- and micronutrients obtained from Phaseolus vulgaris L. as a protein source, minerals, and natural bioactive compounds could optimize the capacity to promote the development and durability of collagen macromolecules within the human body. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Consumption of Bean and Human Health)
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27 pages, 2388 KiB  
Review
Unveiling the Evidence for the Use of Pulses in Managing Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Scoping Review
by Daniel J. Thomas, Mojtaba Shafiee, Matthew G. Nosworthy, Ginny Lane, D. Dan Ramdath and Hassan Vatanparast
Nutrients 2023, 15(19), 4222; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15194222 - 30 Sep 2023
Viewed by 2188
Abstract
Management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a pressing global healthcare challenge. Innovative strategies that integrate superior medical and nutritional practices are essential for holistic care. As such, pulse consumption is encouraged for its potential benefit in reducing hypercholesterolaemia, dyslipidaemia, and triglyceride [...] Read more.
Management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a pressing global healthcare challenge. Innovative strategies that integrate superior medical and nutritional practices are essential for holistic care. As such, pulse consumption is encouraged for its potential benefit in reducing hypercholesterolaemia, dyslipidaemia, and triglyceride levels, as well as enhancing glycaemic control. This scoping review aims to assess the depth of evidence supporting the recommendation for pulse consumption in T2DM management and to identify gaps in the existing literature. We conducted a comprehensive search across the databases MEDLINE, Global Health, EMBASE, CINAHL, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library (up to July 2023). We included population-based studies of any design, and excluded review-style articles. Articles published in languages other than English were also excluded. From the 2449 studies initially identified, 28 met our inclusion criteria. Acute postprandial trials demonstrated improved glucose responses and enhanced insulin responses to pulse-based intervention. Meanwhile, long-term trials reported meaningful improvements in T2DM indicators such as haemoglobin A1C (HbA1c), fasting glucose, fasting insulin, C-peptide, and markers of insulin resistance like homeostatic model assessment (HOMA). Integrating more pulses into the diets of diabetic individuals might offer an efficient and cost-effective strategy in the global initiative to combat T2DM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Consumption of Bean and Human Health)
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