Obesity and Cardiovascular Disease: Mechanistic Insights and Nutritional Management Strategies

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutritional Epidemiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 November 2024 | Viewed by 4733

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Sackler Medical School, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel
Interests: hypertension; blood pressure monitoring; hypertensive crisis; resistant hypertension; pharmacotherapy; secondary hypertension; the sympathetic nervous system; orthostatic hypotension; stroke; melatonin; diabetes mellitus; insulin resistance; metabolic syndrome; obesity; left ventricular hypertrophy; coronary calcification; uric acid and cardiovascular disease

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Guest Editor
Sackler Medical School, Tel Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978, Israel
Interests: obesity; nutrition

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Guest Editor
Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, University of São Paulo, São Paulo 05508-220, Brazil
Interests: nutrition; chronic diseases; CVD; obesity; cancer

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Co-Guest Editor
Departamento de Nutrição, Federal University of Paraná (UFPR), Curitiba 80210-170, Brazil
Interests: cardiovascular and non-communicable diseases; child nutrition; adolescent behavior; nutrient analysis; school feeding; nutritional requirements

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

There has been a global increase in obesity over the last few decades, with this issue now affecting more than one billion people worldwide (650 million adults, 340 million adolescents, and 39 million children). Obesity is a chronic noncommunicable disease that can cause premature disability and death through its association with other metabolic disorders, such as cardiovascular disease (CVD). CVD is the leading cause of death, and obesity is one of the top five risk factors for early death worldwide. Thus, these issues are key global health challenges.

Metabolic conditions linking obesity and overweight to CVD, especially abdominal fat deposits, include type-2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, renal dysfunction, insulin resistance, dyslipidemias, and subclinical inflammation. Therefore, it is clear that numerous mechanisms participate in obesity–CVD comorbidity, and their identification is crucial to the creation or improvement of strategies for managing obesity and CVD. Considering the complex and multifaceted nature of obesity–CVD, there is a need for combination treatments incorporating poli-pharmacotherapy, lifestyle interventions, and even bariatric surgery for individuals with class III obesity.

Living with chronic diseases decreases the quality of life and increases healthcare spending, whether private or public. Lifestyle, supported by environmental changes, is the most important modifiable factor in preventing and reducing obesity, cardiovascular mortality, and CVD incidence. Nutritional strategies, not only in the individual sphere but also in communities as a whole, can reduce obesity and CVD risk and promote better management of these diseases. Many studies showcase the causes of obesity and CVD and their associated factors; however, we are still looking for ways to channel these scientific findings into effective collective and individual approaches to reduce the prevalence of these diseases and the resulting deaths.

This Special Issue of Nutrients, “Obesity and Cardiovascular Disease: Mechanistic Insights and Nutritional Management Strategies”, welcomes original research and reviews of the literature on this important topic. Studies that explore nutritional management strategies for overweight/obesity in children and adolescents and biochemical mechanisms involved in obesity-derived CVD in adult subjects and animal models are welcome. Research illustrating the differences and/or similarities of polytherapy, especially lifestyle/nutritional intervention strategies, for obesity-derived CVD in developing versus developed countries are also of interest. Improving our understanding of suitable therapies for each country and population will help practitioners make appropriate decisions about a general or particular treatment, helping to thwart the epidemic obesity-derived CVD.

Prof. Dr. Ehud Grossman
Prof. Dr. Dror Dicker
Dr. Nagila Raquel Teixeira Damasceno
Dr. Anabelle Retondario
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • obesity
  • cardiovascular disease/cardiovascular disease risk
  • food intake/dietary intake/eating
  • dietary supplements
  • diet, food, and nutrition
  • recommended dietary allowance
  • biochemical pathways
  • obesity and cardiovascular disease physiology
  • public policy/health policy

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

12 pages, 2464 KiB  
Article
Obesity Is Associated with Fatty Liver and Fat Changes in the Kidneys in Humans as Assessed by MRI
by Hadar Raphael, Eyal Klang, Eli Konen, Yael Inbar, Avshalom Leibowitz, Yael Frenkel-Nir, Sara Apter and Ehud Grossman
Nutrients 2024, 16(9), 1387; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16091387 - 3 May 2024
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Abstract
Background: Obesity is associated with metabolic syndrome and fat accumulation in various organs such as the liver and the kidneys. Our goal was to assess, using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) Dual-Echo phase sequencing, the association between liver and kidney fat deposition and their [...] Read more.
Background: Obesity is associated with metabolic syndrome and fat accumulation in various organs such as the liver and the kidneys. Our goal was to assess, using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) Dual-Echo phase sequencing, the association between liver and kidney fat deposition and their relation to obesity. Methods: We analyzed MRI scans of individuals who were referred to the Chaim Sheba Medical Center between December 2017 and May 2020 to perform a study for any indication. For each individual, we retrieved from the computerized charts data on sex, and age, weight, height, body mass index (BMI), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP), and comorbidities (diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia). Results: We screened MRI studies of 399 subjects with a median age of 51 years, 52.4% of whom were women, and a median BMI 24.6 kg/m2. We diagnosed 18% of the participants with fatty liver and 18.6% with fat accumulation in the kidneys (fatty kidneys). Out of the 67 patients with fatty livers, 23 (34.3%) also had fatty kidneys, whereas among the 315 patients without fatty livers, only 48 patients (15.2%) had fatty kidneys (p < 0.01). In comparison to the patients who did not have a fatty liver or fatty kidneys (n = 267), those who had both (n = 23) were more obese, had higher systolic BP, and were more likely to have diabetes mellitus. In comparison to the patients without a fatty liver, those with fatty livers had an adjusted odds ratio of 2.91 (97.5% CI; 1.61–5.25) to have fatty kidneys. In total, 19.6% of the individuals were obese (BMI ≥ 30), and 26.1% had overweight (25 < BMI < 30). The obese and overweight individuals were older and more likely to have diabetes mellitus and hypertension and had higher rates of fatty livers and fatty kidneys. Fat deposition in both the liver and the kidneys was observed in 15.9% of the obese patients, in 8.3% of the overweight patients, and in none of those with normal weight. Obesity was the only risk factor for fatty kidneys and fatty livers, with an adjusted OR of 6.3 (97.5% CI 2.1–18.6). Conclusions: Obesity is a major risk factor for developing a fatty liver and fatty kidneys. Individuals with a fatty liver are more likely to have fatty kidneys. MRI is an accurate modality for diagnosing fatty kidneys. Reviewing MRI scans of any indication should include assessment of fat fractions in the kidneys in addition to that of the liver. Full article
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11 pages, 1275 KiB  
Article
Non-Interventional Weight Changes Are Associated with Alterations in Lipid Profiles and in the Triglyceride-to-HDL Cholesterol Ratio
by Shiri Weinstein, Elad Maor, Alon Kaplan, Tammy Hod, Avshalom Leibowitz, Ehud Grossman and Gadi Shlomai
Nutrients 2024, 16(4), 486; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16040486 - 8 Feb 2024
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Abstract
Background: Obesity is associated with dyslipidemia, and weight loss can improve obese patients’ lipid profile. Here, we assessed whether non-interventional weight changes are associated with alterations in lipid profile, particularly the triglyceride (TG)-to-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio (TG/HDL-C). Methods: In this retrospective analysis [...] Read more.
Background: Obesity is associated with dyslipidemia, and weight loss can improve obese patients’ lipid profile. Here, we assessed whether non-interventional weight changes are associated with alterations in lipid profile, particularly the triglyceride (TG)-to-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio (TG/HDL-C). Methods: In this retrospective analysis of subjects referred to medical screening, body mass index (BMI), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), TG, and HDL-C levels were measured annually. Patients were divided according to BMI changes between visits. The primary outcomes were the changes in LDL-C, TG, HDL-C, and the TG/HDL-C ratio between visits. Results: The final analysis included 18,828 subjects. During the year of follow-up, 9.3% of the study population lost more than 5% of their weight and 9.2% gained more than 5% of their weight. The effect of weight changes on TG and on the TG/HDL-C ratio was remarkable. Patients with greater BMI increases showed greater increases in their TG/HDL-C ratio, and conversely, a decreased BMI level had lower TG/HDL-C ratios. This is true even for moderate changes of more than 2.5% in BMI. Conclusions: Non-interventional weight changes, even modest ones, are associated with significant alterations in the lipid profile. Understanding that modest, non-interventional weight changes are associated with alterations in the TG/HDL-C ratio may aid in better risk stratification and primary prevention of CV morbidity and mortality. Full article
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15 pages, 1928 KiB  
Article
Effect of Intermittent Fasting on Cardiometabolic Health in the Chinese Population: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
by Katy Cheung, Vicky Chan, Stephanie Chan, Martin Ming Him Wong, Gary Ka-Ki Chung, Wai-Yin Cheng, Kenneth Lo and Fangfang Zeng
Nutrients 2024, 16(3), 357; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16030357 - 25 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3012
Abstract
The efficacy of intermittent fasting (IF), as an emerging weight management strategy, in improving cardiometabolic health has been evaluated in various populations, but that among Chinese individuals has not been systematically studied. A comprehensive search on multiple databases was performed to identify eligible [...] Read more.
The efficacy of intermittent fasting (IF), as an emerging weight management strategy, in improving cardiometabolic health has been evaluated in various populations, but that among Chinese individuals has not been systematically studied. A comprehensive search on multiple databases was performed to identify eligible randomized controlled trials (RCTs) up to October 2022. The primary outcome was post-intervention weight loss, and secondary outcomes included changes in cardiometabolic indicators. Effect estimates were meta-analyzed using a random-effects model. In total, nine RCTs with 899 Chinese participants were included. Time-restricted eating was the most adopted IF protocol in this study (six out of nine), followed by alternate-day fasting. The IF intervention significantly reduced body weight, body mass index, body fat mass, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides when compared with control groups. However, no statistically significant reductions in waist circumference, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting glucose, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure were found. To sum up, IF can be a weight management strategy and may improve the cardiometabolic health of Chinese adults, but more long-term trials using different IF strategies are required to generate robust evidence of its efficacy. Full article
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