Anti-inflammatory and Anti-obesity Properties of Food Bioactive Components

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Phytochemicals and Human Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 25 September 2024 | Viewed by 5126

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Organic Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy with the Division of Laboratory Medicine, Medical University of Białystok, ul. Mickiewicza 2a, 15-222 Białystok, Poland
Interests: polyphenols; essential oils; plant raw materials as a source of compounds with high pro-health potential; synthesis of modified biologically active polyphenols; transdermal delivery systems for active ingredients

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Obesity is closely related to the occurrence of chronic low-grade inflammation. Even though its intensity is not high, the fact that the inflammation persists all the time is extremely unfavorable and destructive for the human body. Reducing one’s body weight, i.e., reducing obesity, and thus, chronic inflammation, can be greatly achieved thanks to a proper diet rich in compounds with anti-inflammatory and anti-obesity properties.

Food bioactive components are the basic nutrients or non-nutritive compounds that naturally occur in raw materials subjected to a technological process which strengthen, weaken or modify the physiological and metabolic functions of the body.

In this Special Issue, we aim to gather the latest scientific data both in the form of original research manuscripts and reviews relating to the anti-inflammatory and anti-obesity properties of compounds known as Food Bioactive Components (FBC) and the relationships between the presence and level of FBC content in food, their daily consumption and effectiveness in the fight against obesity and chronic inflammation.

Dr. Monika Tomczykowa
Dr. Michał Tomczyk
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • food bioactive components (FBC)
  • chronic low-grade inflammation
  • obesity
  • molecular basis of biological activity of FBC

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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15 pages, 7149 KiB  
Article
Ginseng Berry Juice (GBJ) Regulates the Inflammation in Acute Ulcerative Mouse Models and the Major Bioactive Substances Are Ginsenosides Rb3, Rc, Rd, and Re
by Soon-Young Lee, Seung-Yub Song, Sung-Ho Lee, Gye-Yeop Kim, Jin-Woo Park, Chun-Sik Bae, Dae-Hun Park and Seung-Sik Cho
Nutrients 2024, 16(7), 1031; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16071031 - 1 Apr 2024
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Abstract
Panax ginseng fruit is known to have various biological effects owing to its large amount of saponins such as ginsenosides. In the present study, ginseng berry juice was confirmed to be effective against acute inflammation. Ginseng berry juice was used for analysis of [...] Read more.
Panax ginseng fruit is known to have various biological effects owing to its large amount of saponins such as ginsenosides. In the present study, ginseng berry juice was confirmed to be effective against acute inflammation. Ginseng berry juice was used for analysis of active constituents, antioxidant efficacy, and in vivo inflammation. A high-performance liquid chromatography method was used for analysis of ginsenosides. In an HCl/ethanol-induced acute gastric injury model, microscopic, immunofluorescent, and immunohistochemical techniques were used for analysis of inhibition of gastric injury and mechanism study. In a mouse model of acute gastritis induced with HCl/ethanol, ginseng berry juice (GBJ, 250 mg/kg) showed similar gastric injury inhibitory effects as cabbage water extract (CB, 500 mg/kg, P.O). GBJ dose-dependently modulated the pro-inflammatory cytokines such as Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α), Interleukin-6 (IL-6), and Interleukin-13 (IL-13). GBJ inhibited the activation of Nuclear Factor kappa bB (NF-κB) and suppressed the expressions of cyclooxigenase-2 (COX-2) and prostaglandin 2 (PGE2). The anti-inflammatory effect of GBJ is attributed to ginsenosides which have anti-inflammatory effects. Productivity as an effective food source for acute gastritis was analyzed and showed that GBJ was superior to CB. In addition, as a functional food for suppressing acute ulcerative symptoms, it was thought that the efficacy of gastric protection products would be higher if GBJ were produced in the form of juice rather than through various extraction methods. Full article
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15 pages, 2144 KiB  
Article
Chia Phenolic Extract Appear to Improve Small Intestinal Functionality, Morphology, Bacterial Populations, and Inflammation Biomarkers In Vivo (Gallus gallus)
by Marcella Duarte Villas Mishima, Hércia Stampini Duarte Martino, Nikolai Kolba, Nikita Agarwal, Cydney Jackson, Bárbara Pereira da Silva, Mariana Grancieri, Andressa de Assis, Vinícius Parzanini Brilhante de São José and Elad Tako
Nutrients 2023, 15(16), 3643; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15163643 - 19 Aug 2023
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Abstract
Phenolic compounds can act as a substrate for colonic resident microbiota. Once the metabolites are absorbed and distributed throughout the body, they can have diverse effects on the gut. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the intra-amniotic administration [...] Read more.
Phenolic compounds can act as a substrate for colonic resident microbiota. Once the metabolites are absorbed and distributed throughout the body, they can have diverse effects on the gut. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the intra-amniotic administration of a chia phenolic extract on intestinal inflammation, intestinal barrier, brush border membrane functionality, intestinal microbiota, and morphology in vivo (Gallus gallus model). Cornish-cross fertile broiler eggs, at 17 days of embryonic incubation, were separated into groups as follows: non-injected (NI; this group did not receive an injection); 18 MΩ H2O (H2O; injected with ultrapure water), and 10 mg/mL (1%) chia phenolic extract (CPE; injected with phenolic extract diluted in ultrapure water). Immediately after hatch (21 days), chickens were euthanized and their small intestine, cecum, and cecum content were collected and analyzed. The chia phenolic extract reduced the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and increased the sucrose isomaltase (SI) gene expression, reduced the Bifidobacterium and E. coli populations, reduced the Paneth cell diameter, increased depth crypt, and maintained villus height compared to the non-injected control group. Chia phenolic extract may be a promising beneficial compound for improving intestinal health, demonstrating positive changes in intestinal inflammation, functionality, microbiota, and morphology. Full article
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17 pages, 3436 KiB  
Article
Intra-Amniotic Administration of Cashew Nut (Anacardium occidentale L.) Soluble Extract Improved Gut Functionality and Morphology In Vivo (Gallus gallus)
by Talitha Silva Meneguelli, Nikolai Kolba, Arundhati Misra, Ana Paula Dionísio, Ana Claudia Pelissari Kravchychyn, Bárbara Pereira Da Silva, Hercia Stampini Duarte Martino, Helen Hermana Miranda Hermsdorff and Elad Tako
Nutrients 2023, 15(10), 2378; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15102378 - 19 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1664
Abstract
Cashew nuts are rich in dietary fibers, monounsaturated fatty acids, carotenoids, tocopherols, flavonoids, catechins, amino acids, and minerals that offer benefits for health. However, the knowledge of its effect on gut health is lacking. In this way, cashew nut soluble extract (CNSE) was [...] Read more.
Cashew nuts are rich in dietary fibers, monounsaturated fatty acids, carotenoids, tocopherols, flavonoids, catechins, amino acids, and minerals that offer benefits for health. However, the knowledge of its effect on gut health is lacking. In this way, cashew nut soluble extract (CNSE) was assessed in vivo via intra-amniotic administration in intestinal brush border membrane (BBM) morphology, functionality, and gut microbiota. Four groups were evaluated: (1) no injection (control); (2) H2O injection (control); (3) 10 mg/mL CNSE (1%); and (4) 50 mg/mL CNSE (5%). Results related to CNSE on duodenal morphological parameters showed higher Paneth cell numbers, goblet cell (GC) diameter in crypt and villi, depth crypt, mixed GC per villi, and villi surface area. Further, it decreased GC number and acid and neutral GC. In the gut microbiota, treatment with CNSE showed a lower abundance of Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, and E. coli. Further, in intestinal functionality, CNSE upregulated aminopeptidase (AP) gene expression at 5% compared to 1% CNSE. In conclusion, CNSE had beneficial effects on gut health by improving duodenal BBM functionality, as it upregulated AP gene expression, and by modifying morphological parameters ameliorating digestive and absorptive capacity. For intestinal microbiota, higher concentrations of CNSE or long-term intervention may be necessary. Full article
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Review

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20 pages, 2180 KiB  
Review
Effects of Saponins on Lipid Metabolism: The Gut–Liver Axis Plays a Key Role
by Shixi Cao, Mengqi Liu, Yao Han, Shouren Li, Xiaoyan Zhu, Defeng Li, Yinghua Shi and Boshuai Liu
Nutrients 2024, 16(10), 1514; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16101514 - 17 May 2024
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Abstract
Unhealthy lifestyles (high-fat diet, smoking, alcohol consumption, too little exercise, etc.) in the current society are prone to cause lipid metabolism disorders affecting the health of the organism and inducing the occurrence of diseases. Saponins, as biologically active substances present in plants, have [...] Read more.
Unhealthy lifestyles (high-fat diet, smoking, alcohol consumption, too little exercise, etc.) in the current society are prone to cause lipid metabolism disorders affecting the health of the organism and inducing the occurrence of diseases. Saponins, as biologically active substances present in plants, have lipid-lowering, inflammation-reducing, and anti-atherosclerotic effects. Saponins are thought to be involved in the regulation of lipid metabolism in the body; it suppresses the appetite and, thus, reduces energy intake by modulating pro-opiomelanocortin/Cocaine amphetamine regulated transcript (POMC/CART) neurons and neuropeptide Y/agouti-related peptide (NPY/AGRP) neurons in the hypothalamus, the appetite control center. Saponins directly activate the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway and related transcriptional regulators such as peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptors (PPAR), CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBP), and sterol-regulatory element binding proteins (SREBP) increase fatty acid oxidation and inhibit lipid synthesis. It also modulates gut–liver interactions to improve lipid metabolism by regulating gut microbes and their metabolites and derivatives—short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), bile acids (BAs), trimethylamine (TMA), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), et al. This paper reviews the positive effects of different saponins on lipid metabolism disorders, suggesting that the gut–liver axis plays a crucial role in improving lipid metabolism processes and may be used as a therapeutic target to provide new strategies for treating lipid metabolism disorders. Full article
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