Dietary Intake and Diseases Risk: From Nutritional Epidemiology Perspective

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutritional Epidemiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 October 2024 | Viewed by 9587

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health (Shenzhen), Shenzhen Campus of Sun Yat-sen University, Shenzhen 518107, China
Interests: gut microbiota

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Guest Editor
Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing, China
Interests: the impact of nutrition, food and behavioral factors on health outcomes; gene-environment interaction; diet-related metabolites and health outcomes

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Dietary intake is a modifiable lifestyle factor that can significantly affect the occurrence and progression of chronic diseases, especially cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Nutritional epidemiology, positioned at the intersection of nutrition science and epidemiological methodologies, plays a pivotal role in deciphering these complex relationships. In recent decades, the emergence of large-scale epidemiological studies has enhanced our understanding of the diet–disease connection.

This Special Issue, titled “Dietary Intake and Disease Risk From a Nutritional Epidemiology Perspective”, aims to feature original articles, systematic reviews, or meta-analyses related to populations that will not only advance current knowledge on the role of dietary patterns, diet-related metabolites, nutrients, or supplements in disease risk, but also to inform public health interventions and evidence-based dietary recommendations. Potential topics include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • The association of dietary patterns with chronic metabolic diseases, including obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular and liver diseases;
  • The modification effect of dietary intake on the association between various health-related exposures and diseases;
  • Gene–diet interaction and precision nutrition in chronic cardio-metabolic diseases;
  • The identification and application of novel nutritional biomarkers in nutritional epidemiology.

Non-population studies are outside the scope of this Special Issue and may be rejected or redirected to other journals/sections as appropriate.

Dr. Tao Zhou
Dr. Mengying Wang
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • nutritional epidemiology
  • dietary intake
  • disease risk
  • chronic diseases
  • dietary patterns
  • dietary assessment
  • population health
  • nutrient intake
  • metabolites
  • health outcomes
  • public health
  • dietary recommendations

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

11 pages, 722 KiB  
Article
Cognitive Function, Healthy Lifestyle, and All-Cause Mortality among Chinese Older Adults: A Longitudinal Prospective Study
by Huiwen Li, Yi Zheng, Qi Li and Mengying Wang
Nutrients 2024, 16(9), 1297; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16091297 - 26 Apr 2024
Viewed by 666
Abstract
Background: Both cognitive decline and unhealthy lifestyles have been linked to an elevated risk of mortality in older people. We aimed to investigate whether a healthy lifestyle might modify the association between cognitive function and all-cause mortality in Chinese older populations. Methods: The [...] Read more.
Background: Both cognitive decline and unhealthy lifestyles have been linked to an elevated risk of mortality in older people. We aimed to investigate whether a healthy lifestyle might modify the association between cognitive function and all-cause mortality in Chinese older populations. Methods: The final analysis included 5124 individuals free of dementia, selected from the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey from 2011 to 2018. Cognitive function was assessed in 2011 using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). A lifestyle score was calculated based on five lifestyle factors, including smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, diet, and body mass index. Cox proportional hazards models were performed to evaluate the association between baseline cognitive function and the risk of all-cause mortality, with an interaction term of cognitive function and lifestyle score being added to the models. Results: The average age of participants was 81.87 years old at baseline. During a median follow-up of 6.4 years, 1461 deaths were documented. Both higher cognitive function (HR: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.96–0.97) and a healthier lifestyle (HR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.87–0.97) were significantly associated with a reduced risk of mortality. We found that lifestyle significantly modified the association of cognitive function with mortality (p for interaction = 0.004). The inverse relation between cognitive function and mortality was found to be more pronounced among participants with a healthier lifestyle. Of note, among the lifestyle scores component, diet showed a significant interaction with mortality (p for interaction = 0.003), and the protective HR of the all-cause mortality associated with higher MMSE scores was more prominent among participants with healthy diets compared with unhealthy diets. Conclusions: Our study indicates that cognitive decline is associated with a higher risk of mortality, and such associations are attenuated by maintaining a healthy lifestyle, with a particular emphasis on healthy diet. Full article
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14 pages, 4119 KiB  
Article
The Association between the Diversity of Coenzyme Q10 Intake from Dietary Sources and the Risk of New-Onset Hypertension: A Nationwide Cohort Study
by Suming Dai, Zezhong Tian, Dan Zhao, Ying Liang, Zepei Zhong, Yixuan Xu, Shanshan Hou and Yan Yang
Nutrients 2024, 16(7), 1017; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16071017 - 31 Mar 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1066
Abstract
Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is a food active component with blood-pressure-improving properties. However, the association between the variety and quantity of different sources of dietary CoQ10 and new-onset hypertension remains uncertain. We aimed to investigate the associations between the diversity and quantity of CoQ10 [...] Read more.
Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is a food active component with blood-pressure-improving properties. However, the association between the variety and quantity of different sources of dietary CoQ10 and new-onset hypertension remains uncertain. We aimed to investigate the associations between the diversity and quantity of CoQ10 intake from eight major food sources and new-onset hypertension risk. A total of 11,489 participants were included. Dietary intake was evaluated via three consecutive 24 h recalls and household food inventory. The diversity score of CoQ10 sources was calculated by the sum of food groups consumed in the ideal range. Cox proportional hazard models were used for evaluating their associations with hypertension. Model performance was assessed by ROC analyses and 200-times ten-fold cross-validation. The relationships between CoQ10 and hypertension were U-shaped for meat, egg, vegetable, and fruit sources, inverse J-shaped for fish, and nut sources, and L-shaped for dairy products sources (all p-values < 0.001). A higher diversity score was associated with lower hypertension risk (HR (95% CI): 0.66 (0.64, 0.69)). The mean areas under the ROC curves for 6, 12 and 18 years were 0.81, 0.80 and 0.78, respectively. There is a negative correlation between the diversity of CoQ10 with moderate intake from different sources and new-onset hypertension. One diversity score based on CoQ10 was developed. Full article
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11 pages, 603 KiB  
Article
Mediation Role of Recreational Physical Activity in the Relationship between the Dietary Intake of Live Microbes and the Systemic Immune-Inflammation Index: A Real-World Cross-Sectional Study
by Yanwei You, Yuquan Chen, Mengxian Wei, Meihua Tang, Yuqing Lu, Qi Zhang and Qiang Cao
Nutrients 2024, 16(6), 777; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16060777 - 8 Mar 2024
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1596
Abstract
The main topic of this research is the relationship between dietary intake of live microbe-containing (LMC) foods, recreational physical activity (RPA), and the systemic immune-inflammation index (SII). This study presented a cohort of 26,254 individuals in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey [...] Read more.
The main topic of this research is the relationship between dietary intake of live microbe-containing (LMC) foods, recreational physical activity (RPA), and the systemic immune-inflammation index (SII). This study presented a cohort of 26,254 individuals in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), representing an estimated weighted population of 193,637,615 in the United States. Weighted multivariable linear regression models were used in consideration of the multi-stage sampling design. Results: The study found that medium-LMC foods were negatively associated with the SII [β (95% CI): −4.807 (−7.752, −1.862), p = 0.002], indicating that their intake was correlated with lower levels of the SII. However, no significant associations were found with low- or high-LMC foods. The study also explored the relationship between RPA and the SII, finding that more time spent in RPA was negatively associated with the SII [β (95% CI): −0.022 (−0.034, −0.011), p < 0.001]. A mediation analysis was conducted to investigate the role of RPA in the relationship between medium-LMC food intake and the SII. The analysis revealed that RPA had a notable indirect effect, contributing to 6.7% of the overall change in the SII. Overall, this study suggests that medium-LMC food intake and RPA may have beneficial effects on systemic immune inflammation. Full article
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14 pages, 1313 KiB  
Article
Association of the Protective Dietary Pattern for Blood Pressure with Elevated Blood Pressure and Hypertension among Chinese Children and Adolescents Aged 6–17 Years Old: Data from China Nutrition and Health Surveillance (2015–2017)
by Yuge Li, Yuxiang Yang, Lahong Ju, Wei Piao, Xiaoqi Wei, Liyun Zhao and Dongmei Yu
Nutrients 2023, 15(23), 4927; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15234927 - 26 Nov 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1377
Abstract
Studies focused on the association between dietary patterns and elevated blood pressure (BP) and hypertension (HTN) among children and adolescents remain insufficient. This study aimed to explore a dietary pattern that could be helpful for the prevention of abnormal BP and to investigate [...] Read more.
Studies focused on the association between dietary patterns and elevated blood pressure (BP) and hypertension (HTN) among children and adolescents remain insufficient. This study aimed to explore a dietary pattern that could be helpful for the prevention of abnormal BP and to investigate the association between this dietary pattern and elevated BP and HTN among Chinese children and adolescents. A total of 52,080 Chinese children and adolescents aged 6~17 years old from the China Nutrition and Health Surveillance (CNHS) 2015–2017 were included in the current study. The reduced rank regression (RRR) method was applied to derive a dietary pattern that is associated with BP. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the association between dietary pattern (DP) and elevated BP and HTN. The Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension (DASH) score was also calculated for each participant as a comparative method to validate the dietary pattern derived with the RRR method. A protective dietary pattern (PDP) for BP among Chinese children and adolescents was derived, which was characterized by high intakes of dairy products, mushrooms/edible fungi, fresh vegetables, fresh fruits, fresh eggs, aquatic products, mixed legumes, soybeans and related products, offal, dried fruits, and coarse cereals, with low intakes of refined grains. After multiple adjustments, there were significant inverse associations between PDP scores and the odds of elevated BP and HTN (elevated BP: Q5 vs. Q1, OR = 0.849, 95%CI = 0.755–0.931, P-trend < 0.05; HTN: Q5 vs. Q1, OR = 0.795, 95%CI = 0.694–0.911, P-trend < 0.05). The DASH diet was also observed to have protective effects on elevated BP in model I (Q5 vs. Q1, OR = 0.899, 95%CI = 0.828–0.975, P-trend < 0.05), but was not observed to have protective effects on HTN (HTN: Q5 vs. Q1, OR = 0.958, 95%CI = 0.876–1.048, P-trend > 0.05). The current study suggested that greater adherence to the PDP for BP among Chinese children and adolescents might be associated with lower odds of elevated BP and HTN. Full article
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15 pages, 2010 KiB  
Article
Causal Effect of Relative Carbohydrate Intake on Hypertension through Psychological Well-Being and Adiposity: A Mendelian Randomization Study
by Chaojie Ye, Lijie Kong, Yiying Wang, Chun Dou, Min Xu, Jie Zheng, Ruizhi Zheng, Yu Xu, Mian Li, Zhiyun Zhao, Jieli Lu, Yuhong Chen, Weiqing Wang, Yufang Bi, Tiange Wang and Guang Ning
Nutrients 2023, 15(22), 4817; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15224817 - 17 Nov 2023
Viewed by 2013
Abstract
Observations of the association between carbohydrate intake and hypertension are inconsistent, with mediating pathways unclear. We aimed to investigate the causal effect of relative carbohydrate intake on hypertension and the mediating roles of psychological well-being and adiposity. Using summary-level statistics of genome-wide association [...] Read more.
Observations of the association between carbohydrate intake and hypertension are inconsistent, with mediating pathways unclear. We aimed to investigate the causal effect of relative carbohydrate intake on hypertension and the mediating roles of psychological well-being and adiposity. Using summary-level statistics of genome-wide association studies of European ancestry, we conducted univariable and multivariable Mendelian randomization (MR) to estimate the bidirectional causal association between relative carbohydrate intake (total energy-adjusted, mean: 42–51%) and hypertension (FinnGen: 42,857 cases/162,837 controls; UK Biobank: 77,723 cases/330,366 controls) and two-step MR to assess the mediating effects of psychological well-being indicators and adiposity traits on the association. MR estimates of hypertension from FinnGen and UK Biobank were meta-analyzed using the fixed-effect model given no heterogeneity. Meta-analyses of multivariable MR estimates from FinnGen and UK Biobank indicated that each one-SD higher relative carbohydrate intake was associated with 71% (odds ratio: 0.29; 95% confidence interval: 0.11–0.79) lower risk of hypertension, independently of other dietary macronutrients. Hypertension showed no reverse effect on carbohydrate intake. Five psychological well-being indicators and four adiposity traits causally mediated the association between relative carbohydrate intake and hypertension, including body mass index (mediation proportion: 51.37%), waist circumference (40.54%), waist-to-hip ratio (35.00%), hip circumference (24.77%), major depressive disorder (23.37%), positive affect (17.08%), depressive symptoms (16.52%), life satisfaction (16.05%), and neuroticism (11.22%). Higher relative carbohydrate intake was causally associated with lower hypertension risk, substantially mediated by better psychological well-being and less adiposity. Our findings inform causal targets and pathways for the prevention and intervention of hypertension. Full article
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16 pages, 691 KiB  
Article
Eating Behaviours of Polish and Portuguese Adults—Cross-Sectional Surveys
by Julia Bober, Klaudia Wiśniewska and Katarzyna Okręglicka
Nutrients 2023, 15(8), 1934; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15081934 - 17 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2377
Abstract
Eating behaviours affect energy intake through the types and amounts of foods chosen and decisions about the beginning and ending of the eating process. This study aims to determine and compare the eating behaviours of Polish and Portuguese adults and, in addition, to [...] Read more.
Eating behaviours affect energy intake through the types and amounts of foods chosen and decisions about the beginning and ending of the eating process. This study aims to determine and compare the eating behaviours of Polish and Portuguese adults and, in addition, to establish the correlations between daily behaviours, food-approaches and food-avoidance behaviours, and BMI in both populations. The study was conducted between January 2023 and March 2023. Participants from Poland and Portugal responded to the AEBQ questionnaire and questions on eating habits and body-image self-perception. The research tool was a website-based survey questionnaire with single-choice questions. No significant differences related to BMI levels were found between the Polish and Portuguese adults in terms of their eating behaviours. Both groups were characterised by the increased intensity of their food-approach behaviours, which was directly correlated with increases in BMI. Greater snacking intensity and binge drinking were associated with higher BMI. The study revealed an increased prevalence of binge drinking in the Polish sample. The study also confirmed a higher frequency of food-approach behaviours in overweight and/or obese individuals and uncontrolled calorie intake in participants imposing dietary restrictions for weight loss. Nutrition education is needed to improve eating habits and food choices, as well as to prevent overweight and obesity in adults. Full article
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