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Antioxidants in Metabolic Recovery after Intense Exercise

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Sports Nutrition".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 December 2023) | Viewed by 19204

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Physical Education, Sport and Human Movement, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid, Spain
Interests: supplements; exercise physiology; nutrition; health; metabolism; aging; chronic disease; physical performance
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Acute exercise leads to increased oxidative stress, which reflects an imbalance between production of reactive oxygen species and an adequate antioxidant defense. Supporting endogenous defenses with additional oral antioxidant supplementation may represent a suitable noninvasive tool for preventing or reducing oxidative stress during or after intense training.

Antioxidant supplementation has spread to reduce and sometimes prevent oxidative stress in sport practitioners. Antioxidant supplementation may be warranted in particular conditions, when athletes are exposed to high oxidative stress or fail to meet dietary antioxidant requirements.

The intent of this Special Issue is to discuss antioxidant supplementation in or after intense training, with foucus on dietary antioxidant(such as whole food like fruits, vegetables, meats and so on) or exogenous antioxidants(such as capsules) as supplementation to provide optimal recovery effect on athletes after acute exercise.

In light of your expertise in this subject area, you are invited to submit original research (including short communications of preliminary but significant results), reviews (narrative or systematic), or meta-analyses for this Special Issue of Nutrients focused on the role of ‘Antioxidants in Metabolic Recovery after Intense Exercise’.

Dr. Helios Pareja-Galeano
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • antioxidants
  • nutrition
  • diet
  • intense exercise
  • exercise recovery
  • physiological acute/chronic/metabolic stress responses
  • oxidative stress

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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11 pages, 2422 KiB  
Article
Is There a Role of Beetroot Consumption on the Recovery of Oxidative Status and Muscle Damage in Ultra-Endurance Runners?
by Eva Vilar, Eladio Collado-Boira, Carlos Guerrero, Ana Folch-Ayora, Pablo Salas-Medina, Carlos Hernando, Pablo Baliño and María Muriach
Nutrients 2024, 16(5), 583; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16050583 - 21 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1218
Abstract
(1) Background: Ultra-endurance exercise involves a high physical impact, resulting in muscle damage, inflammatory response and production of free radicals that alter the body’s oxidative state. Supplementation with antioxidants, such as beetroot, may improve recovery in ultra-endurance runners. The aim of this study [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Ultra-endurance exercise involves a high physical impact, resulting in muscle damage, inflammatory response and production of free radicals that alter the body’s oxidative state. Supplementation with antioxidants, such as beetroot, may improve recovery in ultra-endurance runners. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is a correlation between beetroot intake and recovery of serum oxidative status, inflammatory response and muscle damage parameters after an ultra-endurance race. (2) Methods: An observational and longitudinal study was conducted by means of surveys and blood samples collected from 32 runners during the IX Penyagolosa Trails CSP®® race and the two following days. The variables C-reactive protein (CRP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK), the activity of the antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR) as well as the oxidative damage markers malondialdehyde (MDA), carbonyl groups (CG) and loss of muscle strength using the squat jump (SJ) test were analyzed to discriminate whether beetroot consumption can modulate the recovery of ultra-trail runners. (3) Results: Significant differences were observed between runners who ingested beetroot and those who did not, in terms of oxidative status, specifically in serum GPx activity at 24 and 48 h, muscle damage variables CK and LDH and regarding the SJ test results at the finish line. Therefore, the intake of supplements containing beetroot positively influences the recovery of serum oxidative status and muscle damage after ultra-endurance running. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Metabolic Recovery after Intense Exercise)
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10 pages, 1106 KiB  
Article
Effects of High-Intensity Anaerobic Exercise on the Scavenging Activity of Various Reactive Oxygen Species and Free Radicals in Athletes
by Yuri Sawada, Hiroshi Ichikawa, Naoyuki Ebine, Yukiko Minamiyama, Ahad Abdulkarim D. Alharbi, Noriaki Iwamoto and Yoshiyuki Fukuoka
Nutrients 2023, 15(1), 222; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15010222 - 1 Jan 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3192
Abstract
High-intensity exercise in athletes results in mainly the production of excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) in skeletal muscle, and thus athletes should maintain greater ROS scavenging activity in the body. We investigated the changes in six different ROS-scavenging activities in athletes following high-intensity [...] Read more.
High-intensity exercise in athletes results in mainly the production of excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) in skeletal muscle, and thus athletes should maintain greater ROS scavenging activity in the body. We investigated the changes in six different ROS-scavenging activities in athletes following high-intensity anaerobic exercise. A 30-s Wingate exercise test as a form of high-intensity anaerobic exercise was completed by 10 male university track and field team members. Blood samples were collected before and after the exercise, and the ROS-scavenging activities (OH•, O2, 1O2, RO• and ROO•, and CH3•) were evaluated by the electron spin resonance (ESR) spin-trapping method. The anaerobic exercise significantly increased RO• and ROO• scavenging activities, and the total area of the radar chart in the ROS-scavenging activities increased 178% from that in pre-exercise. A significant correlation between the mean power of the anaerobic exercise and the 1O2 scavenging activity was revealed (r = 0.72, p < 0.05). The increase ratio in OH• scavenging activity after high-intensity exercise was significantly greater in the higher mean-power group compared to the lower mean-power group (n = 5, each). These results suggest that (i) the scavenging activities of some ROS are increased immediately after high-intensity anaerobic exercise, and (ii) an individual’s OH• scavenging activity responsiveness may be related to his anaerobic exercise performance. In addition, greater pre-exercise 1O2 scavenging activity might lead to the generation of higher mean power in high-intensity anaerobic exercise. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Metabolic Recovery after Intense Exercise)
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12 pages, 506 KiB  
Article
Effects of Acute Vitamin C plus Vitamin E Supplementation on Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage in Runners: A Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial
by María Martínez-Ferrán, Víctor Cuadrado-Peñafiel, Juan Manuel Sánchez-Andreo, Marta Villar-Lucas, Mónica Castellanos-Montealegre, Agustín Rubio-Martín, Carlos Romero-Morales, Soraya Casla-Barrio and Helios Pareja-Galeano
Nutrients 2022, 14(21), 4635; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14214635 - 3 Nov 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3553
Abstract
Considering the existing controversy over the possible role of acute antioxidant vitamins in reducing exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD), this doubled-blind, randomized and controlled trial aimed to determine whether supplementation with vitamins C and E could mitigate the EIMD in endurance-trained runners (n [...] Read more.
Considering the existing controversy over the possible role of acute antioxidant vitamins in reducing exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD), this doubled-blind, randomized and controlled trial aimed to determine whether supplementation with vitamins C and E could mitigate the EIMD in endurance-trained runners (n = 18). The exercise protocol involved a warm-up followed by 6 to 8 bouts of 1 km running at 75% maximum heart rate (HRmax). Two hours before the exercise protocol, participants took the supplementation with vitamins or placebo, and immediately afterwards, blood lactate, rate of perceived exertion and performance were assessed. At 24 h post-exercise, CK, delayed onset muscle soreness and performance were determined (countermovement jump, squat jump and stiffness test). The elastic index and vertical stiffness were calculated using a stiffness test. Immediately after the exercise protocol, all participants showed improved maximum countermovement jump, which only persisted after 24 h in the vitamin group (p < 0.05). In both groups, squat jump height was significantly greater (p < 0.05) immediately after exercise and returned to baseline values after 24 h. The elastic index increased in the vitamin group (p < 0.05), but not in the placebo group. In both groups, lactate levels increased from pre- to immediately post-exercise (p < 0.05), and CK increased from pre- to 24 h post-exercise (p < 0.05). No significant differences between groups were observed in any of the variables (p > 0.05). Vitamin C and E supplementation does not seem to help with EIMD in endurance-trained individuals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Metabolic Recovery after Intense Exercise)
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Review

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35 pages, 1297 KiB  
Review
Antioxidants and Sports Performance
by Vicente Javier Clemente-Suárez, Álvaro Bustamante-Sanchez, Juan Mielgo-Ayuso, Ismael Martínez-Guardado, Alexandra Martín-Rodríguez and José Francisco Tornero-Aguilera
Nutrients 2023, 15(10), 2371; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15102371 - 18 May 2023
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 7218
Abstract
The role of reactive oxygen species and antioxidant response in training adaptations and sports performance has been a large issue investigated in the last few years. The present review aims to analyze the role of reactive oxygen species and antioxidant response in sports [...] Read more.
The role of reactive oxygen species and antioxidant response in training adaptations and sports performance has been a large issue investigated in the last few years. The present review aims to analyze the role of reactive oxygen species and antioxidant response in sports performance. For this aim, the production of reactive oxygen species in physical activities, the effect of reactive oxygen species on sports performance, the relationship between reactive oxygen species and training adaptations, inflammation, and the microbiota, the effect of antioxidants on recovery and sports performance, and strategies to use antioxidants supplementations will be discussed. Finally, practical applications derived from this information are discussed. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) production during physical activity greatly influences sports performance. This review concludes that ROS play a critical role in the processes of training adaptation induced by resistance training through a reduction in inflammatory mediators and oxidative stress, as well as appropriate molecular signaling. Additionally, it has been established that micronutrients play an important role in counteracting free radicals, such as reactive oxygen species, which cause oxidative stress, and the effects of antioxidants on recovery, sports performance, and strategies for using antioxidant supplements, such as vitamin C, vitamin E, resveratrol, coenzyme Q10, selenium, and curcumin to enhance physical and mental well-being. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Metabolic Recovery after Intense Exercise)
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Other

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23 pages, 2287 KiB  
Systematic Review
Influence of N-Acetylcysteine Supplementation on Physical Performance and Laboratory Biomarkers in Adult Males: A Systematic Review of Controlled Trials
by Diego Fernández-Lázaro, Carlos Domínguez-Ortega, Natalia Busto, Mirian Santamaría-Peláez, Enrique Roche, Eduardo Gutiérez-Abejón and Juan Mielgo-Ayuso
Nutrients 2023, 15(11), 2463; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15112463 - 25 May 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3170
Abstract
N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is used as a sports supplement for its ability to modulate exercise-induced oxidative damage through its antioxidant actions and maintenance of glutathione homeostasis, positioning NAC as a strategy to improve physical performance. We aimed to evaluate the current evidence on the [...] Read more.
N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is used as a sports supplement for its ability to modulate exercise-induced oxidative damage through its antioxidant actions and maintenance of glutathione homeostasis, positioning NAC as a strategy to improve physical performance. We aimed to evaluate the current evidence on the benefits of NAC supplementation on physical performance and laboratory biomarkers in adult men. Using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, we systematically reviewed studies indexed in the Web of Science, Scopus, and PubMed to assess the effects of NAC on physical performance, laboratory biomarkers, and adverse effects in adult men. Original articles published up to 30 April 2023 with a controlled trial design comparing NAC supplementation with a control group were included. The modified McMaster Critical Review Form for Quantitative Studies was used as an assessment tool and the Cochrane Risk of Bias was applied. Of the 777 records identified in the search, 16 studies met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Overall, most of the trials reported beneficial effects of NAC supplementation and no serious adverse events were reported. Participants supplemented with NAC showed significant improvements in exercise performance, antioxidant capacity, and glutathione homeostasis. However, there was no clear evidence of beneficial effects of NAC supplementation on haematological markers, inflammatory response, and muscle behaviour. NAC supplementation appears to be safe and may regulate glutathione homeostasis, have antioxidant effects, and improve exercise performance. However, further studies are needed to clarify the relevance of its use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Metabolic Recovery after Intense Exercise)
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