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Nutrition, Nutraceuticals and Bioactive Compounds in the Prevention and Fight against Inflammation

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Phytochemicals and Human Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 January 2023) | Viewed by 47278

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Preventive Cardiology and Lipidology, Chair of Nephrology and Hypertension, Medical University of Lodz, 93-338 Lodz, Poland
Interests: vitamin D; natural product; vascular biology; atherogenesis; CKD
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Applied Biomedical Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad 9177948564, Iran
Interests: clinical science; management of lipid disorders; medicinal properties of natural products; nanoliposomes in medicine

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nowadays, the topic of natural products and their different applications is very hot and debatable. We might see numerous papers presenting different properties of nutraceuticals and/or food supplements in different at risk patients. Unfortunately, most of these data come from small cohort studies, and the final conclusions do not give us clear answers on the real benefits and applications of nutraceuticals. Only well-established and designed prospective studies, randomized controlled trials with relatively high numbers of patients, meta-analyses and post-marketing consumer data, with special emphasis on real-word data, might give us the whole picture of both the effectiveness and safety of nutraceuticals, and might allow to select the group of patients that might really benefit from them. The recent numerous failures are also associated with the lack of standardized methods and algorithms on the production process, what should be also always taken into account while deciding to administer the given nutraceutical. Finally, the pandemic has shown that we have hundreds of different data on possible application of nutraceuticals in COVID-19 patients, in the end with most of them without any real clinical benefit. Therefore we need to all apply for better data for nutraceuticals, as it is the only way to finally establish them as a solid part of the recommendations for different chronic diseases, which is especially important now, when we have enormous health debts linked to cardiovascular and oncological diseases especially.

Prof. Dr. Maciej Banach
Prof. Dr. Amirhossein Sahebkar
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • diet
  • natural products
  • nutraceuticals
  • cardiovascular risk
  • primary prevention
  • statin non-adherence

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Editorial

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8 pages, 704 KiB  
Editorial
Nutrition, Nutraceuticals and Bioactive Compounds in the Prevention and Fight against Inflammation
by Stanisław Surma, Amirhossein Sahebkar and Maciej Banach
Nutrients 2023, 15(11), 2629; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15112629 - 5 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2535
Abstract
Chronic low-grade systemic inflammation is a key factor involved in the pathogenesis of many diseases and their complications (Figure 1) [...] Full article
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Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

15 pages, 918 KiB  
Article
Effect of the Fermented Soy Q-CAN® Product on Biomarkers of Inflammation and Oxidation in Adults with Cardiovascular Risk, and Canonical Correlations between the Inflammation Biomarkers and Blood Lipids
by Sarah M. Jung, Amandeep Kaur, Rita I. Amen, Keiji Oda, Sujatha Rajaram, Joan Sabatè and Ella H. Haddad
Nutrients 2023, 15(14), 3195; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15143195 - 19 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1330
Abstract
Systemic low-grade inflammation plays a key role in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) but the process may be modulated by consuming fermented soy foods. Here, we aim to evaluate the effect of a fermented soy powder Q-CAN® on inflammatory and oxidation [...] Read more.
Systemic low-grade inflammation plays a key role in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) but the process may be modulated by consuming fermented soy foods. Here, we aim to evaluate the effect of a fermented soy powder Q-CAN® on inflammatory and oxidation biomarkers in subjects with cardiovascular risk. In a randomized crossover trial, 27 adults (mean age ± SD, 51.6 ± 13.5 y) with a mean BMI ± SD of 32.3 ± 7.3 kg/m2 consumed 25 g daily of the fermented soy powder or an isoenergic control powder of sprouted brown rice for 12 weeks each. Between-treatment results showed a 12% increase in interleukin-1 receptor agonist (IL-1Ra) in the treatment group, whereas within-treatment results showed 23% and 7% increases in interleukin-6 (IL-6) and total antioxidant status (TAS), respectively. The first canonical correlation coefficient (r = 0.72) between inflammation markers and blood lipids indicated a positive association between high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and IL-1Ra with LDL-C and a negative association with HDL-C that explained 62% of the variability in the biomarkers. These outcomes suggest that blood lipids and inflammatory markers are highly correlated and that ingestion of the fermented soy powder Q-CAN® may increase IL-1Ra, IL-6, and TAS in individuals with CVD risk factors. Full article
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12 pages, 1467 KiB  
Article
Oregano (Origanum vulgare) Consumption Reduces Oxidative Stress and Markers of Muscle Damage after Combat Readiness Tests in Soldiers
by Hossein Shirvani, Behzad Bazgir, Alireza Shamsoddini, Ayoub Saeidi, Seyed Morteza Tayebi, Kurt A. Escobar, Ismail Laher, Trisha A. VanDusseldorp, Katja Weiss, Beat Knechtle and Hassane Zouhal
Nutrients 2023, 15(1), 137; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15010137 - 28 Dec 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3706
Abstract
Military activities often involve high-intensity exercise that can disrupt antioxidant capacity. We investigated the effects of oregano supplementation on muscle damage, oxidative stress, and plasma antioxidant markers of soldiers performing the army combat readiness test (ACRT). Twenty-four healthy male soldiers (age: 24 ± [...] Read more.
Military activities often involve high-intensity exercise that can disrupt antioxidant capacity. We investigated the effects of oregano supplementation on muscle damage, oxidative stress, and plasma antioxidant markers of soldiers performing the army combat readiness test (ACRT). Twenty-four healthy male soldiers (age: 24 ± 3 years, height: 167 ± 14 cm, mass: 66 ± 3 kg) were randomized into a placebo group (n = 12) or an oregano supplementation group (n = 12). The participants consumed a capsule containing 500 mg Origanum vulgare immediately after completing the ACRT. Blood sampling was taken before exercise, immediately after exercise, and 60 and 120 min after oregano consumption. Plasma levels of creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) were measured at the four time points. The time × group interactions were found for CK (p < 0.0001, d = 3.64), LDH (p < 0.0001, d = 1.64), MDA (p < 0.0001, d = 9.94), SOD (p < 0.0001, d = 1.88), TAC (p < 0.0001, d = 5.68) and GPX (p < 0.0001, d = 2.38). In all variables, the difference between placebo and oregano groups were significant at 60 (p < 0.0001) and 120 (p < 0.0001) minutes after ACRT test. The main effect of time was also significant for all the variables (p < 0.0001). Our results suggest that oregano supplementation has the potential to reduce muscle damage and increase oxidative capacity following ACRT. Supplementation with oregano may serve as a dietary strategy to increase preparedness and promote recovery in military recruits. Full article
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25 pages, 74835 KiB  
Article
Effect of Curcumin on Attenuation of Liver Cirrhosis via Genes/Proteins and Pathways: A System Pharmacology Study
by Ali Mahmoudi, Stephen L. Atkin, Tannaz Jamialahmadi, Maciej Banach and Amirhossein Sahebkar
Nutrients 2022, 14(20), 4344; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14204344 - 17 Oct 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3361
Abstract
Background: Liver cirrhosis is a life-threatening seqsuel of many chronic liver disorders of varying etiologies. In this study, we investigated protein targets of curcumin in liver cirrhosis based on a bioinformatics approach. Methods: Gene/protein associations with curcumin and liver cirrhosis were probed in [...] Read more.
Background: Liver cirrhosis is a life-threatening seqsuel of many chronic liver disorders of varying etiologies. In this study, we investigated protein targets of curcumin in liver cirrhosis based on a bioinformatics approach. Methods: Gene/protein associations with curcumin and liver cirrhosis were probed in drug–gene and gene–diseases databases including STITCH/DGIdb/DisGeNET/OMIM/DISEASES/CTD/Pharos and SwissTargetPrediction. Critical clustering groups (MCODE), hub candidates and critical hub genes in liver cirrhosis were identified, and connections between curcumin and liver cirrhosis-related genes were analyzed via Venn diagram. Interaction of hub genes with curcumin by molecular docking using PyRx-virtual screening tools was performed. Results: MCODE analysis indicated three MCODEs; the cluster (MCODE 1) comprised 79 nodes and 881 edges (score: 22.59). Curcumin database interactions recognized 318 protein targets. Liver cirrhosis genes and curcumin protein targets analysis demonstrated 96 shared proteins, suggesting that curcumin may influence 20 candidate and 13 hub genes, covering 81% of liver cirrhosis critical genes and proteins. Thirteen shared proteins affected oxidative stress regulation, RNA, telomerase activity, cell proliferation, and cell death. Molecular docking analysis showed the affinity of curcumin binding hub genes (Binding affinity: ΔG < −4.9 kcal/mol). Conclusions: Curcumin impacted on several critical liver cirrhosis genes mainly involved in extracellular matrix communication, focal adhesion, and the response to oxidative stress. Full article
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15 pages, 1454 KiB  
Article
Inflammatory Markers in Non-Obese Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Are Not Elevated and Show No Correlation with Vitamin D Metabolites
by Abu Saleh Md Moin, Thozhukat Sathyapalan, Stephen L. Atkin and Alexandra E. Butler
Nutrients 2022, 14(17), 3540; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14173540 - 27 Aug 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2223
Abstract
Introduction. Chronic low-grade inflammation is a characteristic of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), although this may be obesity-driven rather than an intrinsic facet of PCOS; furthermore, vitamin D deficiency, another common feature of PCOS, is reported to have an association with increased [...] Read more.
Introduction. Chronic low-grade inflammation is a characteristic of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), although this may be obesity-driven rather than an intrinsic facet of PCOS; furthermore, vitamin D deficiency, another common feature of PCOS, is reported to have an association with increased inflammation. Therefore, circulating inflammatory protein levels and circulating levels of vitamin D may be linked in PCOS, though it is unclear which vitamin D metabolites may be important. Methods. We measured plasma levels of 24 inflammatory proteins and 12 matrix metalloproteinases (proteins modulated by the inflammatory process) by slow off-rate modified aptamer (SOMA)-scan plasma protein measurement in weight and aged-matched non-obese non-insulin resistant PCOS (n = 24) and control (n = 24) women. Inflammatory proteins and matrix metalloproteinases were correlated to 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 (25(OH)D3), its epimer 25-hydroxy-3epi-vitamin D (3epi25(OH)D) and the active 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) as measured by gold standard isotope-dilution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Results. PCOS women had both an elevated free androgen index and circulating anti-mullerian hormone, though insulin resistance was comparable to controls. C-reactive protein, as a standard circulatory marker of inflammation, was comparable between cohorts. Levels of circulating inflammatory proteins and matrix metalloproteinases were not different between the PCOS and control women, with no correlation of 25(OH)D3, 1,25(OH)2D3 or 3epi25(OH)D with any of the inflammatory proteins. Conclusion. In a non-obese PCOS population matched for age and insulin resistance, circulating inflammatory proteins and matrix metalloproteinases were not elevated and did not correlate with 25(OH)D3, its epimer 3epi25(OH)D or 1,25(OH)2D3 in either control or PCOS women, indicating that the inflammatory response is absent and the vitamin D-metabolite independent in non-obese women with PCOS. Full article
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10 pages, 3069 KiB  
Article
Effect of Date Fruit Consumption on the Glycemic Control of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Clinical Trial
by Alexandra E. Butler, Jenan Obaid, Pearl Wasif, Jean V. Varghese, Rawan Abdulrahman, Dalal Alromaihi, Stephen L. Atkin and Naji Alamuddin
Nutrients 2022, 14(17), 3491; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14173491 - 25 Aug 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3283
Abstract
Objective. Date fruit has been reported to have benefits in type 2 diabetes (T2D), though there is a concern, given the high sugar content, about its effects on glycemic control. Design and Setting. Prospective, interventional, randomized, parallel study. Participants. In total, 79 patients [...] Read more.
Objective. Date fruit has been reported to have benefits in type 2 diabetes (T2D), though there is a concern, given the high sugar content, about its effects on glycemic control. Design and Setting. Prospective, interventional, randomized, parallel study. Participants. In total, 79 patients with T2D (39 male and 40 female). Intervention. Participants were randomly allocated to either 60 g date fruit or 60 g raisins daily of the equivalent glycemic index (amount split, given as midmorning and midafternoon snack) for 12 weeks. Main Outcome Measures. The primary outcome was to investigate the effect of date fruit on HbA1c and fasting blood glucose, and their variability, in patients with T2D in comparison to the same glycemic load of raisins. The secondary outcomes were to determine whether date fruit affected cardiovascular risk by measuring fasting lipids, C-reactive protein (CRP), blood pressure, and insulin resistance (IR) as measured by Homeostatic Model Assessment (HOMA-IR). Results. In total, 61 (27 female and 34 male) of 79 patients completed the study. There was no difference between or within groups for HbA1c or HbA1c variability, fasting glucose or glucose variability, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), insulin sensitivity (HOMA-S), beta cell function (HOMA-B), the disposition index, lipids, systolic (SBP) or diastolic blood pressure (DBP), or C-reactive protein (CRP) (p > 0.05). Conclusion. No improvement in glycemic indices was seen following supplementation of 60 g daily date fruit or raisins, though neither had a deleterious effect on glycemic control over a 12-week period, indicating their safety when consumed in T2D. Additionally, no beneficial therapeutic effects of date fruit on other cardiovascular indices in T2D were seen. Full article
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18 pages, 4489 KiB  
Article
Therapeutic Role of Curcumin in Diabetes: An Analysis Based on Bioinformatic Findings
by Ali Mahmoudi, Stephen L. Atkin, Nikita G. Nikiforov and Amirhossein Sahebkar
Nutrients 2022, 14(15), 3244; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14153244 - 8 Aug 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3445
Abstract
Background: Diabetes is an increasingly prevalent global disease caused by the impairment in insulin production or insulin function. Diabetes in the long term causes both microvascular and macrovascular complications that may result in retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy, peripheral arterial disease, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, and [...] Read more.
Background: Diabetes is an increasingly prevalent global disease caused by the impairment in insulin production or insulin function. Diabetes in the long term causes both microvascular and macrovascular complications that may result in retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy, peripheral arterial disease, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, and cerebrovascular disease. Considerable effort has been expended looking at the numerous genes and pathways to explain the mechanisms leading to diabetes-related complications. Curcumin is a traditional medicine with several properties such as being antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and anti-microbial, which may have utility for treating diabetes complications. This study, based on the system biology approach, aimed to investigate the effect of curcumin on critical genes and pathways related to diabetes. Methods: We first searched interactions of curcumin in three different databases, including STITCH, TTD, and DGIdb. Subsequently, we investigated the critical curated protein targets for diabetes on the OMIM and DisGeNET databases. To find important clustering groups (MCODE) and critical hub genes in the network of diseases, we created a PPI network for all proteins obtained for diabetes with the aid of a string database and Cytoscape software. Next, we investigated the possible interactions of curcumin on diabetes-related genes using Venn diagrams. Furthermore, the impact of curcumin on the top scores of modular clusters was analysed. Finally, we conducted biological process and pathway enrichment analysis using Gene Ontology (GO) and KEGG based on the enrichR web server. Results: We acquired 417 genes associated with diabetes, and their constructed PPI network contained 298 nodes and 1651 edges. Next, the analysis of centralities in the PPI network indicated 15 genes with the highest centralities. Additionally, MCODE analysis identified three modular clusters, which highest score cluster (MCODE 1) comprises 19 nodes and 92 edges with 10.22 scores. Screening curcumin interactions in the databases identified 158 protein targets. A Venn diagram of genes related to diabetes and the protein targets of curcumin showed 35 shared proteins, which observed that curcumin could strongly interact with ten of the hub genes. Moreover, we demonstrated that curcumin has the highest interaction with MCODE1 among all MCODs. Several significant biological pathways in KEGG enrichment associated with 35 shared included the AGE-RAGE signaling pathway in diabetic complications, HIF-1 signaling pathway, PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, TNF signaling, and JAK-STAT signaling pathway. The biological processes of GO analysis were involved with the cellular response to cytokine stimulus, the cytokine-mediated signaling pathway, positive regulation of intracellular signal transduction and cytokine production in the inflammatory response. Conclusion: Curcumin targeted several important genes involved in diabetes, supporting the previous research suggesting that it may have utility as a therapeutic agent in diabetes. Full article
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17 pages, 6685 KiB  
Article
Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidant Effects of Carvacrol on N-Methyl-N′-Nitro-N-Nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) Induced Gastric Carcinogenesis in Wistar Rats
by Ayse Gunes-Bayir, Eray Metin Guler, Mehmet Gultekin Bilgin, Ilyas Samet Ergun, Abdurrahim Kocyigit and Agnes Dadak
Nutrients 2022, 14(14), 2848; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14142848 - 12 Jul 2022
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 2185
Abstract
Carvacrol is a dietary polyphenol from Lamiaceae plants that has been shown to possess a wide range of biological activities including antioxidant and antitumor effects. This study aimed to investigate its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects on N-methyl-N′-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) [...] Read more.
Carvacrol is a dietary polyphenol from Lamiaceae plants that has been shown to possess a wide range of biological activities including antioxidant and antitumor effects. This study aimed to investigate its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects on N-methyl-N′-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) induced gastric carcinogenesis in Wistar rats. Forty-nine rats were randomly assigned to four treatment and three control groups. Over 60 days, MNNG (200 mg/kg BW) was orally applied to animals of groups 1–5 while the rats in groups 2–5 also received different doses of carvacrol (10, 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg BW, respectively) until the end of the experiment. Group 6 rats were treated with 100 mg/kg BW carvacrol and no MNNG whereas group 7 was the control group without any treatment. After the euthanasia of all rats, the inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress parameters were assessed in the blood and tissues. The expression of caspase 9, Bax, and Bcl-2 proteins in the stomach tissues were investigated through histopathological examinations. Statistically significant differences were observed in the body weight, oxidative stress, and inflammation parameters of groups 1 to 6 compared to group 7 (p ≤ 0.001). Animals in MNNG groups 2 and 3 treated with the low dose carvacrol (10 and 25 mg/kg BW) showed significantly reduced oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptotic effect compared to animals of the MNNG groups receiving increased doses of carvacrol (50 and 100 mg/kg BW) or no carvacrol. Rats exposed to MNNG exhibited gastric cancer cells in several areas. In the MNNG group receiving 100 mg/kg BW carvacrol, the inflammatory cell infiltration was observed in gastric mucosal and submucosal areas whereas MNNG rats supplemented with 10 and 25 mg/kg BW carvacrol showed no pathological alterations of the gastric cells. The results of this study indicate that significant antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects induced by carvacrol at doses of 10 and 25 mg/kg BW interfered with gastric carcinogenesis induced by MNNG in Wistar rats as well as provide hepatoprotection. However, high doses of carvacrol (50 and 100 mg/kg BW) increased oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis. Full article
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21 pages, 2289 KiB  
Article
Investigation of the Effect of Curcumin on Protein Targets in NAFLD Using Bioinformatic Analysis
by Ali Mahmoudi, Alexandra E. Butler, Muhammed Majeed, Maciej Banach and Amirhossein Sahebkar
Nutrients 2022, 14(7), 1331; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14071331 - 22 Mar 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3877
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a prevalent metabolic disorder. Defects in function/expression of genes/proteins are critical in initiation/progression of NAFLD. Natural products may modulate these genes/proteins. Curcumin improves steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis progression. Here, bioinformatic tools, gene–drug and gene-disease databases were [...] Read more.
BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a prevalent metabolic disorder. Defects in function/expression of genes/proteins are critical in initiation/progression of NAFLD. Natural products may modulate these genes/proteins. Curcumin improves steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis progression. Here, bioinformatic tools, gene–drug and gene-disease databases were utilized to explore targets, interactions, and pathways through which curcumin could impact NAFLD. METHODS: Significant curcumin–protein interaction was identified (high-confidence:0.7) in the STITCH database. Identified proteins were investigated to determine association with NAFLD. gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) were analyzed for significantly involved targets (p < 0.01). Specificity of obtained targets with NAFLD was estimated and investigated in Tissue/Cells–gene associations (PanglaoDB Augmented 2021, Mouse Gene Atlas) and Disease–gene association-based EnrichR algorithms (Jensen DISEASES, DisGeNET). RESULTS: Two collections were constructed: 227 protein–curcumin interactions and 95 NAFLD-associated genes. By Venn diagram, 14 significant targets were identified, and their biological pathways evaluated. Based on gene ontology, most targets involved stress and lipid metabolism. KEGG revealed chemical carcinogenesis, the AGE-RAGE signaling pathway in diabetic complications and NAFLD as the most common significant pathways. Specificity to diseases database (EnrichR algorithm) revealed specificity for steatosis/steatohepatitis. CONCLUSION: Curcumin may improve, or inhibit, progression of NAFLD through activation/inhibition of NAFLD-related genes. Full article
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15 pages, 1594 KiB  
Article
The Acute Effect of a Novel Miso-Type Sauce, Enhanced with a Carotenoid-Rich Extract from Fruit By-Products, on Postprandial Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress and Inflammation
by Olga Papagianni, Eleni Delli, Melina-Eleni Vasila, Thomas Loukas, Athanasios Magkoutis, Charalampia Dimou, Haralampos C. Karantonis and Antonios E. Koutelidakis
Nutrients 2022, 14(6), 1316; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14061316 - 21 Mar 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2809
Abstract
Several fruit by-products may exert a beneficial role on oxidative stress and inflammation modulation, providing essential bioactive components, such as polyphenols and carotenoids. Recently, the potential bioactivity of miso has been reported. The aim of this dietary intervention–clinical study was to evaluate the [...] Read more.
Several fruit by-products may exert a beneficial role on oxidative stress and inflammation modulation, providing essential bioactive components, such as polyphenols and carotenoids. Recently, the potential bioactivity of miso has been reported. The aim of this dietary intervention–clinical study was to evaluate the acute effect of a novel, functional miso-type sauce based on legumes, on postprandial biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation. In this randomized, cross-over design, intervention–clinical trial, 14 healthy volunteers, aged 20–30 years old, consumed a rice meal rich in fat and carbohydrates (258 g), containing a legume-based sauce. After a 1-week washout period, the same subjects consumed the same meal, containing the novel fermented miso-type sauce, enhanced with 50% carotenoid-rich, fruit peel extract. Differences in postprandial total plasma antioxidant capacity according to the FRAP method, serum lipids, glucose, uric acid levels, and antithrombotic activity in platelet-rich plasma were evaluated before, 30 min, 1.5 h, and 3 h after consumption. The results showed that, in comparison to the control group, consumption of the novel sauce resulted in a significantly increased total plasma antioxidant capacity 3 h after consumption (p < 0.05). In addition, we observed a significant attenuation of triglycerides concentration increase in the last 1.5 h in the functional group (p < 0.05). A significant decrease in serum aggregation was found at 30 min and 3 h after functional sauce intake in comparison with the baseline (p < 0.05). Finally, LDL-cholesterol concentrations were significantly reduced 3 h after the functional meal consumption, in comparison with baseline values (p < 0.05). The remaining biomarkers did not show statistically significant differences (p > 0.05). Further investigation is needed in order to validate the current results. Full article
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11 pages, 1961 KiB  
Article
Citrus junos Tanaka Peel Extract and Its Bioactive Naringin Reduce Fine Dust-Induced Respiratory Injury Markers in BALB/c Male Mice
by Dong-Hun Lee, Jin-Kyung Woo, Wan Heo, Wen-Yan Huang, Yunsik Kim, Soohak Chung, Gyeong-Hweon Lee, Jae-Woong Park, Bok-Kyung Han, Eui-Chul Shin, Jeong-Hoon Pan, Jae-Kyeom Kim and Young-Jun Kim
Nutrients 2022, 14(5), 1101; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14051101 - 5 Mar 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2698
Abstract
Particulate matter (PM) 10 refers to fine dust with a diameter of less than 10 µm and induces apoptosis and inflammatory responses through oxidative stress. Citrus junos Tanaka is a citrus fruit and contains bioactive flavonoids including naringin. In the present study, we [...] Read more.
Particulate matter (PM) 10 refers to fine dust with a diameter of less than 10 µm and induces apoptosis and inflammatory responses through oxidative stress. Citrus junos Tanaka is a citrus fruit and contains bioactive flavonoids including naringin. In the present study, we aimed to identify the preventive effect of Citrus junos Tanaka peel extract (CPE) against PM10-induced lung injury. As a proof of concept, NCI-H460 cells were treated with CPE (800 μg/mL, 12 h) in conjunction with PM10 to examine intracellular antioxidative capacity in the pulmonary system. In an in vivo model, male BALB/c mice (n = 8/group) were randomly assigned into five groups: NEG (saline-treated), POS (PM10 only), NAR (PM10 + naringin, 100 mg/kg), CPL (PM10 + CPE low, 100 mg/kg), and CPH (PM10 + CPE high, 400 mg/kg). Intervention groups received dietary supplementations for 7 days followed by PM10 exposure (100 mg/kg, intranasal instillation). Compared to the NEG, the CPE decreased to 22% of the ROS generation and significantly increased cell viability in vitro. The histological assessments confirmed that pulmonary damages were alleviated in the PM10 + CPL group compared to the POS. Pro-inflammatory cytokines and NF-κB/apoptosis signaling-related markers were decreased in the PM10 + CPL group compared to the POS. These results indicated that CPE showed promising efficacy in preventing pulmonary injuries in vivo. Such protection can be explained by the anti-oxidative capacity of CPE, likely due to its bioactives, including naringin (7.74 mg/g CPE). Follow-up human intervention, as well as population-level studies, will further shed light on the preventive efficacy of CPE against pulmonary damage in humans. Full article
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Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research

48 pages, 4283 KiB  
Review
Treatment Effects of Natural Products on Inflammatory Bowel Disease In Vivo and Their Mechanisms: Based on Animal Experiments
by Yaxi Zhou, Diandian Wang and Wenjie Yan
Nutrients 2023, 15(4), 1031; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15041031 - 18 Feb 2023
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 5152
Abstract
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic, non-specific inflammatory disease of the intestine that can be classified as ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease (CD). Currently, the incidence of IBD is still increasing in developing countries. However, current treatments for IBD have limitations [...] Read more.
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic, non-specific inflammatory disease of the intestine that can be classified as ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease (CD). Currently, the incidence of IBD is still increasing in developing countries. However, current treatments for IBD have limitations and do not fully meet the needs of patients. There is a growing demand for new, safe, and highly effective alternative drugs for IBD patients. Natural products (NPs) are used in drug development and disease treatment because of their broad biological activity, low toxicity, and low side effects. Numerous studies have shown that some NPs have strong therapeutic effects on IBD. In this paper, we first reviewed the pathogenesis of IBD as well as current therapeutic approaches and drugs. Further, we summarized the therapeutic effects of 170 different sources of NPs on IBD and generalized their modes of action and therapeutic effects. Finally, we analyzed the potential mechanisms of NPs for the treatment of IBD. The aim of our review is to provide a systematic and credible summary, thus supporting the research on NPs for the treatment of IBD and providing a theoretical basis for the development and application of NPs in drugs and functional foods. Full article
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13 pages, 714 KiB  
Review
Berberine in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease—A Review
by Anna Koperska, Agnieszka Wesołek, Małgorzata Moszak and Monika Szulińska
Nutrients 2022, 14(17), 3459; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14173459 - 23 Aug 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 5635
Abstract
The incidence of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) has been rapidly increasing during the last decade. It is a relevant health problem that affects 25% of the general population. NAFLD involves an extensive array of clinical conditions. So far, no approved pharmacological therapy [...] Read more.
The incidence of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) has been rapidly increasing during the last decade. It is a relevant health problem that affects 25% of the general population. NAFLD involves an extensive array of clinical conditions. So far, no approved pharmacological therapy for NAFLD has been developed. Multiple bioactive compounds have been proposed to treat NAFLD. One of the most promising is Berberine (BBR). Its pleiotropic effect positively impacts various cardiometabolic aspects. In this review, we summarize NAFLD, its metabolic and cardiovascular complications, the hepatoprotective effects of BBR due to its broad spectrum of pharmacological effects, and the potential role of BBR in NAFLD therapy. BBR ameliorates NAFLD by affecting numerous abnormalities. It inhibits lipogenesis and gluconeogenesis, improves insulin resistance and lipid profile, and modulates gut microbiota. The exact mechanism underlying these effects is not yet entirely explained. A growing amount of evidence confirming the positive effects of BBR on multiple metabolic pathways, such as lipids and glucose metabolism, energy homeostasis, or gut microbiota modulation, allows us to speculate about the importance of this natural bioactive substance for NAFLD therapy. Full article
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17 pages, 475 KiB  
Review
Targeting Cardiovascular Diseases by Flavonols: An Update
by Aleksandra Kozłowska and Dorota Szostak-Węgierek
Nutrients 2022, 14(7), 1439; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14071439 - 30 Mar 2022
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 2977
Abstract
Flavonols are one of the most plentiful flavonoid subclasses found in natural products and are extensively used as dietary supplements. Numerous in vitro and in vivo studies have shown the cardioprotective properties of flavonols, especially quercetin. This group of substances exerts positive impacts [...] Read more.
Flavonols are one of the most plentiful flavonoid subclasses found in natural products and are extensively used as dietary supplements. Numerous in vitro and in vivo studies have shown the cardioprotective properties of flavonols, especially quercetin. This group of substances exerts positive impacts primarily due to their antiatherogenic, antithrombotic, and antioxidant activities. The potential of flavonols to promote vasodilation and regulation of apoptotic processes in the endothelium are other beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. Despite promising experimental findings, randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses have yielded inconsistent results on the influence of these substances on human cardiovascular parameters. Thus, this review aims to summarize the most recent clinical data on the intake of these substances and their effects on the cardiovascular system. The present study will help clinicians and other healthcare workers understand the value of flavonol supplementation in both subjects at risk for cardiovascular disease and patients with cardiovascular diseases. Full article
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