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Mediterranean Diet and Metabolic Diseases

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutrition and Metabolism".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2021) | Viewed by 47912

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Guest Editor
Laboratory of Hygiene, Social & Preventive Medicine and Medical Statistics, School of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessalonik, Greece
Interests: perinatal epidemiology; nutrition in pregnancy; nutritional epidemiology
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Guest Editor
Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Agricultural University of Athens, Iera odos 75, 118 55 Athens, Greece
Interests: epidemiology of chronic diseases; public health and prevention; childhood obesity; breast feeding; fermented food; food sustainability; plant-based diets; processed foods
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

There is increasing interest regarding the protective effect of dietary patterns on a series of metabolic diseases as compared to specific food items and nutrients, since it is well accepted that foods act synergistically. In recent years, the Mediterranean diet (MD) has gained popularity as one such dietary pattern, demonstrated to deliver many benefits according to a variety of different studies (cohort, RCT, etc.), adding to its legacy.

The intention of this Special Issue is to stimulate sharing of additional clues that may further develop our understanding of the relationship between the Mediterranean diet and metabolic diseases. Another aim is to clarify potential differences in the benefits observed by different MD patterns. Moreover, as more info becomes available on the effect of MD patterns in the microbiome but also in the area of proteomics and epigenetics, relevant mechanisms and involved key mediators still need to be identified in order to provide further clarity in the description of the underlying mechanisms and the potential health outcomes occurring in response to adhering to MD. You are cordially invited to submit proposals for manuscripts that bring new elements into this interesting and promising topic.

We invite clinicians and researchers to submit relevant scientific work from epidemiological or clinical studies, either original articles or reviews, to this Special Issue of Nutrients entitled “Mediterranean Diet and Metabolic Diseases”.

We look forward to receiving your contributions!

Dr. Michael Chourdakis
Dr. Emmanuella Magriplis
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Mediterranean diet
  • traditional foods
  • prevention
  • CVD
  • dietary pattern
  • DM-2T
  • high fiber
  • obesity
  • diet
  • nutrition
  • whole grain
  • metabolic disease
  • depression
  • inflammation
  • microbiome

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Editorial

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4 pages, 192 KiB  
Editorial
Special Issue “Mediterranean Diet and Metabolic Diseases”
by Emmanuella Magriplis and Michail Chourdakis
Nutrients 2021, 13(8), 2680; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13082680 - 1 Aug 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2607
Abstract
The Mediterranean diet (MD) has been considered among the healthiest dietary patterns since a little over 50 years ago, Ancel Keys—as the key figure—provided evidence for the beneficial effects of the MD [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mediterranean Diet and Metabolic Diseases)

Research

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15 pages, 1075 KiB  
Article
Adherence to Mediterranean Diet and Selected Lifestyle Elements among Young Women with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus from Northeast Poland: A Case-Control COVID-19 Survey
by Monika Grabia, Anna Puścion-Jakubik, Renata Markiewicz-Żukowska, Joanna Bielecka, Anita Mielech, Patryk Nowakowski and Katarzyna Socha
Nutrients 2021, 13(4), 1173; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13041173 - 2 Apr 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3180
Abstract
An appropriate balanced diet and dietary patterns are important at every stage of life, but in the case of young patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), it is especially crucial during the COVID-19 pandemic. The aim of the study was to assess [...] Read more.
An appropriate balanced diet and dietary patterns are important at every stage of life, but in the case of young patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), it is especially crucial during the COVID-19 pandemic. The aim of the study was to assess health and nutritional behaviors, mainly adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MD), during the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Poland among women with T1DM, and to compare them with a healthy population. This survey (based on a questionnaire) was conducted in December 2020 and included 219 young women, healthy (n = 106) and with T1DM (n = 113), from northeast Poland. Over 30% of the study group admitted that they did not engage in any physical activity. A large proportion declared that their screen time was 5–7 h a day (48% in control and 40% in T1DM group). High intakes of sweet-beverages, sweets and red meat, but also low intakes of olive oil, fish and nuts were observed. The vast majority of participants (60% vs. 71%) were moderately adherent to the Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener (MEDAS). The study demonstrated that despite the similarity between the behaviors of healthy people and those with T1DM, negative health and nutritional practices, such as low physical activity, long screen time, medium and high levels of stress and inappropriate eating habits were observed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mediterranean Diet and Metabolic Diseases)
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12 pages, 291 KiB  
Article
Effects of a Mediterranean Diet, Dairy, and Meat Products on Different Phenotypes of Dyslipidemia: A Preliminary Retrospective Analysis
by Elena Formisano, Andrea Pasta, Anna Laura Cremonini, Ilaria Di Lorenzo, Samir Giuseppe Sukkar and Livia Pisciotta
Nutrients 2021, 13(4), 1161; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13041161 - 1 Apr 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2994
Abstract
Background: Dyslipidemia is one of the major causes of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) and a Mediterranean Diet (MD) is recommended for its prevention. The objectives of this study were to evaluate adherence to an MD at baseline and follow-up, in a cohort of [...] Read more.
Background: Dyslipidemia is one of the major causes of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) and a Mediterranean Diet (MD) is recommended for its prevention. The objectives of this study were to evaluate adherence to an MD at baseline and follow-up, in a cohort of dyslipidemic patients, and to evaluate how different food intakes can influence lipid profile, especially how different sources of saturated fatty acids impact lipid phenotype. Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted on 106 dyslipidemic patients. Clinical characteristics, lipid profile, and food habits data were collected at baseline and after three months of follow-up with counseling. Adherence to an MD was evaluated with a validated food-frequency questionnaire (MEDI-LITE score). Results: The cross-sectional analysis showed that higher consumption of dairy products correlated independently with higher levels of total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and with lower triglycerides (TG) levels. Instead, lower HDL-C and TG levels and higher TC levels were independently associated with higher consumption of meat products. Adherence to an MD significantly improved after the follow-up period, from a mean value of 10 ± 3 (median 10, IQR 8–12) to 13 ± 2 (median 14, IQR 12–15), p < 0.0001. Conclusions: Dyslipidemic patients benefit from counseling for improving their adherence to an MD. The high intake of dairy products was associated with less atherogenic hyperlipidemia, which was characterized by higher levels of TC and HDL-C as compared withs the intake of an excessive amount of meat products, which was associated with higher levels of TC and TG and lower levels of HDL-C. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mediterranean Diet and Metabolic Diseases)
15 pages, 683 KiB  
Article
Association of the Modified Mediterranean Diet Score (mMDS) with Anthropometric and Biochemical Indices in US Career Firefighters
by Maria Romanidou, Grigorios Tripsianis, Maria Soledad Hershey, Mercedes Sotos-Prieto, Costas Christophi, Steven Moffatt, Theodoros C. Constantinidis and Stefanos N. Kales
Nutrients 2020, 12(12), 3693; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12123693 - 30 Nov 2020
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 4192
Abstract
The Mediterranean diet is associated with multiple health benefits, and the modified Mediterranean Diet Score (mMDS) has been previously validated as a measure of Mediterranean diet adherence. The aim of this study was to examine associations between the mMDS and anthropometric indices, blood [...] Read more.
The Mediterranean diet is associated with multiple health benefits, and the modified Mediterranean Diet Score (mMDS) has been previously validated as a measure of Mediterranean diet adherence. The aim of this study was to examine associations between the mMDS and anthropometric indices, blood pressure, and biochemical parameters in a sample of career firefighters. The participants were from Indiana Fire Departments, taking part in the “Feeding America’s Bravest” study, a cluster-randomized controlled trial that aimed to assess the efficacy of a Mediterranean diet intervention. We measured Mediterranean diet adherence using the mMDS. Anthropometric, blood pressure, and biochemical measurements were also collected. Univariate and multivariate linear regression models were used. In unadjusted analyses, many expected favorable associations between the mMDS and cardiovascular disease risk factors were found among the 460 firefighters. After adjustment for age, gender, ethnicity, physical activity, and smoking, a unitary increase in the mMDS remained associated with a decrease of the total cholesterol/HDL ratio (β-coefficient −0.028, p = 0.002) and an increase of HDL-cholesterol (β-coefficient 0.254, p = 0.004). In conclusion, greater adherence to the Mediterranean diet was associated with markers of decreased cardiometabolic risk. The mMDS score is a valid instrument for measuring adherence to the Mediterranean diet and may have additional utility in research and clinical practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mediterranean Diet and Metabolic Diseases)
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13 pages, 12023 KiB  
Article
The Effects of a Mediterranean Diet Intervention on Targeted Plasma Metabolic Biomarkers among US Firefighters: A Pilot Cluster-Randomized Trial
by Mercedes Sotos-Prieto, Miguel Ruiz-Canela, Yiqing Song, Costas Christophi, Steven Mofatt, Fernando Rodriguez-Artalejo and Stefanos N. Kales
Nutrients 2020, 12(12), 3610; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12123610 - 24 Nov 2020
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3905
Abstract
Metabolomics is improving the understanding of the mechanisms of the health effects of diet. Previous research has identified several metabolites associated with the Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet), but knowledge about longitudinal changes in metabolic biomarkers after a MedDiet intervention is scarce. A subsample of [...] Read more.
Metabolomics is improving the understanding of the mechanisms of the health effects of diet. Previous research has identified several metabolites associated with the Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet), but knowledge about longitudinal changes in metabolic biomarkers after a MedDiet intervention is scarce. A subsample of 48 firefighters from a cluster-randomized trial at Indianapolis fire stations was randomly selected for the metabolomics study at 12 months of follow up (time point 1), where Group 1 (n = 24) continued for another 6 months in a self-sustained MedDiet intervention, and Group 2 (n = 24), the control group at that time, started with an active MedDiet intervention for 6 months (time point 2). A total of 225 metabolites were assessed at the two time points by using a targeted NMR platform. The MedDiet score improved slightly but changes were non-significant (intervention: 24.2 vs. 26.0 points and control group: 26.1 vs. 26.5 points). The MedDiet intervention led to favorable changes in biomarkers related to lipid metabolism, including lower LDL-C, ApoB/ApoA1 ratio, remnant cholesterol, M-VLDL-CE; and higher HDL-C, and better lipoprotein composition. This MedDiet intervention induces only modest changes in adherence to the MedDiet and consequently in metabolic biomarkers. Further research should confirm these results based on larger study samples in workplace interventions with powerful study designs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mediterranean Diet and Metabolic Diseases)
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20 pages, 646 KiB  
Article
Eating Habits and Lifestyle during COVID-19 Lockdown in the United Arab Emirates: A Cross-Sectional Study
by Leila Cheikh Ismail, Tareq M. Osaili, Maysm N. Mohamad, Amina Al Marzouqi, Amjad H. Jarrar, Dima O. Abu Jamous, Emmanuella Magriplis, Habiba I. Ali, Haleama Al Sabbah, Hayder Hasan, Latifa M. R. AlMarzooqi, Lily Stojanovska, Mona Hashim, Reyad R. Shaker Obaid, Sheima T. Saleh and Ayesha S. Al Dhaheri
Nutrients 2020, 12(11), 3314; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113314 - 29 Oct 2020
Cited by 164 | Viewed by 21452
Abstract
The coronavirus disease is still spreading in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) with subsequent lockdowns and social distancing measures being enforced by the government. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of the lockdown on eating habits and lifestyle behaviors [...] Read more.
The coronavirus disease is still spreading in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) with subsequent lockdowns and social distancing measures being enforced by the government. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of the lockdown on eating habits and lifestyle behaviors among residents of the UAE. A cross-sectional study among adults in the UAE was conducted using an online questionnaire between April and May 2020. A total of 1012 subjects participated in the study. During the pandemic, 31% reported weight gain and 72.2% had less than eight cups of water per day. Furthermore, the dietary habits of the participants were distanced from the Mediterranean diet principles and closer to “unhealthy” dietary patterns. Moreover, 38.5% did not engage in physical activity and 36.2% spent over five hours per day on screens for entertainment. A significantly higher percentage of participants reported physical exhaustion, emotional exhaustion, irritability, and tension “all the time” during the pandemic compared to before the pandemic (p < 0.001). Sleep disturbances were prevalent among 60.8% of the participants during the pandemic. Although lockdowns are an important safety measure to protect public health, results indicate that they might cause a variety of lifestyle changes, physical inactivity, and psychological problems among adults in the UAE. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mediterranean Diet and Metabolic Diseases)
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14 pages, 1183 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Sodium Knowledge and Urinary Sodium Excretion among Regions of the United Arab Emirates: A Cross-Sectional Study
by Amjad H. Jarrar, Lily Stojanovska, Vasso Apostolopoulos, Leila Cheikh Ismail, Jack Feehan, Eric O. Ohuma, Ala Z. Ahmad, Asma A. Alnoaimi, Latifa S. Al Khaili, Najah H. Allowch, Fatima T. Al Meqbaali, Usama Souka and Ayesha S. Al Dhaheri
Nutrients 2020, 12(9), 2747; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12092747 - 9 Sep 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3235
Abstract
Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) such as cardiovascular disease, cancer and diabetes, are increasing worldwide and cause 65% to 78% of deaths in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC). A random sample of 477 healthy adults were recruited in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) in the [...] Read more.
Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) such as cardiovascular disease, cancer and diabetes, are increasing worldwide and cause 65% to 78% of deaths in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC). A random sample of 477 healthy adults were recruited in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) in the period March–June 2015. Demographic, lifestyle, medical, anthropometric and sodium excretion data were collected. A questionnaire was used to measure knowledge, attitude and practice regarding salt. Mean sodium and potassium excretion were 2713.4 ± 713 mg/day and 1803 ± 618 mg/day, respectively, significantly higher than the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations for sodium (2300 mg/day) and lower for potassium (3150 mg/day). Two-thirds (67.4%) exceeded sodium guidelines, with males 2.6 times more likely to consume excessively. The majority of the participants add salt during cooking (82.5%) and whilst eating (66%), and 75% identified processed food as high source of salt. Most (69.1%) were aware that excessive salt could cause disease. Most of the UAE population consumes excess sodium and insufficient potassium, likely increasing the risk of NCDs. Despite most participants being aware that high salt intake is associated with adverse health outcomes, this did not translate into salt reduction action. Low-sodium, high-potassium dietary interventions such as the Mediterranean diet are vital in reducing the impact of NCDs in the UAE. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mediterranean Diet and Metabolic Diseases)
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Other

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25 pages, 5554 KiB  
Systematic Review
Impact of the Level of Adherence to Mediterranean Diet on the Parameters of Metabolic Syndrome: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies
by Dimitra Rafailia Bakaloudi, Lydia Chrysoula, Evangelia Kotzakioulafi, Xenophon Theodoridis and Michail Chourdakis
Nutrients 2021, 13(5), 1514; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13051514 - 30 Apr 2021
Cited by 37 | Viewed by 5257
Abstract
High adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MD) has been associated with a lower prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS). The present study aimed to investigate the impact of MD adherence on parameters of MetS. A systematic literature search was performed in PubMed, Cochrane Central [...] Read more.
High adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MD) has been associated with a lower prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS). The present study aimed to investigate the impact of MD adherence on parameters of MetS. A systematic literature search was performed in PubMed, Cochrane Central Registry of Clinical Trials (CENTRAL), Scopus, EMBASE, Web of Science and Google Scholar databases. Observational studies that recorded adherence to MD and components/measures of the MetS, such as waist circumference (WC), blood pressure (BP), fasting blood glucose (FBG), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and triglycerides (TG), were included in this study. A total of 58 studies were included in our study. WC and TG were significantly lower in the high adherence MD group (SMD: −0.20, (95%CI: −0.40, −0.01), SMD: −0.27 (95%CI: −0.27, −0.11), respectively), while HDL cholesterol was significantly higher in the same group (SMD: −0.28 (95%CI: 0.07, 0.50). There was no difference in FBG and SBP among the two groups (SMD: −0.21 (95%CI: −0.54, 0.12) & SMD: −0.15 (95%CI: −0.38, 0.07), respectively). MD may have a positive impact on all parameters of MetS. However, further research is needed in this field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mediterranean Diet and Metabolic Diseases)
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