Malnutrition, Acute Sarcopenia and Wasting Syndromes during Hospital Stay

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Geriatric Nutrition".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 November 2024 | Viewed by 2186

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Guest Editor
Unit of General Medicine and Advanced Care, IRCCS San Raffaele Institute, 20132 Milan, Italy
Interests: frailty; respiratory dysfunction; sarcopenia; geriatrics
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Dear Colleagues,

Despite acute disease resolutions, more than half of older people do not to recover preadmission functional levels after hospitalization. Bedrest and inflammation can cause acute sarcopenia, which is a risk factor for nosocomial-related disability. Mechanisms underpinning acute sarcopenia, its long-term consequences, screening and treatments have not yet been completely clarified.

It has recently become evident that the preservation of muscle health and functional status during hospital stay would be of paramount importance for older people. In this vulnerable population, hospitalizations represent major risks for adverse outcomes. Despite acute disease resolution, more than half of older people do not recover preadmission functional levels, even 1 year after hospital discharge. Moreover, their risk of novel disabilities, institutionalization and death increases after hospital discharge.

Poor patient mobility is one of the main causes of the development of nosocomial-related disability. Bedrest can induce skeletal muscle loss both in young and (to a greater extent) older individuals. In addition, inflammation, immune–endocrine dysregulations and reduced caloric intake further concur to acute muscle insufficiency during hospital stay. When this muscle insufficiency satisfies the criteria for the diagnosis of sarcopenia, it is named acute sarcopenia. Few studies have evaluated acute sarcopenia thus far, and further research on this topic is needed. 

Dr. Sarah Damanti
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • wasting
  • malnutrition
  • loss of muscle mass
  • inflammation
  • hospitalization

Published Papers (1 paper)

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Research

12 pages, 810 KiB  
Article
Prevalence and Characteristics of the Course of Dysphagia in Hospitalized Older Adults
by Ayano Nagano, Masami Onaka, Keisuke Maeda, Junko Ueshima, Akio Shimizu, Yuria Ishida, Shinsuke Nagami, Shuzo Miyahara, Keiji Nishihara, Akiyuki Yasuda, Shosuke Satake and Naoharu Mori
Nutrients 2023, 15(20), 4371; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15204371 - 15 Oct 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1980
Abstract
Sarcopenic dysphagia (SD) is an emerging concern in geriatric medicine. This study aimed to identify the prevalence, progression, and distinct attributes of SD in patients in the Department of Geriatric Medicine. Older adult patients admitted between 2021 and 2022 were enrolled. The department [...] Read more.
Sarcopenic dysphagia (SD) is an emerging concern in geriatric medicine. This study aimed to identify the prevalence, progression, and distinct attributes of SD in patients in the Department of Geriatric Medicine. Older adult patients admitted between 2021 and 2022 were enrolled. The department conducts a comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) combined with a multidisciplinary team-based intervention, setting the standard for medical care. We diligently assessed the occurrence and development of dysphagia at both the admission and discharge phases. Of the 180 patients analyzed (38.9% male, mean age 86.0 ± 6.6 years), 22.8% were diagnosed with SD at admission, thrice the rate of other dysphagia variants. Only one patient had new-onset dysphagia during hospitalization, attributed to SD. Patients with SD showed a better recovery rate (18.9%) than those with other dysphagia types. Patients with diminished swallowing capacity had compromised nutritional profiles, diminished energy and protein consumption, and extended fasting durations. Although sarcopenia is a prevalent inducer of dysphagia in older adults, an integrated approach in geriatric medicine involving rehabilitation, nutrition, and dentistry is pivotal. Strategies rooted in CGA promise potential for addressing dysphagia. Full article
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