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Effect of Dietary Patterns or Eating Habits on Diabetes

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutrition and Diabetes".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2023) | Viewed by 27899

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Suzhou Medical College of Soochow University, 199 Ren'ai Road, Suzhou 215123, China
Interests: diet; lifestyle; metabolomics and cardiovascular disease; diabetes and diabetes-associated complications
Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, USA
Interests: gut microbiome and host genetics; metabolome; proteome; multi-omics; nutrition, cardiometabolic health; environmental endocrine disruptors; reproductive health

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Diabetes is a global public health challenge. The majority of diabetes is type 2 diabetes (T2D) which is closely related to lifestyle factors including diet. In the context of the ongoing nutritional transitions across diverse global regions especially in developing areas, the role of nutritional strategies in the prevention and management of diabetes is becoming crucial. Despite mounting epidemiologic evidence linking various food groups or nutrients to the development and progression of T2D, the corresponding application to dietary practices remains challenging. This is partly because of the difficulties in clarifying the independent role of one food/nutrient beyond the others as well as potentially reduced adherence when the consumption of a single unhealthy or healthy food is recommended to be very low or high. The dietary pattern approach, which considers a broad picture of individual dietary components or focuses on overall eating habits, has emerged as a common method used to address the diet-disease relationship. In general, findings from such a dietary-pattern approach are more practical for nutritional recommendations and dietary practices. This Special Issue of Nutrients was proposed to collect epidemiologic studies using such an approach to evaluate the impact of dietary patterns or eating habits on the development of diabetes, regulation of glucose metabolism, or management of diabetes-associated complications. 

Aim:

Collecting population-level nutritional evidence that could facilitate the establishment of more practical dietary strategies for diabetes prevention and management.

Scope

The outcome of interest could be diabetes incidence, measures of glucose metabolism, or diabetes-associated complications (e.g., diabetic neuropathy, retinopathy, or nephropathy and peripheral arterial disease). Studies that include diabetes-only participants are also welcome. Observational studies, intervention studies, or systematic reviews/meta-analyses that meet the following scopes are welcome, and studies that incorporate multi-omics to improve the understanding of the association between diet and diabetes-associated outcomes are particularly appreciated:

  1. Dietary patterns or eating habits (e.g., eating frequency, eating time) in relation to diabetes, glucose metabolism, or diabetes-associated complications;
  2. Biomarkers (especially those identified using metabolomics) for dietary patterns in relation to diabetes, glucose metabolism, or diabetes-associated complications;
  3. Impact of dietary pattern-genetics interaction on diabetes, glucose metabolism, or diabetes-associated complications.

Dr. Guochong Chen
Dr. Kai Luo
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • Complications
  • Diabetes
  • Diet quality
  • Dietary pattern
  • Eating Habits
  • Glucose metabolism

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

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19 pages, 6836 KiB  
Article
The Global Burden of Type 2 Diabetes Attributable to Dietary Risks: Insights from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019
by Alina Ioana Forray, Mădălina Adina Coman, Ruxandra Simonescu-Colan, Andreea Isabela Mazga, Răzvan Mircea Cherecheș and Cristina Maria Borzan
Nutrients 2023, 15(21), 4613; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15214613 - 30 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1568
Abstract
The Global Burden of Disease Study (GBD) 2019 reveals an increasing prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) from 1990 to 2019. This study delves into the role of dietary risk factors across different demographic and socioeconomic groups. Utilizing data from the GBD [...] Read more.
The Global Burden of Disease Study (GBD) 2019 reveals an increasing prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) from 1990 to 2019. This study delves into the role of dietary risk factors across different demographic and socioeconomic groups. Utilizing data from the GBD 2019, it analyzes age-adjusted T2DM metrics—death counts, Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs), and Age-Standardized Rates (ASRs)—stratified by age, sex, and region. The study employed Estimated Annual Percentage Changes (EAPCs) to track trends over time. The results show that in 2019, 26.07% of T2DM mortality and 27.08% of T2DM DALYs were attributable to poor diets, particularly those low in fruits and high in red and processed meats. There was a marked increase in both the death rate and DALY rate associated with dietary risks over this period, indicating the significant impact of dietary factors on the global T2DM landscape. Geographic variations in T2DM trends were significant, with regions like Southern Sub-Saharan Africa and Central Asia experiencing the most substantial increases in Age-Standardized Mortality Rate (ASMR) and Age-Standardized DALY Rate (ASDR). A positive correlation was noted between Socio-Demographic Index (SDI) and T2DM burden due to dietary risk factors. The study concludes that targeted public health initiatives promoting dietary changes could substantially reduce the global T2DM burden. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Dietary Patterns or Eating Habits on Diabetes)
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13 pages, 703 KiB  
Article
Diet Quality and Consumption of Healthy and Unhealthy Foods Measured via the Global Diet Quality Score in Relation to Cardiometabolic Outcomes in Apparently Healthy Adults from the Mediterranean Region: The ATTICA Epidemiological Cohort Study (2002–2022)
by Evangelia Damigou, Matina Kouvari, Christina Chrysohoou, Fotios Barkas, Evrydiki Kravvariti, Dimitrios Dalmyras, Amalia D. Koutsogianni, Costas Tsioufis, Christos Pitsavos, Evangelos Liberopoulos, Petros P. Sfikakis and Demosthenes Panagiotakos
Nutrients 2023, 15(20), 4428; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15204428 - 18 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1416
Abstract
The Global Diet Quality Score (GDQS) is a novel food-based score that assesses both nutrient adequacy and chronic disease risk, by evaluating healthy (GDQS+) and unhealthy foods (GDQS−). The aim of this study was to evaluate the association among GDQS, GDQS+, and GDQS− [...] Read more.
The Global Diet Quality Score (GDQS) is a novel food-based score that assesses both nutrient adequacy and chronic disease risk, by evaluating healthy (GDQS+) and unhealthy foods (GDQS−). The aim of this study was to evaluate the association among GDQS, GDQS+, and GDQS− against the 20-year risk of cardiometabolic outcomes in a Mediterranean population. The sample was n = 2169 initially free of cardiovascular disease (CVD) participants of the ATTICA study (2002–2022) that participated in the 20-year follow-up. The incidence of CVD, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) was defined according to WHO-ICD-10 criteria. The GDQS was computed based on previously published instructions. In multivariate analyses, a higher diet quality, per 1/49 of the GDQS, was associated with an 8% [95% Confidence Interval—CI: 6–9%] and 2% [95% CI: 1–3%] lower CVD and T2DM risk, respectively. A higher consumption of healthy foods, per 1/32 of GDQS+, was associated with a 9% [95% CI: 7–11%] and 2% [95% CI: 1–3%] lower CVD and T2DM risk, respectively. Contrarily, a lower consumption of unhealthy foods (GDQS−) was not associated with cardiometabolic events in the adjusted models (all p value< 0.05). In clinical practice or future public health actions to ameliorate dietary habits and prevent CVD and T2DM, more attention should be focused on healthy foods that should be included in our diets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Dietary Patterns or Eating Habits on Diabetes)
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13 pages, 1436 KiB  
Article
Coffee Consumption and Incidence of Cardiovascular and Microvascular Diseases in Never-Smoking Adults with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
by Yu-Jie Liu, Meng-Yuan Miao, Jia-Min Wang, Quan Tang, Wen-Wen Han, Yi-Ping Jia, Hao-Wei Tao, Yan Zheng, Rob M. van Dam, Li-Qiang Qin and Guo-Chong Chen
Nutrients 2023, 15(18), 3910; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15183910 - 08 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1807
Abstract
The relationship between coffee consumption and diabetes-related vascular complications remains unclear. To eliminate confounding by smoking, this study assessed the relationships of coffee consumption with major cardiovascular disease (CVD) and microvascular disease (MVD) in never-smokers with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Included were [...] Read more.
The relationship between coffee consumption and diabetes-related vascular complications remains unclear. To eliminate confounding by smoking, this study assessed the relationships of coffee consumption with major cardiovascular disease (CVD) and microvascular disease (MVD) in never-smokers with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Included were 9964 never-smokers with T2DM from the UK Biobank without known CVD or cancer at baseline (7781 were free of MVD). Participants were categorized into four groups according to daily coffee consumption (0, 0.5–1, 2–4, ≥5 cups/day). CVD included coronary heart disease (CHD), myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and heart failure (HF). MVD included retinopathy, peripheral neuropathy, and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidential intervals (CIs) of total CVD and MVD and the component outcomes associated with coffee consumption. During a median of 12.7 years of follow-up, 1860 cases of CVD and 1403 cases of MVD were identified. Coffee intake was nonlinearly and inversely associated with CVD (P-nonlinearity = 0.023) and the component outcomes. Compared with no coffee intake, HRs (95% CIs) associated with a coffee intake of 2 to 4 cups/day were 0.82 (0.73, 0.93) for CVD, 0.84 (0.73, 0.97) for CHD, 0.73 (0.57, 0.92) for MI, 0.76 (0.57, 1.02) for stroke, and 0.68 (0.55, 0.85) for HF. Higher coffee intake (≥5 cups/day) was not significantly associated with CVD outcomes. Coffee intake was linearly and inversely associated with risk of CKD (HR for ≥5 vs. 0 cups/day = 0.64; 95% CI: 0.45, 0.91; P-trend = 0.0029) but was not associated with retinopathy or peripheral neuropathy. Among never-smoking individuals with T2DM, moderate coffee consumption (2–4 cups/day) was associated with a lower risk of various CVD outcomes and CKD, with no adverse associations for higher consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Dietary Patterns or Eating Habits on Diabetes)
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11 pages, 646 KiB  
Article
Adherence to the 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans Compared with the Mediterranean Diet in Relation to Risk of Prediabetes: Results from NHANES 2007–2016
by Pengcheng Wu, Lili Zhang, Yan Zhao, Miao Xu, Quan Tang, Guo-Chong Chen and Liqiang Qin
Nutrients 2023, 15(16), 3546; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15163546 - 11 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1360
Abstract
Prediabetes presents a high-risk state for the development of various diseases and is reversible by adhering to a healthy lifestyle. We conducted this analysis to explore the associations of the Healthy Eating Index-2015 (HEI-2015) and the Alternate Mediterranean Diet Index (aMed index) with [...] Read more.
Prediabetes presents a high-risk state for the development of various diseases and is reversible by adhering to a healthy lifestyle. We conducted this analysis to explore the associations of the Healthy Eating Index-2015 (HEI-2015) and the Alternate Mediterranean Diet Index (aMed index) with the risk of prediabetes. The data were derived from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, including 20,844 participants. Multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (OR) of prediabetes and 95% confidence intervals (CI) by tertile of diet quality scores were estimated using a weighted logistic regression. Compared to those in the lowest tertile, the multivariable-adjusted OR of prediabetes for the highest tertile was 0.82 (95% CI: 0.72, 0.94; p for trend = 0.005) for HEI-2015 and 0.87 (95% CI: 0.76, 0.98; p for trend = 0.02) for the aMed index. After mutual adjustment, the association for HEI-2015 (p for trend = 0.03) but not for the aMed index (p for trend = 0.59) remained significant. Among the component food groups and nutrients, higher intakes of red and processed meat, sodium, and total saturated fatty acids were associated with a higher risk of prediabetes, while moderate alcohol consumption was associated with a lower risk. In conclusion, adherence to the 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, as compared with the Mediterranean Diet, appeared to be more strongly associated with a lower risk of prediabetes among adults in the United States. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Dietary Patterns or Eating Habits on Diabetes)
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15 pages, 1537 KiB  
Article
A Risk Profile for Disordered Eating Behaviors in Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes: A Latent Class Analysis Study
by Giada Boccolini, Monica Marino, Valentina Tiberi, Antonio Iannilli, Giulia Landi, Silvana Grandi, Eliana Tossani, ISPED Study Group and Valentino Cherubini
Nutrients 2023, 15(7), 1721; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15071721 - 31 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1540
Abstract
(1) Background: This multi-center study aimed to identify a risk profile for disordered eating behaviors (DEBs) in youth with type 1 diabetes (T1D) based on their dietary intake, lipid profile, body mass index (BMI-SDS), and glycometabolic control. (2) Methods: Adolescents aged 11 to [...] Read more.
(1) Background: This multi-center study aimed to identify a risk profile for disordered eating behaviors (DEBs) in youth with type 1 diabetes (T1D) based on their dietary intake, lipid profile, body mass index (BMI-SDS), and glycometabolic control. (2) Methods: Adolescents aged 11 to 18 years from five centers across Italy were recruited. Lipid profile, HbA1c, BMI-SDS, and dietary intake data were collected. The risk for developing DEBs was assessed via the Diabetes Eating Problems Survey-R (DEPS-R) questionnaire. A latent class analysis (LCA) was performed using a person-centered approach. (3) Results: Overall, 148 participants aged 11–18 (12.1, ±3.34), 52% males with a mean diabetes duration of 7.2 (±3.4), were enrolled. Based on the results of the DEBS-R score, LCA allowed us to highlight two different classes of patients which were defined as “at-risk” and “not at-risk” for DEB. The risk profile for developing DEBs is characterized by higher BMI—SDS (23.9 vs. 18.6), higher HbA1c (7.9 vs. 7.1%), higher LDL cholesterol (99.9 vs. 88.8 mg/dL), lower HDL cholesterol (57.9 vs. 61.3 mg/dL), higher proteins (18.2 vs. 16.1%), and lower carbohydrates (43.9 vs. 45.3%). Adolescents included in the “at-risk” class were significantly older (p = 0.000), and their parents’ SES was significantly lower (p = 0.041). (4) Conclusions: This study allowed us to characterize a risk profile for DEBs based on dietary behavior and clinical parameters. Early identification of the risk for DEBs allows timely intervention and prevention of behavior disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Dietary Patterns or Eating Habits on Diabetes)
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13 pages, 586 KiB  
Article
Identifying the Associations of Nightly Fasting Duration and Meal Timing with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Using Data from the 2016–2020 Korea National Health and Nutrition Survey
by Junkyung Kwak, Kyeong-A Jang, Haeng-Ran Kim, Min-Sook Kang, Kyung Won Lee and Dayeon Shin
Nutrients 2023, 15(6), 1385; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15061385 - 13 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2224
Abstract
Nightly fasting duration and meal timing are associated with metabolic disorders. This study aimed to investigate the relationships of nightly fasting duration and meal timing with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) using data from the 2016–2020 Korea National Health and Nutrition Survey. A [...] Read more.
Nightly fasting duration and meal timing are associated with metabolic disorders. This study aimed to investigate the relationships of nightly fasting duration and meal timing with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) using data from the 2016–2020 Korea National Health and Nutrition Survey. A total of 22,685 adults ≥ 19 years were included in this study. Nightly fasting duration was calculated by subtracting the interval between the day’s first and last meal eating times from 24 h. The meal timing were analyzed using various parameters, including the times of the first and last eating episodes and the percentage of energy intake during the morning (05:00 to 9:00 a.m.), evening (06:00 to 09:00 p.m.), and night (after 09:00 p.m.). Men who fasted nightly for ≥ 12 h had lower odds of T2DM (odds ratio (OR): 0.86; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.75–0.99) than those who fasted for < 12 h. Individuals who had their last meal after 09:00 p.m. had higher odds of T2DM (OR: 1.19, 95% CI: 1.03–1.38, men; OR: 1.19, 95% CI: 1.01–1.40, women). Additionally, the percentage of energy intake during the evening was associated with increased odds of T2DM (OR: 1.41, 95% CI: 1.08–1.84, men; OR: 1.32, 95% CI: 1.02–1.70, women). These findings emphasize the importance of nightly fasting duration and meal timing in modulating the risk of T2DM among Korean adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Dietary Patterns or Eating Habits on Diabetes)
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13 pages, 1478 KiB  
Article
Association between Meal Frequency and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Rural Adults: A Large-Scale Cross-Sectional Study
by Bota Baheti, Xiaotian Liu, Mu Wang, Caiyun Zhang, Xiaokang Dong, Ning Kang, Linlin Li, Xing Li, Songcheng Yu, Jian Hou, Zhenxing Mao and Chongjian Wang
Nutrients 2023, 15(6), 1348; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15061348 - 10 Mar 2023
Viewed by 2006
Abstract
Diet frequency may potentially influence metabolic health. However, general population-based evidence on the association between meal frequency and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) remains limited and inconclusive. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the association between meal frequency and T2DM in resource limited [...] Read more.
Diet frequency may potentially influence metabolic health. However, general population-based evidence on the association between meal frequency and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) remains limited and inconclusive. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the association between meal frequency and T2DM in resource limited area. A total of 29,405 qualified participants were enrolled from the Henan rural cohort study. Data on meal frequency were collected through a validated face-to-face questionnaire survey. Logistic regression models were utilized to explore the association between meal frequency and T2DM. Compared with 21 times per week meal frequency group, the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) were 0.75 (0.58, 0.95) and 0.70 (0.54, 0.90) for 16–20 times/week group and 14–15 times/week group, respectively. For the analysis of the three meals, significant associations were only found between dinner frequency and T2DM. Compared with seven times per week dinner group, the ORs (95%CIs) were 0.66 (0.42, 0.99) and 0.51 (0.29, 0.82) for the group with three to six times/week and zero to two times/week. Reduced meal frequency, especially dinner frequency, was associated with lower prevalence of T2DM, which suggests that an appropriate reduction in meal frequency per week may have a role in decreasing the risk of T2DM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Dietary Patterns or Eating Habits on Diabetes)
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24 pages, 1229 KiB  
Article
Dietary Pattern Associated with the Risk of Poor Glycemic Control in Chinese Diabetic Adults: Results from the China Nutrition and Health Surveillance 2015–2017 Survey
by Yuqian Li, Lianlong Yu, Zhen Liu, Shanshan Jia, Qingqing Man, Qianrang Zhu, Cheng Li, Yuxiang Yang, Beibei Liu and Jian Zhang
Nutrients 2023, 15(1), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15010056 - 23 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2630
Abstract
The present study was conducted to investigate the nutrition status of dietary patterns and the association between dietary patterns and the risk of poor glycemic control in Chinese diabetics. The relevant data was collected from the China Nutrition and Health Surveillance 2015–2017 survey, [...] Read more.
The present study was conducted to investigate the nutrition status of dietary patterns and the association between dietary patterns and the risk of poor glycemic control in Chinese diabetics. The relevant data was collected from the China Nutrition and Health Surveillance 2015–2017 survey, which is a national cross-sectional surveillance program. A total of 2031 participants were included in the present statistical analysis. Food consumption was assessed through a validated and standard food frequency questionnaire. Dietary patterns were derived with reduced rank regression using hemoglobin A1c. Diabetes was diagnosed by medical institutions, glycemic control was defined as hemoglobin A1c less than 7%, poor glycemic control was defined as hemoglobin A1c greater than 7%. A multiple-variable-adjusted logistic regression, including age, living area, income level, educational attainment, body mass index, occupational physical activity, energy intake, current smoking status, current drinking status, diabetic medication use, insulin use, following diabetic diets, increased exercise, and glucose monitoring, was adjusted to explore the association between dietary patterns and the risk of poor glycemic control in diabetes. Two gender-specific dietary patterns have an increased risk of poor glycemic control and are characterized by a low intake of freshwater fish, poultry, and fruits. For male participants, the dietary pattern was characterized by a high intake of wheat and its products, a low intake of vegetables, corn and its products, shrimp and crab, and beans (Q4 vs. Q1, OR = 2.69, 95% CI: 1.76 to 4.10). For female participants, the dietary pattern was characterized by a low intake of snacks and nuts, and algae and mushroom (Q4 vs. Q1, OR = 2.18, 95% CI: 1.48 to 3.20). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Dietary Patterns or Eating Habits on Diabetes)
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12 pages, 822 KiB  
Article
Long-Term Diet Quality and Risk of Diabetes in a National Survey of Chinese Adults
by Yumeng Hua, Ziwei Zhang and Aiping Liu
Nutrients 2022, 14(22), 4841; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14224841 - 16 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1448
Abstract
There is little evidence involving the association between diet quality and the risk of diabetes among the Asian populations, especially from the long-term prospective cohort studies in China. This study evaluated the long-term diet quality of Chinese adults by the Chinese diet balance [...] Read more.
There is little evidence involving the association between diet quality and the risk of diabetes among the Asian populations, especially from the long-term prospective cohort studies in China. This study evaluated the long-term diet quality of Chinese adults by the Chinese diet balance index 2016 (DBI-16) and firstly explored its role in diabetes prevention. A total of 9394 participants from the China health and nutrition survey (2004–2015) prospective cohort were included. Dietary information was selected by three consecutive 24-h dietary recalls, combined with a household food inventory and further calculated as the scores of the DBI-16 components and indicators. Three major indicators, the low bound score (LBS), the high bound score (HBS) and the diet quality distance (DQD), were divided into four level groups, according to the total scores, respectively, including Level 1 (scores below 20%), Level 2 (20–40% of scores), Level 3 (40–60% of scores) and Level 4 (scores above 60%). Diabetes cases were identified through a questionnaire or by testing the overnight fasting blood samples. Cox’s proportional hazards models were used to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs, while restricted cubic splines (RCS) were applied to explore the potentially non-linear relationships. During a median follow-up of 6.0 years (61,979 persons-years), 657 participants developed diabetes. The LBS and DQD scores were positively associated with diabetes risks, whereas no significant association of the HBS scores with diabetes risks was observed. Compared with those on the lowest level, the adjusted HRs (95%) across the increased levels of diet quality were 2.43 (1.36, 4.37), 3.05 (1.69, 5.53) and 4.90 (2.46, 9.78) for the LBS; 1.06 (0.74, 1.51), 1.30 (0.99, 1.88) and 0.99 (0.39, 2.55) for the HBS; 1.28 (1.01, 1.61) and 2.10 (1.57, 2.82) for the DQD after pooling the participants on Level 1 and 2 as the reference group, due to the few who developed diabetics on Level 1 of the DQD. No significantly non-linear shape was observed for all three indicators. Our findings indicated a significant inverse association between the long-term diet quality assessed by the DBI-16 and diabetes risks, providing evidence for the positive role of healthy diets in diabetes prevention in Asia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Dietary Patterns or Eating Habits on Diabetes)
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11 pages, 609 KiB  
Article
Inverse Association of Fruit and Vegetable Consumption with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Chinese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
by Lin-Jia Du, Zhi-Ying He, Xiao Gu, Xiang Hu, Xing-Xing Zhang, Li-Juan Yang, Jing Li, Lin-Yu Pan, Ying-Qian Li, Bo Yang and Xue-Jiang Gu
Nutrients 2022, 14(21), 4559; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14214559 - 29 Oct 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1665
Abstract
We aimed to investigate the association of fruit and vegetable consumption with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This cross-sectional study included 2667 Chinese patients with T2DM aged 18 to 76 years from March 2017 [...] Read more.
We aimed to investigate the association of fruit and vegetable consumption with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This cross-sectional study included 2667 Chinese patients with T2DM aged 18 to 76 years from March 2017 to October 2021. Dietary intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire, and prevalent NAFLD was diagnosed with abdominal ultrasonography. High fruit–vegetable consumption was determined using ≥500 g/day consumption of both fruit and vegetable, and both fruit and vegetable consumption were divided into three categories of <200 g/day (low), 200–400 g/day (median) and >400 g (high). The primary outcome measurement was multivariate-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the prevalence of NAFLD in relation to the highest fruit and (or) vegetable intake compared with the lowest. Secondary analyses were conducted to assess the effects of either fruit or vegetable intake on the fatty liver index (FLI) using multivariable linear regressions. There were 1694 men and 973 women in this study, and 1445 (54.06%) participants had prevalent NAFLD. Patients with high fruit–vegetable intake had a lower prevalence of NAFLD than those with low fruit–vegetable intake (52.04% vs. 56.48%), but this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.065). Vegetable intake had a significantly inverse association with NAFLD (OR: 0.68, 95% CI: 0.52–0.90), but this association was not pronounced with fruit intake (OR: 1.23, 95% CI: 0.89–1.69) or fruit–vegetable intake (OR: 0.90, 95% CI: 0.73–1.10). Additional analyses showed that an increase in vegetable intake was linearly associated with a significant reduction in FLI (β: −1.028, 95% CI: −1.836, −0.219). In conclusion, higher vegetable consumption was associated with lower odds of NAFLD in Chinese patients with T2DM, which suggested that increased vegetable intake might protect patients with diabetes against NAFLD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Dietary Patterns or Eating Habits on Diabetes)
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13 pages, 1848 KiB  
Article
Effects of Whey Protein or Its Hydrolysate Supplements Combined with an Energy-Restricted Diet on Weight Loss: A Randomized Controlled Trial in Older Women
by Yue Sun, Chenjie Ling, Linsheng Liu, Jianwei Zhang, Jian Wang, Xing Tong, Khemayanto Hidayat, Mengting Chen, Xiaofang Chen, Hui Zhou, Jiaying Xu, Liqiang Qin, Wanzhan Zhu and Jing Yang
Nutrients 2022, 14(21), 4540; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14214540 - 28 Oct 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2342
Abstract
An energy-restricted weight-loss approach has limitations when it used in the elderly, especially because of muscle loss. We aimed to assess the effects of whey protein (WP) or WP hydrolysate (WPH) combined with an energy-restricted diet (ERD) on weight reduction and muscle preservation [...] Read more.
An energy-restricted weight-loss approach has limitations when it used in the elderly, especially because of muscle loss. We aimed to assess the effects of whey protein (WP) or WP hydrolysate (WPH) combined with an energy-restricted diet (ERD) on weight reduction and muscle preservation in older women with overweight and obesity. A total of 60 women were randomized to the control (ERD), WP (ERD + 20 g/d WP) or WPH (ERD + 20 g/d WPH) group, using a 1:1:1 allocation ratio. After an 8-week intervention, body composition, gut microbiota, and serum metabolomics changes were compared among the three groups. The reductions in body weight (−1.11 ± 1.11 vs. −2.34 ± 1.35, p < 0.05), BMI (−0.46 ± 0.45 vs. −0.97 ± 0.54, p < 0.05), and body fat (−0.70 ± 0.92 vs. −2.45 ± 1.65, p < 0.01) were higher in the WPH group than in the control group. Body fat (%) was significantly decreased in the two protein groups. Fat-free mass did not significantly change among the three groups. Serum metabolomics showed that the tricarboxylic acid cycle pathway was upregulated in the WPH group. No significant changes in microbiota were observed among the groups. In conclusion, WP or WPH supplementation combined with an energy-restricted diet benefits older women during weight loss. WPH was more effective, possibly due to increased energy metabolism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Dietary Patterns or Eating Habits on Diabetes)
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Review

Jump to: Research

20 pages, 1042 KiB  
Review
The Health Effects of Low Glycemic Index and Low Glycemic Load Interventions on Prediabetes and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Literature Review of RCTs
by Maria Peres, Helena S. Costa, Mafalda Alexandra Silva and Tânia Gonçalves Albuquerque
Nutrients 2023, 15(24), 5060; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15245060 - 10 Dec 2023
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Abstract
Diets with a low glycemic index (GI) and a low glycemic load (GL) can improve glycemic control, blood lipids, blood pressure and BMI in prediabetes and type 2 diabetes (T2DM), but evidence regarding other aspects of cardiometabolic health is limited. We searched the [...] Read more.
Diets with a low glycemic index (GI) and a low glycemic load (GL) can improve glycemic control, blood lipids, blood pressure and BMI in prediabetes and type 2 diabetes (T2DM), but evidence regarding other aspects of cardiometabolic health is limited. We searched the literature for RCTs published from 2013 to 2023 and reviewed the evidence on low-GI/GL diets and their effects on different aspects of health in prediabetes and T2DM, aiming to build a report on all relevant outcomes included in the studies. We included 14 RCTs with 1055 participants, who were mostly middle-aged individuals with T2DM. Interventions were mostly low GI and lasted 1–36 months. Low-GI/GL foods and diets showed benefits in terms of short-term glycemic control, weight and adiposity. Longer-term trials would be necessary to determine whether these benefits persist over time and/or lead to lower CVD risk and mortality. Effects on lipid profile were inconsistent. Some studies also reported positive effects of low-GI/GL interventions on blood pressure, inflammatory biomarkers, renal function and gut microbiota composition. Future trials should focus on some of these novel outcome measures, which may provide important insights into the metabolic effects of low-GI diets on individuals with diabetes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Dietary Patterns or Eating Habits on Diabetes)
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Review
Determining Dietary Patterns to Recommend for Type 2 Diabetes: An Umbrella Review
by Cathryn Whiteley, Fiona Benton, Louisa Matwiejczyk and Natalie Luscombe-Marsh
Nutrients 2023, 15(4), 861; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15040861 - 08 Feb 2023
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Abstract
Some specific dietary patterns improve glycaemic levels and cardiovascular risk factors better than others. We aimed to identify the most effective dietary patterns using a food-focused approach to improve blood glucose management (primary outcome) and cardiovascular risk factors (secondary outcome) in people with [...] Read more.
Some specific dietary patterns improve glycaemic levels and cardiovascular risk factors better than others. We aimed to identify the most effective dietary patterns using a food-focused approach to improve blood glucose management (primary outcome) and cardiovascular risk factors (secondary outcome) in people with type 2 diabetes. An umbrella review was conducted comparing dietary patterns for the management of these outcomes. Studies published between 2012 and 2022 were identified using PubMed Central, ProQuest, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Thirty systematic reviews met the inclusion criteria. Twenty-two of thirty reviews quantitated (via meta-analyses of over 212 randomised control trials) the effect size of different dietary patterns. Twelve reviews found Low-carbohydrate (LC), Mediterranean (M), Plant-based (PB), and/or Low-glycaemic Index (LGI) diets reduced HbA1c moderately more than control diets (typically a high-carbohydrate, low-fat diet) (i.e., LC: −0.1 to −0.5%; M: −0.3 to −0.5%; PB: −0.2 to −0.4%; LGI −0.2 to −0.5%; all p-value < 0.01). We conclude that Low-carbohydrate, Mediterranean, Plant-based, and Low-glycaemic Index dietary patterns are all clinically effective for people with type 2 diabetes as alternatives to high-carbohydrate, low-fat diets typically used for managing glycaemic levels and CVD risk. However, quality evidence about the sustainability of effects and safety remains limited, warranting future research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Dietary Patterns or Eating Habits on Diabetes)
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