Nutrition and Cognition in Older Adults: A Multidisciplinary Approach

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Geriatric Nutrition".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 5 July 2024 | Viewed by 44304

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Guest Editor
Center for Sarcopenia and Malnutrition Research, Kumamoto Rehabilitation Hospital, Kumamoto 869-1106, Japan
Interests: sarcopenia; frailty; malnutrition; rehabilitation; polypharmacy
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nutrition can affect cognitive function in older adults, with some studies showing that nutritional supplementation can improve cognitive function in patients with cognitive impairment, which also has been associated with poorer nutritional status. Good physical function and physical activity contribute to a healthy mental state, which are closely related to nutrition. Problems specific to old age, such as oral problems and polypharmacy, are also closely related to malnutrition and cognitive decline.

Therefore, the standardization of nutritional assessment, prevention, and treatment in clinical settings is urgently needed for the maintenance of good cognitive function. To achieve these goals, high-quality clinical evidence is needed for nutrition management in clinical settings, including nutrition, exercise, oral health, and medications.

The aim of this Special Issue is to update knowledge on nutrition and cognition, including nutrition, exercise, oral management, medication interventions, and other potential multidisciplinary interventions. Manuscripts of all types are welcome, including original papers and review articles.

Dr. Yoshihiro Yoshimura
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • nutrition
  • exercise
  • oral management
  • pharmacotherapy
  • multidisciplinary approach

Published Papers (2 papers)

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11 pages, 583 KiB  
Article
Concurrent Negative Impact of Undernutrition and Heart Failure on Functional and Cognitive Recovery in Hip Fracture Patients
by Shuichi Kamijikkoku and Yoshihiro Yoshimura
Nutrients 2023, 15(22), 4800; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15224800 - 16 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1311
Abstract
Evidence on the effects of frailty, undernutrition, and heart failure (HF) on patients with hip fractures is scarce. This retrospective cohort study aimed to examine the effects of undernutrition and HF on outcomes in patients who underwent convalescent rehabilitation after hip fracture. Undernutrition [...] Read more.
Evidence on the effects of frailty, undernutrition, and heart failure (HF) on patients with hip fractures is scarce. This retrospective cohort study aimed to examine the effects of undernutrition and HF on outcomes in patients who underwent convalescent rehabilitation after hip fracture. Undernutrition was defined as body mass index (BMI) < 20.0 (Low BMI). Heart failure (HF) was defined as a B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) > 100 (High BNP). The study outcomes included the Functional Independence Measure motor domain (FIM-motor) and cognitive domain (FIM-cognition) at discharge. To consider the effects of low BMI, high BNP, and the simultaneous presence of both (“low BMI and high BNP”), we used multivariate linear regression analyses to examine whether these were associated with the outcomes. A total of 110 (mean age 87.4 years, 24.8% male) were analyzed. As a result, low BMI (β = −0.088, p = 0.027) and high BNP (β = −0.053, p = 0.015), each alone, were significantly associated with the FIM motor at discharge, whereas the simultaneous presence of “low BMI and high BNP” was significantly associated with the FIM motor at discharge, while the strength of the association was greater than each association alone (β = −0.152, p = 0.010). Further, the simultaneous presence of “low BMI and high BNP” was significantly associated with FIM cognition at discharge (β = −0.109, p = 0.014). Comprehensive multidisciplinary management is needed, including preoperative or early postoperative nutritional support and rehabilitation, followed by rehabilitation nutrition care management, in patients with hip fracture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Cognition in Older Adults: A Multidisciplinary Approach)
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11 pages, 732 KiB  
Article
Benefits of Wasabi Supplements with 6-MSITC (6-Methylsulfinyl Hexyl Isothiocyanate) on Memory Functioning in Healthy Adults Aged 60 Years and Older: Evidence from a Double-Blinded Randomized Controlled Trial
by Rui Nouchi, Natasha Y. S. Kawata, Toshiki Saito, Haruka Nouchi and Ryuta Kawashima
Nutrients 2023, 15(21), 4608; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15214608 - 30 Oct 2023
Viewed by 42253
Abstract
Background: Cognitive functions decline with age. Declined cognitive functions negatively affect daily behaviors. Previous studies showed the positive effect of spices and herbs on cognition. In this study, we investigated the positive impact of wasabi, which is a traditional Japanese spice, on cognitive [...] Read more.
Background: Cognitive functions decline with age. Declined cognitive functions negatively affect daily behaviors. Previous studies showed the positive effect of spices and herbs on cognition. In this study, we investigated the positive impact of wasabi, which is a traditional Japanese spice, on cognitive functions. The main bioactive compound of wasabi is 6-MSITC (6 methylsulfinyl hexyl isothiocyanate), which has anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory functions. Anti-oxidants and anti-inflammatories have an important role in cognitive health. Therefore, 6-MSITC is expected to have positive effects on cognitive function. Previous studies showed the beneficial effects on cognitive functions in middle-aged adults. However, it is unclear that 6-MSITC has a positive effect on cognitive functions in healthy older adults aged 60 years and over. Here, we investigated whether 12 weeks’ 6-MSITC intervention enhances cognitive performance in older adults using a double-blinded randomized controlled trial (RCT). Methods: Seventy-two older adults were randomly assigned to 6-MSITC or placebo groups. Participants were asked to take a supplement (6-MSITC or a placebo) for 12 weeks. We checked a wide range of cognitive performances (e.g., executive function, episodic memory, processing speed, working memory, and attention) at the pre- and post-intervention periods. Results: The 6-MSITC group showed a significant improvement in working and episodic memory performances compared to the placebo group. However, we did not find any significant improvements in other cognitive domains. Discussion: This study firstly demonstrates scientific evidence that 6-MSITC may enhance working memory and episodic memory in older adults. We discuss the potential mechanism for improving cognitive functions after 6-MSITC intake. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Cognition in Older Adults: A Multidisciplinary Approach)
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