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Effects of Whole Grain and Dietary Fiber on Cardiometabolic Health

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutritional Epidemiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (5 May 2024) | Viewed by 6656

Special Issue Editors

Key Laboratory for Disease Prevention and Control and Health Promotion of Shaanxi Province, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Global Health Institute, School of Public Health, Xi’an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, 76 West Yanta Road, Xi’an 710061, China
Interests: weight control; precision nutrition; genetics; metabolomics; diabetes; cardiometabolic diseases
School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China
Interests: nutritional epidemiology; nutritional intervention; precision nutrition; cardiometabolic disease
School of Food Engineering and Nutritional Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an 710119, China
Interests: metabolomics; metagenomics; food and nutrition science; R programming

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Grains are widely consumed all over the world as they provide calories, macronutrients, micronutrients, dietary fibers, minerals, and plenty of phytochemicals that may have prolonged effects on human metabolism. Epidemiology studies have indicated prospective positive associations between refined grain consumption and elevated risks of diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and total mortality, while others have suggested the protective effects of whole grain consumption. Interestingly, biological experiment models have highlighted the effects of metabolomic profiles and their interactions with gut microbiota on host cardiovascular health, such as blood pressure regulation, glucose metabolism, etc. In this regard, it will be of great value to understand the influence of grain consumption on the human metabolome, gut microbiota metabolites, and their contributions, and how grain consumption modulates cardiovascular health and clinical metabolic health. This Special Issue is aimed at providing the most advanced original results on the role of host metabolomic profiles/gut microbiota profiles, on the associations between grain consumption and cardiometabolic outcomes, and the intervention effects of grain modulations on cardiometabolic outcomes. We encourage human prospective studies and randomized controlled trials, but cross-sectional human studies and animal model studies with sufficient novelty will also be considered. Potential topics include, but are not limited to:

Effects of refined/whole grain consumption on the metabolome and diabetes;

Effects of refined/whole grain consumption on the metabolome and body composition;

Effects of refined/whole grain consumption on the metabolome and cardiovascular disease;

Effects of refined/whole grain consumption on gut microbiota and diabetes;

Effects of refined/whole grain consumption on gut microbiota and body composition;

Effects of refined/whole grain consumption on gut microbiota and cardiovascular disease.

Dr. Xin Liu
Dr. Liang Sun
Dr. Lin Shi
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • grain intake
  • metabolomics
  • gut microbiota
  • cardiovascular health
  • metabolic disease

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Editorial

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3 pages, 204 KiB  
Editorial
Grain Intake and Cardiometabolic Health—Towards Precision Nutrition
by Xin Liu, Lin Shi and Liang Sun
Nutrients 2023, 15(21), 4605; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15214605 - 30 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1363
Abstract
Grains are widely consumed all over the world, providing calories, macronutrients, micronutrients, dietary fiber, minerals, and plenty of phytochemicals [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Whole Grain and Dietary Fiber on Cardiometabolic Health)

Research

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14 pages, 461 KiB  
Article
Trends and Characteristics of Brown Rice Consumption among Adults in Japan: An Analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Surveys, 2012–2019
by Nayu Ikeda, Miwa Yamaguchi and Nobuo Nishi
Nutrients 2024, 16(10), 1473; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16101473 - 13 May 2024
Viewed by 495
Abstract
Brown rice is a familiar whole grain in Japan. We examined national trends in brown rice consumption among Japanese adults aged ≥20 years old, using individual-level data from the National Health and Nutrition Surveys conducted between 2012 and 2019. We employed multivariable logistic [...] Read more.
Brown rice is a familiar whole grain in Japan. We examined national trends in brown rice consumption among Japanese adults aged ≥20 years old, using individual-level data from the National Health and Nutrition Surveys conducted between 2012 and 2019. We employed multivariable logistic regression to identify factors associated with brown rice consumption. The 95th percentile of daily brown rice intake remained at 0.0 g throughout the study period. The percentage of brown rice consumers increased from 1.8% (95% confidence interval: 1.6–2.1) in 2012 to 2.6% (95% confidence interval: 2.0–3.4) in 2019. Compared with individuals who consumed only white rice, brown rice consumers had significantly higher mean intake levels of macronutrients, legumes, vegetables, fruits, and nuts. Brown rice consumption was positively associated with certain sociodemographic characteristics (being female, older age, residing in a major city, living without very young children, and having higher education levels) and health behaviors (lower body mass index, engaging in regular exercise, and being a former or never smoker). Despite its potential nutritional benefits in balanced diets, only a small fraction of adults in Japan consume brown rice, indicating a need for further promotion, particularly among individuals with characteristics associated with brown rice consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Whole Grain and Dietary Fiber on Cardiometabolic Health)
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13 pages, 247 KiB  
Article
Association of Dietary Resistant Starch Intake with Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Adults
by Min-Sook Kang, Kyeong-A Jang, Haeng-Ran Kim and SuJin Song
Nutrients 2024, 16(1), 158; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16010158 - 3 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1173
Abstract
Research findings on the relationship between dietary resistant starch (RS) intake and metabolic diseases using population-based data are very scarce. This study examined the association of dietary RS intake with obesity and metabolic syndrome in Korean adults. A total of 12,491 adults (5292 [...] Read more.
Research findings on the relationship between dietary resistant starch (RS) intake and metabolic diseases using population-based data are very scarce. This study examined the association of dietary RS intake with obesity and metabolic syndrome in Korean adults. A total of 12,491 adults (5292 men and 7199 women) were selected from the 2016–2018 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data. The individual RS intake (g) was calculated by linking the 1-day 24 h recall data with the RS content database for common Korean foods. Obesity was defined as a BMI ≥ 25.0 kg/m2. Metabolic syndrome was defined as having three or more of the following: abdominal obesity, elevated triglycerides, low HDL cholesterol, elevated fasting blood glucose, and elevated blood pressure. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for obesity and metabolic syndrome across quartiles (Qs) of RS intake were calculated using multiple logistic regression analysis. In men, the highest quartile of RS intake showed a significantly lower OR for metabolic syndrome compared to the lowest quartile after adjusting for covariates (OR = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.56–0.92, p-trend = 0.0057). Dietary RS intake in men was also inversely associated with obesity (Q4 vs. Q1: OR = 0.80, 95% CI = 0.67–0.97, p-trend = 0.0329) and elevated triglycerides (Q4 vs. Q1: OR = 0.80, 95% CI = 0.66–0.98, p-trend = 0.0314). In women, RS intake was not associated with metabolic syndrome. Our findings may serve as useful data for developing guidelines for RS intake and conducting further cohort and clinical studies to investigate the health effects of RS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Whole Grain and Dietary Fiber on Cardiometabolic Health)
15 pages, 7824 KiB  
Article
The Short-Term Variation of Human Gut Mycobiome in Response to Dietary Intervention of Different Macronutrient Distributions
by Yunyi Tian, Wanglong Gou, Yue Ma, Menglei Shuai, Xinxiu Liang, Yuanqing Fu and Ju-Sheng Zheng
Nutrients 2023, 15(9), 2152; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15092152 - 29 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2671
Abstract
While the human gut is home to a complex and diverse community of microbes, including bacteria and fungi, research on the gut microbiome has largely focused on bacteria, with relatively little attention given to the gut mycobiome. This study aims to investigate how [...] Read more.
While the human gut is home to a complex and diverse community of microbes, including bacteria and fungi, research on the gut microbiome has largely focused on bacteria, with relatively little attention given to the gut mycobiome. This study aims to investigate how diets with different dietary macronutrient distributions impact the gut mycobiome. We investigated gut mycobiome response to high-carbohydrate, low-fat (HC) and low-carbohydrate high-fat (LC) diet interventions based on a series of 72-day feeding-based n-of-1 clinical trials. A total of 30 participants were enrolled and underwent three sets of HC and LC dietary interventions in a randomized sequence. Each set lasted for 24 days with a 6-day washout period between dietary interventions. We collected and analyzed the fungal composition of 317 stool samples before and after each intervention period. To account for intra-individual variation across the three sets, we averaged the mycobiome data from the repeated sets for analysis. Of the 30 participants, 28 (aged 22–34 years) completed the entire intervention. Our results revealed a significant increase in gut fungal alpha diversity (p < 0.05) and significant changes in fungal composition (beta diversity, p < 0.05) after the HC dietary intervention. Specifically, we observed the enrichment of five fungal genera (Pleurotus, Kazachstania, Auricularia, Paraphaeosphaeria, Ustilaginaceae sp.; FDR < 0.052) and depletion of one fungal genus (Blumeria; FDR = 0.03) after the HC intervention. After the LC dietary intervention, one fungal genus was enriched (Ustilaginaceae sp.; FDR = 0.003), and five fungal genera were depleted (Blumeria, Agaricomycetes spp., Malassezia, Rhizopus, and Penicillium; FDR < 0.1). This study provides novel evidence on how the gut mycobiome structure and composition change in response to the HC and LC dietary interventions and reveals diet-specific changes in the fungal genera. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Whole Grain and Dietary Fiber on Cardiometabolic Health)
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