Effect of Nutrition on Maternal Health, Fetal Development and Perinatal Outcomes

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutrition in Women".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 June 2024 | Viewed by 6212

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
3rd Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece
Interests: maternal-fetal medicine; obstetrics; gynaecology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Third Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece
Interests: high–risk pregnancy; maternal–fetal medicine
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Laboratory of Hygiene, Social & Preventive Medicine and Medical Statistics, School of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessalonik, Greece
Interests: perinatal epidemiology; nutrition in pregnancy; nutritional epidemiology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We are organizing a Special Issue on the Effect of Nutrition on Maternal Health, Fetal Development and Perinatal Outcomes.

Several lifestyle factors affect the wellbeing of the woman and the fetus, and dietary behavior is one of the most important. While requirements for some nutrients (e.g., iron, folic acid) increase in pregnancy, the basic principles of healthy eating remain the same as for the general population. It is well established that failure to meet nutritional requirements adversely affects the perinatal outcome and also the offspring’s long-term health. Therefore, the adequate intake of energy, protein, vitamins and minerals during pregnancy to meet maternal and fetal needs is particularly important.

A developmental model for the causes of disease hypothesizes that the fetal environment may have an impact on epigenetic modifications and associated gene expression, leading the way to the onset of disease in neonates and late childhood. National and international recommendations are based on evidence regarding the health benefits and risks associated with adequate or inadequate consumption, respectively, of several nutritional elements.

In this Special Issue of Nutrients, we welcome original research articles, animal and clinical studies, as well as review articles on the current state of research.

Dr. Themistoklis I. Dagklis
Dr. Ioannis Tsakiridis
Dr. Michael Chourdakis
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

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Keywords

  • nutrition
  • pregnancy diet
  • comparison
  • energy
  • pregnancy outcome
  • perinatal
  • fetal
  • maternal

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Editorial

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4 pages, 184 KiB  
Editorial
Effects of Nutrition on Maternal Health, Fetal Development, and Perinatal Outcomes
by Aikaterini Apostolopoulou, Antigoni Tranidou, Ioannis Tsakiridis, Emmanuella Magriplis, Themistoklis Dagklis and Michail Chourdakis
Nutrients 2024, 16(3), 375; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16030375 - 27 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1025
Abstract
The early life theory states that the first 1000 days of a person’s life are highly influential, as lasting health impacts can be attained during this period [...] Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial

14 pages, 313 KiB  
Article
A Study of Fluid Intake, Hydration Status, and Body Composition of Pregnant Women in Their Third Trimester, and Relationships with Their Infant’s Birth Weight in China: A Prospective Cohort Study
by Yongye Song, Fan Zhang, Xing Wang, Guotian Lin, Limin He, Zhixiong Lin, Na Zhang and Guansheng Ma
Nutrients 2024, 16(7), 972; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16070972 - 27 Mar 2024
Viewed by 493
Abstract
Background: Water intake and hydration status may potentially influence maternal and child health. However, there is little research regarding this topic. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate pregnant women’s total fluid intake (TFI) levels, hydration status, and body composition and further explore their [...] Read more.
Background: Water intake and hydration status may potentially influence maternal and child health. However, there is little research regarding this topic. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate pregnant women’s total fluid intake (TFI) levels, hydration status, and body composition and further explore their relationship with infant birth weight. Methods: A 7-day, 24 h fluid intake recorded was applied to determine participants’ TFI levels. Morning urine samples were collected and tested to evaluate their hydration status. Maternal body compositions in their third trimester and infant birth weights were measured. Results: A total of 380 participants completed the study. The TFI was insufficient for pregnant women during their third trimester (median = 1574 mL), with only 12.1% of participants meeting the recommended adequate fluid intake level for pregnant women living in China (1.7 L per day). With the increasing TFI values, the urine osmolality decreased, which showed statistical significance among the four groups (χ2 = 22.637, p < 0.05). The participants displayed a poor hydration status. Meanwhile, the percentage of participants who were in dehydrated status decreased (χ2 = 67.618, p < 0.05), while body water content and basal metabolic rate increased with the increase in TFI levels (χ2 = 20.784, p < 0.05; χ2 = 14.026, p < 0.05). There were positive linear relationships between plain water intake, the basal metabolic rate of pregnant women and their infant birth weight (SE = 0.153, p < 0.05; SE = 0.076, p < 0.05). Conclusions: Water intake was insufficient, and poor hydration status was common among pregnant women in China. There may be potential relationships between plain water intake, basal metabolic rate, and infant birth weight. Full article
11 pages, 596 KiB  
Article
Prediction of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in the First Trimester of Pregnancy Based on Maternal Variables and Pregnancy Biomarkers
by Antigoni Tranidou, Ioannis Tsakiridis, Aikaterini Apostolopoulou, Theodoros Xenidis, Nikolaos Pazaras, Apostolos Mamopoulos, Apostolos Athanasiadis, Michail Chourdakis and Themistoklis Dagklis
Nutrients 2024, 16(1), 120; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16010120 - 29 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 790
Abstract
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a significant health concern with adverse outcomes for both pregnant women and their offspring. Recognizing the need for early intervention, this study aimed to develop an early prediction model for GDM risk assessment during the first trimester. Utilizing [...] Read more.
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a significant health concern with adverse outcomes for both pregnant women and their offspring. Recognizing the need for early intervention, this study aimed to develop an early prediction model for GDM risk assessment during the first trimester. Utilizing a prospective cohort of 4917 pregnant women from the Third Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece, the study sought to combine maternal characteristics, obstetric and medical history, and early pregnancy-specific biomarker concentrations into a predictive tool. The primary objective was to create a series of predictive models that could accurately identify women at high risk for developing GDM, thereby facilitating early and targeted interventions. To this end, maternal age, body mass index (BMI), obstetric and medical history, and biomarker concentrations were analyzed and incorporated into five distinct prediction models. The study’s findings revealed that the models varied in effectiveness, with the most comprehensive model combining maternal characteristics, obstetric and medical history, and biomarkers showing the highest potential for early GDM prediction. The current research provides a foundation for future studies to refine and expand upon the predictive models, aiming for even earlier and more accurate detection methods. Full article
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17 pages, 1620 KiB  
Article
Can Pre-Pregnancy Body Mass Index and Maternal Exercise Affect Birth and Neonatal Outcomes—A Cross Sectional Study
by Anna Weronika Szablewska, Jolanta Wierzba, Rita Santos-Rocha and Anna Szumilewicz
Nutrients 2023, 15(23), 4894; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15234894 - 23 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1524
Abstract
There has been a dramatic worldwide increase in the prevalence of obesity or overweight and physical inactivity in women of reproductive age. Growing evidence suggests that pre-pregnancy maternal abnormal body mass index (BMI) and lower physical activity level are associated with poor maternal [...] Read more.
There has been a dramatic worldwide increase in the prevalence of obesity or overweight and physical inactivity in women of reproductive age. Growing evidence suggests that pre-pregnancy maternal abnormal body mass index (BMI) and lower physical activity level are associated with poor maternal health and perinatal outcomes. The aim of this study was to assess how self-perceived exercise and pre-pregnancy BMI are associated with preterm birth, low birth weight, and type of birth. We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study of 394 Polish women in the postpartum period. We used a questionnaire with the structure of the medical interview. To analyze factors related to birth outcomes, we used the Pearson’s Chi-squared test of independence and odds ratio (OR), with a corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI), followed by a multiple logistic regression. Women who reported being physically active before pregnancy (p = 0.00) and during pregnancy (p = 0.03) were more likely to give birth on time and had a lower incidence of very-premature and extremely premature births compared to inactive women. Importantly, they were more likely to have vaginal birth (p = 0.03). Pre-pregnancy BMI influenced the week of delivery, i.e., inadequate, too-high BMI contributed to an increase in the percentage of premature births [OR (95% CI) = 1.19 (1.06; 1.34)]. The findings indicate that promoting physical activity and weight management remains a priority in public health policy, and women of childbearing age should be encouraged to adopt or maintain an active and healthy lifestyle during pregnancy in order to avoid sedentary- and obesity-associated risks affecting birth and newborns’ health. Full article
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16 pages, 5474 KiB  
Article
Maternal Body Mass Index Trends and Weight Gain in Singleton Pregnancies at the Time of Fetal Anatomic Survey: Changes in the Last Decade and New Trends in the Modern Era
by Alexandra Ursache, Iuliana Elena Bujor, Alexandra Elena Cristofor, Denisa Oana Zelinschi, Dragos Nemescu and Daniela Roxana Matasariu
Nutrients 2023, 15(22), 4788; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15224788 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 795
Abstract
(1) Background: the worldwide impact of overweight and obesity is rising, increasingly resembling an epidemic (a price we have to pay for our new way of living). (2) Methods: our study aims to evaluate the temporal trends and patterns of singleton pregnant women’s [...] Read more.
(1) Background: the worldwide impact of overweight and obesity is rising, increasingly resembling an epidemic (a price we have to pay for our new way of living). (2) Methods: our study aims to evaluate the temporal trends and patterns of singleton pregnant women’s BMI (body mass index) in our region during a 12-year time frame between 2010 and 2021. (3) Results: We noticed a statistically significant difference between the BMIs of nulliparous and multiparous women and a significantly increased pregestational BMI in women with previous ART (assisted reproductive technology) procedures. Smoking pregnant women had a higher second trimester weight gain, regardless of parity. Women with folic acid supplementation alone had a higher BMI than those with folic acid and multivitamin intake. The weight of both nulliparous and multiparous women with chronic hypertension was statistically significantly higher in all three timeframes. Global weight gain did not reveal any statistically significant changes concerning women with pregestational diabetes, regardless of parity and the pregnancy trimester. (4) Conclusions: our article describes the trends in obesity and overweight in our middle-income country, in which this pathology is continuously growing, negatively influencing our reproductive-aged women and future generations. Full article
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11 pages, 275 KiB  
Article
Preconception Maternal Mentoring for Improved Fetal Growth among Indonesian Women: Results from a Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial
by Hamam Hadi, Siti Nurunniyah, Joel Gittelsohn, Ratih Devi Alfiana, Fatimatasari, Emma C. Lewis and Detty Nurdiati
Nutrients 2023, 15(21), 4579; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15214579 - 28 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1113
Abstract
The prevalence of stunting in young children is associated with poor growth during the prenatal and early postnatal periods. A maternal mentoring program was developed for Indonesian women to improve birth outcomes. A cluster-randomized controlled trial (CRCT) was conducted in three sub-districts of [...] Read more.
The prevalence of stunting in young children is associated with poor growth during the prenatal and early postnatal periods. A maternal mentoring program was developed for Indonesian women to improve birth outcomes. A cluster-randomized controlled trial (CRCT) was conducted in three sub-districts of the Special Region of Yogyakarta, Indonesia. A total of 384 eligible participants were randomly allocated to either an intervention (received the maternal mentoring program and standard care; n = 189) or control (received standard care only; n = 195) group. The maternal mentoring program provided preconception health education; health monitoring; and text message reminders for preconception women. Fetal growth was measured between gestational weeks 27 and 30 using the estimated fetal weight generated from ultrasonographic measurements. Birth weight was measured within 24 h of birth. A structured questionnaire captured women’s demographics, pregnancy readiness, and body mass indexes (BMIs). After adjustment, fetal weight was 14% (95% CI: 5.1–23.0) higher in the intervention group than in the control group, and the average weight-for-length Z-score at birth was 0.16 (95% CI: 0.04–0.30) higher in the intervention group than in the control group. The maternal mentoring program was associated with improved fetal growth and birth weight in this population and should be considered for scale-up to other settings, nationally and globally. Full article
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