Special Issue "Omic Sciences for Food Profiling: Emerging Sources and Risk Assessment"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutrition and Public Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2021) | Viewed by 6839

Special Issue Editors

Institute of Sciences of Food Production, National Research Council of Italy (CNR-ISPA), via G. Amendola 122/O, Bari, 70126 Italy
Interests: food allergen; gluten; proteomics; metabolomics; analytical methods; mass spectrometry; food chemistry
Institute of Sciences of Food Production, Italian National Council of Research, ISPA-CNR, Via Amendola 122/O, 70126 Bari, Italy
Interests: food quality; food safety; allergen discovery and characterization; mass spectrometry; allergenicity assessment
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Emerging foods have been promoted as alternative sources of macro and micronutrients, to support the long-term sustainability of healthy human diet. Several novel or underutilized foods, such as insects, legumes, or so-called superfoods are currently under investigation for their nutritional value and/or sustainable supply, however antinutritional factors, digestibility and/or allergenicity risk for direct human consumption need to be also addressed as additional threat for consumers’ health. In this scenario, the omics sciences play a key role as olistic advanced methological approach to deepen the knowledge of these emerging food sources basing on chemical/biological food profiling.

This Special Issue of Nutrients entitled “Omic Sciences for Food Profiling: Emerging Sources and Risk Assessment” aims to collect contributions mainly tailored to the characterization and valorization of emerging foods or innovative foods, disclosing both the nutritional/healthy value, and the antinutritional potential and also pointing at underlying the safety risk hidden for human consumption by using the most advanced omic technologies. In addition, studies encompassing investigations by using in-vitro simulated models, as well as animal-based or clinical tests on humans are also recommended for inclusion in the SI.

Original research papers and review articles addressing this topic are welcome and are expected to cover one of these aspects:

  1. Novel foods: protein and/or metabolite profiling and safety risk assessment;
  2. Underutilized sources: characterization of nutritional/antinutritional factors and/or implementation of technological processing to improve digestibility and reduce allergenicity;
  3. Superfoods: protein and/or metabolite profiling, digestibility, and allergenicity risk assessment;
  4. Investigations with in vitro simulated models, animal-based and/or clinical tests on humans, for any of the aforementioned food categories.

Dr. Rosa Pilolli
Dr. Linda Monaci
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • proteomics
  • metabolomics
  • lipidomics
  • novel food
  • alternative proteins
  • underutilized sources
  • superfoods
  • sustainability
  • risk assessment
  • allergenicity
  • digestibility
  • antinutritional factors
  • in vitro simulated models
  • animal models
  • clinical tests

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

Article
Milk Ingredients in Meat Products: Can Autoclaving and In Vitro Gastroduodenal Digestion Mitigate Their IgE-Binding Capacity?
Nutrients 2021, 13(3), 931; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13030931 - 13 Mar 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2201
Abstract
The food industry commonly uses milk ingredients as technological aids in an uncounted number of products. On the other hand, milk contains allergenic proteins causing adverse allergic reactions in sensitized/allergic individuals. This work intends to evaluate the effect of autoclaving and in vitro [...] Read more.
The food industry commonly uses milk ingredients as technological aids in an uncounted number of products. On the other hand, milk contains allergenic proteins causing adverse allergic reactions in sensitized/allergic individuals. This work intends to evaluate the effect of autoclaving and in vitro digestion on the allergenicity of milk proteins incurred in meat products. Protein profiles of raw and autoclaved sausages without and with the addition of 10% of milk protein concentrates were analyzed by gel electrophoresis and liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. Additionally, residual IgE-reactivity was evaluated by immunoblot analysis using pooled sera of cow’s-milk-allergic individuals followed by bioinformatic analysis. Results showed that autoclaving led to an increase in protein fragmentation (higher number of short peptides) and consequently to a higher digestion rate, that was found to be more pronounced in β-casein. The IgE-binding capacity of milk proteins seems to be reduced after autoclaving prior to digestion, with a residual reactivity in caseins, but was eliminated following digestion. This study highlights the importance of autoclaving as a processing strategy to produce hypoallergenic formulas. Full article
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Article
Prototype Gluten-Free Breads from Processed Durum Wheat: Use of Monovarietal Flours and Implications for Gluten Detoxification Strategies
Nutrients 2020, 12(12), 3824; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12123824 - 14 Dec 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1718
Abstract
In this investigation, we reported the production of prototype breads from the processed flours of three specific Triticum turgidum wheat genotypes that were selected in our previous investigation for their potential low toxic/immunogenic activity for celiac disease (CD) patients. The flours were subjected [...] Read more.
In this investigation, we reported the production of prototype breads from the processed flours of three specific Triticum turgidum wheat genotypes that were selected in our previous investigation for their potential low toxic/immunogenic activity for celiac disease (CD) patients. The flours were subjected to sourdough fermentation with a mixture of selected Lactobacillus strains, and in presence of fungal endoproteases. The breads were characterized by R5 competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay in order to quantify the residual gluten, and the differential efficacy in gluten degradation was assessed. In particular, two of them were classified as gluten-free (<20 ppm) and very low-gluten content (<100 ppm) breads, respectively, whereas the third monovarietal prototype retained a gluten content that was well above the safety threshold prescribed for direct consumption by CD patients. In order to investigate such a genotype-dependent efficiency of the detoxification method applied, an advanced proteomic characterization by high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry was performed. Notably, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first proteomic investigation which benefitted, for protein identification, from the full sequencing of the Triticum turgidum ssp. durum genome. The differences of the proteins’ primary structures affecting their susceptibility to hydrolysis were investigated. As a confirmation of the previous immunoassay-based results, two out of the three breads made with the processed flours presented an exhaustive degradation of the epitopic sequences that are relevant for CD immune stimulatory activity. The list of the detected epitopes was analyzed and critically discussed in light of their susceptibility to the detoxification strategy applied. Finally, in-vitro experiments of human gastroduodenal digestion were carried out in order to assess, in-silico, the toxicity risk of the prototype breads under investigation for direct consumption by CD patients. This approach allowed us to confirm the total degradation of the epitopic sequences upon gastro-duodenal digestion. Full article
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Article
Understanding the Fate of Almond (Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A. Webb) Oleosomes during Simulated Digestion
Nutrients 2020, 12(11), 3397; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113397 - 05 Nov 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2276
Abstract
Background: Almond kernels contain phytochemicals with positive health effects in relation to heart disease, diabetes and obesity. Several studies have previously highlighted that almond cell wall encapsulation during digestion and particle size are factors associated with these benefits. In the present study, we [...] Read more.
Background: Almond kernels contain phytochemicals with positive health effects in relation to heart disease, diabetes and obesity. Several studies have previously highlighted that almond cell wall encapsulation during digestion and particle size are factors associated with these benefits. In the present study, we have characterized almond oleosomes, natural oil droplets abundant in plants, and we have investigated their integrity during simulated gastrointestinal digestion. Methods: Oleosomes were visualized on the almond seed surface by imaging mass spectrometry analysis, and then characterized in terms of droplet size distribution by dynamic light scattering and protein profile by liquid chromatography high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Results: The almond oleosomes’ distribution remained monomodal after in vitro mastication, whereas gastric and duodenal digestion led to a bimodal distribution, albeit characterized mainly by a prevalent population with a droplet size decrease related to a rearrangement of the protein profile. Oleosins, structural proteins found in plant oil bodies, persisted unchanged during simulated mastication, with the appearance of new prunin isoforms after gastric and duodenal digestion. Conclusions: The rearrangement of the protein profile could limit lipid bioaccessibility. The data improve our understanding of the behavior of almond lipids during gastrointestinal digestion, and may have implications for energy intake and satiety imparted by almonds. Full article
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