Polyphenols: Exploring the Potential Health Benefits and Beyond

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Phytochemicals and Human Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 5 October 2024 | Viewed by 5647

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain
Interests: food allergy; cross-reactivity; food allergens

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Guest Editor
Departamento de Química Orgánica e Inorgánica, Facultad de Ciencias and IACYS Unidad de Química Verde y Desarrollo Sostenible, Universidad de Extremadura, E-06006 Badajoz, Spain
Interests: food allergy; food chemistry; polyphenols

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Polyphenols are secondary plant metabolites. According to their diverse chemical structures, polyphenols can be classified into several groups. The main families are phenolic acids, flavanoids, stilbenes, and lignans.

Some major sources of them are fruits, vegetables, whole grains, nuts, seeds, legumes, spices, seasoning, coffee, tea, red wine, cocoa, and virgin olive oil, among others.

The class and amount of polyphenols in foods can vary depending on several factors. For instance, the location where food is cultivated, the way it is farmed and transported, the grade of maturation, and the cooking method. This class of phytochemicals offers various health benefits. Several research have conducted studies to evaluate their health consequences. Thus, regular consumption of these compounds is thought to protect against developing cardiovascular disease and type two diabetes, and even certain types of cancer. It is also believed to improve brain health and digestion. They also contribute to improving insulin resistance, lipid profiles, and blood pressure. Their role in the elimination of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are instigators of several illnesses, has also been established. Phenolic compounds are also known to affect the gut microbiota composition, which converts polyphenols into bioactive compounds with important therapeutic effects.

Taking into account these facts, the main objective of this issue is focused on different topics related to polyphenols, including their relationship with microbiota and health in general, senolytic activity, technological innovations in extraction processes, sensory aspects, and novel technologies for delivery to target organs. This Special Issue of Nutrients entitled “Polyphenols: Exploring the Potential Health Benefits and Beyond” welcomes original research and reviews of the literature concerning this important topic.

Dr. Carlos Pastor-Vargas
Prof. Dr. Maria Victoria Gil Álvarez
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • polyphenols
  • agro-food residues
  • valorization
  • bioactive compounds
  • food chemistry
  • therapeutic effects
  • microbiota
  • food allergy
  • senolytic activity

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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21 pages, 6187 KiB  
Article
Epigenetic Effects of Resveratrol on Oncogenic Signaling in Breast Cancer
by Lucinda Kurzava Kendall, Yuexi Ma, Tony Yang, Katarzyna Lubecka and Barbara Stefanska
Nutrients 2024, 16(5), 699; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16050699 - 29 Feb 2024
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Abstract
The crosstalk between oncogenic signaling pathways plays a crucial role in driving cancer development. We previously demonstrated that dietary polyphenols, specifically resveratrol (RSV) and other stilbenoids, epigenetically target oncogenes for silencing via DNA hypermethylation in breast cancer. In the present study, we identify [...] Read more.
The crosstalk between oncogenic signaling pathways plays a crucial role in driving cancer development. We previously demonstrated that dietary polyphenols, specifically resveratrol (RSV) and other stilbenoids, epigenetically target oncogenes for silencing via DNA hypermethylation in breast cancer. In the present study, we identify signal transduction regulators among RSV-hypermethylated targets and investigate the functional role of RSV-mediated DNA hypermethylation in the regulation of Hedgehog and Wnt signaling. Non-invasive ER-positive MCF-7 and highly invasive triple-negative MCF10CA1a human breast cancer cell lines were used as experimental models. Upon 9-day exposure to 15 µM RSV, pyrosequencing and qRT-PCR were performed to assess DNA methylation and expression of GLI2 and WNT4, which are upstream regulators of the Hedgehog and Wnt pathways, respectively. Our results showed that RSV led to a DNA methylation increase within GLI2 and WNT4 enhancers, which was accompanied by decreases in gene expression. Consistently, we observed the downregulation of genes downstream of the Hedgehog and Wnt signaling, including common targets shared by both pathways, CCND1 and CYR61. Further analysis using chromatin immunoprecipitation identified increased H3K27 trimethylation and decreased H3K9 and H3K27 acetylation, along with abolishing OCT1 transcription factor binding. Those changes indicate a transcriptionally silent chromatin state at GLI2 and WNT4 enhancers. The inhibition of the Wnt signal transduction was confirmed using a phospho-antibody array that demonstrated suppression of positive and stimulation of negative Wnt regulators. In conclusion, our results provide scientific evidence for dietary polyphenols as epigenetics-modulating agents that act to re-methylate and silence oncogenes, reducing the oncogenic signal transduction. Targeting such an action could be an effective strategy in breast cancer prevention and/or adjuvant therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyphenols: Exploring the Potential Health Benefits and Beyond)
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Review

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17 pages, 2993 KiB  
Review
Comprehensive Insights into Biological Roles of Rosmarinic Acid: Implications in Diabetes, Cancer and Neurodegenerative Diseases
by Md. Khabeer Azhar, Saleha Anwar, Gulam Mustafa Hasan, Anas Shamsi, Asimul Islam, Suhel Parvez and Md. Imtaiyaz Hassan
Nutrients 2023, 15(19), 4297; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15194297 - 9 Oct 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2047
Abstract
Phytochemicals are abundantly occurring natural compounds extracted from plant sources. Rosmarinic acid (RA) is an abundant phytochemical of Lamiaceae species with various therapeutic implications for human health. In recent years, natural compounds have gained significant attention as adjuvant and complementary therapies to existing [...] Read more.
Phytochemicals are abundantly occurring natural compounds extracted from plant sources. Rosmarinic acid (RA) is an abundant phytochemical of Lamiaceae species with various therapeutic implications for human health. In recent years, natural compounds have gained significant attention as adjuvant and complementary therapies to existing medications for various diseases. RA has gained popularity due to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties and its roles in various life-threatening conditions, such as cancer, neurodegeneration, diabetes, etc. The present review aims to offer a comprehensive insight into the multifaceted therapeutic properties of RA, including its potential as an anticancer agent, neuroprotective effects, and antidiabetic potential. Based on the available evidences, RA could be considered a potential dietary component for treating various diseases, including cancer, diabetes and neurodegenerative disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyphenols: Exploring the Potential Health Benefits and Beyond)
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19 pages, 7125 KiB  
Review
Food Allergens: When Friends Become Foes—Caveats and Opportunities for Oral Immunotherapy Based on Deactivation Methods
by M. Victoria Gil, Nuria Fernández-Rivera, Carlos Pastor-Vargas and Pedro Cintas
Nutrients 2023, 15(16), 3650; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15163650 - 20 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1851
Abstract
Food allergies represent a serious health concern and, since the 1990s, they have risen gradually in high-income countries. Unfortunately, the problem is complex because genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors may be collectively involved. Prevention and diagnoses have not yet evolved into efficacious therapies. [...] Read more.
Food allergies represent a serious health concern and, since the 1990s, they have risen gradually in high-income countries. Unfortunately, the problem is complex because genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors may be collectively involved. Prevention and diagnoses have not yet evolved into efficacious therapies. Identification and control of allergens present in edible substances hold promise for multi-purpose biomedical approaches, including oral immunotherapy. This review highlights recent studies and methods to modify the otherwise innocuous native proteins in most subjects, and how oral treatments targeting immune responses could help cancel out the potential risks in hypersensitive individuals, especially children. We have focused on some physical methods that can easily be conducted, along with chemo-enzymatic modifications of allergens by means of peptides and phytochemicals in particular. The latter, accessible from naturally-occurring substances, provide an added value to hypoallergenic matrices employing vegetal wastes, a point where food chemistry meets sustainable goals as well. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyphenols: Exploring the Potential Health Benefits and Beyond)
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