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Aging, Natural Bioactive Compounds and Non-communicable Chronic-Degenerative Diseases

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Phytochemicals and Human Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (5 May 2024) | Viewed by 19834

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
UOC of Internal Medicine-Center of Hypertension and Nephrology Unit, Department of Systems Medicine, University of Rome Tor Vergata, 00133 Rome, Italy
Interests: arterial hypertension; endothelial dysfunction; aging; metabolic syndrome; diabetes mellitus; caloric restriction diet
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Co-Guest Editor
UOSD Nephrology and Dialysis, Department of Systems Medicine, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy
Interests: nutrition in chronic kidney disease; haemodialysis; natural active compounds for prevention of non-communicable diseases; body composition assessment; uremic sarcopenia; oxidative stress; microbiome in CKD
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Life expectancy today is longer than it used to be; at the same time, the geriatric world population is increasing exponentially and is projected to rise further in the decades to come. Moreover, the number of patients affected by chronic non-communicable diseases (CNCDs) such as chronic kidney disease, diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, and neuro-degenerative diseases, often related to aging, is increasing, having a negative impact on Public National Health costs. 

In this scenario, it is essential to study new, alternative strategies that allow us to counter the comorbidities onset and to improve the quality of life of the geriatric population. Natural bioactive compounds are food-derived molecules that, without side effects, could be useful as adjuvant treatment in the prevention and clinical management of CNCDs. Among natural bioactive compounds, polyphenols play a key role, and numerous studies suggest that they exert antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-aging effects.  

Prof. Dr. Nicola Di Daniele
Dr. Annalisa Noce
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • arterial hypertension
  • chronic kidney disease
  • endothelial dysfunction
  • diabetes mellitus
  • oxidative stress biomarkers
  • cancer
  • polyphenols
  • n-3 fatty acid

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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18 pages, 5254 KiB  
Article
Metabolite Profiling of Allium hookeri Leaves Using UHPLC-qTOF-MS/MS and the Senomorphic Activity of Phenolamides
by Thi-Phuong Doan, Mi Zhang, Jin-Pyo An, Jorge-Eduardo Ponce-Zea, Van-Hieu Mai, Byeol Ryu, Eun-Jin Park and Won-Keun Oh
Nutrients 2023, 15(24), 5109; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15245109 - 14 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1201
Abstract
The plant Allium hookeri, a member of the Allium genus, has a rich history of culinary and medicinal use. Recent studies have unveiled its potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. While research on A. hookeri has demonstrated its neuroprotective and anti-neuroinflammatory effects, the [...] Read more.
The plant Allium hookeri, a member of the Allium genus, has a rich history of culinary and medicinal use. Recent studies have unveiled its potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. While research on A. hookeri has demonstrated its neuroprotective and anti-neuroinflammatory effects, the specific bioactive compounds responsible for these effects remain unidentified in prior research. This study utilized an untargeted metabolomic approach, employing HRESI-qTOF MS/MS-based molecular networking, to comprehensively profile the chemical composition of metabolites in A. hookeri and identify new compounds within the plant. As a result, ten compounds, comprising one novel flavonoid (2) and nine known compounds (1 and 310), were isolated and identified through NMR analysis. The inhibitory effects of all isolated compounds on the senescent cell-associated secretory phenotype (SASP), which is pivotal in neuroprotective actions, were evaluated. Biological activity testing revealed N-trans-feruloyltyramine (7) to be the most potent compound, effectively inhibiting SASP markers and contributing to the senomorphic activities of A. hookeri. These findings underscore the potential of phenolamides from A. hookeri as a promising source of bioactive compounds for mitigating senescence-associated diseases. Full article
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21 pages, 5770 KiB  
Article
Improvement of Cognitive Function by Fermented Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer Berries Extracts in an AF64A-Induced Memory Deficit Model
by Eun-Jung Yoon, Jeong-Won Ahn, Hyun-Soo Kim, Yunseo Choi, Jiwon Jeong, Seong-Soo Joo and Dongsun Park
Nutrients 2023, 15(15), 3389; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15153389 - 30 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1565
Abstract
This study investigated the potential therapeutic properties of fermented ginseng berry extract (GBE) for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Fermented GBE was examined for its ginsenoside content and physiological properties, which have been suggested to have neuroprotective effects and improve cognitive function. The results showed [...] Read more.
This study investigated the potential therapeutic properties of fermented ginseng berry extract (GBE) for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Fermented GBE was examined for its ginsenoside content and physiological properties, which have been suggested to have neuroprotective effects and improve cognitive function. The results showed that fermented GBE contains high levels of major active ginsenosides and exhibits antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities. Post-fermented GBE demonstrated therapeutic potential in AF64A-induced damaged neural stem cells and an animal model of AD. These findings suggest that fermented GBE may hold promise as a candidate for developing new therapeutic interventions for memory deficits and cognitive disorders associated with AD and other neurodegenerative conditions. However, further studies are needed to evaluate the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of fermented GBE in human subjects and to determine its clinical applications. In conclusion, our study provides evidence that fermented GBE has potential as a natural product for the prevention and treatment of AD. The high levels of active ginsenosides and antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities of fermented GBE suggest that it may be a promising therapeutic agent for improving cognitive function and reducing neurodegeneration. Full article
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12 pages, 2460 KiB  
Article
Chebulic Acid Prevents Hypoxia Insult via Nrf2/ARE Pathway in Ischemic Stroke
by Rong Zhou, Kuan Lin, Changlong Leng, Mei Zhou, Jing Zhang, Youwei Li, Yujing Liu, Xiansheng Ye, Xiaoli Xu, Binlian Sun, Xiji Shu and Wei Liu
Nutrients 2022, 14(24), 5390; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14245390 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3250
Abstract
Excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) production contributes to brain ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury through many mechanisms including inflammation, apoptosis, and cellular necrosis. Chebulic acid (CA) isolated from Terminalia chebula has been found to have various biological effects, such as antioxidants. In this study, we [...] Read more.
Excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) production contributes to brain ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury through many mechanisms including inflammation, apoptosis, and cellular necrosis. Chebulic acid (CA) isolated from Terminalia chebula has been found to have various biological effects, such as antioxidants. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of the anti-hypoxic neuroprotective effect of CA in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that CA could protect against oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) induced neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells, as evidenced by the enhancement of cell viability and improvement of total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) in SH-SY5Y cells. CA also attenuated OGD/R-induced elevations of malondialdehyde (MDA) and ROS in SH-SY5Y cells. Nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is one of the key regulators of endogenous antioxidant defense. CA acted as antioxidants indirectly by upregulating antioxidant-responsive-element (ARE) and Nrf2 nuclear translocation to relieve OGD/R-induced oxidative damage. Furthermore, the results showed that CA treatment resulted in a significant decrease in ischemic infarct volume and improved performance in the motor ability of mice 24 h after stroke. This study provides a new niche targeting drug to oppose ischemic stroke and reveals the promising potential of CA for the control of ischemic stroke in humans. Full article
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19 pages, 1767 KiB  
Article
Extra Virgin Olive Oil and Cardiovascular Protection in Chronic Kidney Disease
by Giulia Marrone, Silvia Urciuoli, Manuela Di Lauro, Jessica Ruzzolini, Francesca Ieri, Pamela Vignolini, Francesca Di Daniele, Cristina Guerriero, Chiara Nediani, Nicola Di Daniele and Annalisa Noce
Nutrients 2022, 14(20), 4265; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14204265 - 12 Oct 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 5383
Abstract
The high mortality related to chronic kidney disease (CKD) is not only due to the disease itself; in fact, CKD also represents an important risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality. Among the functional foods that seems to have cardioprotective action, extra [...] Read more.
The high mortality related to chronic kidney disease (CKD) is not only due to the disease itself; in fact, CKD also represents an important risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality. Among the functional foods that seems to have cardioprotective action, extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) plays a pivotal health-promoting role. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible cardioprotective effects of an EVOO containing a very high content (>900 ppm) of minor phenolic compounds (MPCs). The selected EVOO was analyzed by HPLC-DAD-MS to establish the MPC content. The Olea extract obtained from the selected EVOO was tested against the RAW 264.7 cell line in order to investigate its anti-inflammatory activity. We enrolled 40 CKD patients under conservative therapy for in vivo clinical testing. All CKD patients consumed 40 mL/day of raw EVOO for 9 weeks (T1). At baseline (T0) and at T1, we monitored the patients’ blood and urinary parameters. The patients’ body composition was assessed using bioelectrical impedance analysis and the carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) using ultrasound imaging. At T1, we observed a decrease in inflammatory parameters, CIMT, and oxidative stress biomarkers. We also noticed improvements in lipid and purine metabolism, atherogenic indices, and body composition. Thus, this study highlighted the cardioprotective action of EVOO in nephropathic patients. Full article
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16 pages, 755 KiB  
Article
Adherence to Mediterranean Diet and Soluble Klotho Level: The Value of Food Synergy in Aging
by Shou-En Wu, Ying-Jen Chen and Wei-Liang Chen
Nutrients 2022, 14(19), 3910; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14193910 - 21 Sep 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2535
Abstract
Diets for healthy aging have long been an intriguing issue. The current study makes a head-to-head comparison of four dietary patterns and their associations with soluble Klotho (s-Klotho) levels, an aging-related marker. The dietary data of 7906 subjects were obtained from the National [...] Read more.
Diets for healthy aging have long been an intriguing issue. The current study makes a head-to-head comparison of four dietary patterns and their associations with soluble Klotho (s-Klotho) levels, an aging-related marker. The dietary data of 7906 subjects were obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2016. Each participant was given a score or was grouped according to four dietary patterns, namely the Mediterranean adherence diet score (MDS), the low-carbohydrate-diet score, a low-fat diet, and a low-carbohydrate diet. Subsequently, the associations with s-Klotho were examined using linear regression analyses. In addition, we calculated the odds ratio (OR) for aging in different dietary patterns, taking the lowest quartile of s-Klotho as a reference for aging. The MDS was the only dietary pattern that revealed a relationship with s-Klotho levels. The positive association (β coefficient: 9.41, p < 0.001) remained significant when dividing the MDS into tertiles (Tertile 2: β coefficient: 36.87, p < 0.001; Tertile 3: β coefficient: 45.92, p < 0.001) and grouping participants into subsets by sex, age, and BMI. A lower OR for aging was observed in higher MDS groups (Tertile 2: OR = 0.86, p = 0.026; Tertile 3: OR = 0.77, p < 0.001). However, when analyzed separately, merely three out of nine components of the MDS, namely alcohol consumption (β coefficient: 42.54, p < 0.001), fruit (β coefficient: 11.59, p = 0.029), and dairy products (β coefficient: 8.55, p = 0.032), showed a significant association with s-Klotho. The Mediterranean diet adopts a food-based approach, which has the merit of valuing the complex interactions between foods and their constituents, and further brings benefits to healthy aging. Full article
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Review

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23 pages, 1588 KiB  
Review
Linking Migraine to Gut Dysbiosis and Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases
by Manuela Di Lauro, Cristina Guerriero, Kevin Cornali, Maria Albanese, Micaela Costacurta, Nicola Biagio Mercuri, Nicola Di Daniele and Annalisa Noce
Nutrients 2023, 15(20), 4327; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15204327 - 11 Oct 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3276
Abstract
In the world, migraine is one of the most common causes of disability in adults. To date, there is no a single cause for this disorder, but rather a set of physio-pathogenic triggers in combination with a genetic predisposition. Among the factors related [...] Read more.
In the world, migraine is one of the most common causes of disability in adults. To date, there is no a single cause for this disorder, but rather a set of physio-pathogenic triggers in combination with a genetic predisposition. Among the factors related to migraine onset, a crucial role seems to be played by gut dysbiosis. In fact, it has been demonstrated how the intestine is able to modulate the central nervous system activities, through the gut–brain axis, and how gut dysbiosis can influence neurological pathologies, including migraine attacks. In this context, in addition to conventional pharmacological treatments for migraine, attention has been paid to an adjuvant therapeutic strategy based on different nutritional approaches and lifestyle changes able to positively modulate the gut microbiota composition. In fact, the restoration of the balance between the different gut bacterial species, the reconstruction of the gut barrier integrity, and the control of the release of gut-derived inflammatory neuropeptides, obtained through specific nutritional patterns and lifestyle changes, represent a possible beneficial additive therapy for many migraine subtypes. Herein, this review explores the bi-directional correlation between migraine and the main chronic non-communicable diseases, such as diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, obesity, cancer, and chronic kidney diseases, whose link is represented by gut dysbiosis. Full article
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20 pages, 1928 KiB  
Review
Cyclitols: From Basic Understanding to Their Association with Neurodegeneration
by Maria Derkaczew, Piotr Martyniuk, Adam Osowski and Joanna Wojtkiewicz
Nutrients 2023, 15(9), 2029; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15092029 - 23 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1757
Abstract
One of the most common cyclitols found in eukaryotic cells—Myo-inositol (MI) and its derivatives play a key role in many cellular processes such as ion channel physiology, signal transduction, phosphate storage, cell wall formation, membrane biogenesis and osmoregulation. The aim of this paper [...] Read more.
One of the most common cyclitols found in eukaryotic cells—Myo-inositol (MI) and its derivatives play a key role in many cellular processes such as ion channel physiology, signal transduction, phosphate storage, cell wall formation, membrane biogenesis and osmoregulation. The aim of this paper is to characterize the possibility of neurodegenerative disorders treatment using MI and the research of other therapeutic methods linked to MI’s derivatives. Based on the reviewed literature the researchers focus on the most common neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease and Spinocerebellar ataxias, but there are also works describing other seldom encountered diseases. The use of MI, d-pinitol and other methods altering MI’s metabolism, although research on this topic has been conducted for years, still needs much closer examination. The dietary supplementation of MI shows a promising effect on the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders and can be of great help in alleviating the accompanying depressive symptoms. Full article
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