Dietary Strategies for Obesity

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutrition and Obesity".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 August 2024 | Viewed by 7428

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
1. Health and Wellbeing Queensland, Queensland Government, Brisbane, QLD 4064, Australia
2. School of Human Movement and Nutrition Sciences, The University of Queensland, St. Lucia, QLD 4072, Australia
Interests: overweight and obesity; paediatrics; nutrition and disability

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. Health and Wellbeing Queensland, Queensland Government, Brisbane, QLD 4064, Australia
2. School of Human Movement and Nutrition Sciences, The University of Queensland, St. Lucia, QLD 4072, Australia
Interests: overweight and obesity; paediatrics; nutrition and disability

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The prevalence of obesity across the globe has nearly tripled since 1975. More than 1 billion people worldwide are living with obesity, an issue impacting not only high-income countries but also now low- and middle-income countries. Obesity is a complex issue that is associated with a range of noncommunicable conditions, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, and mental health conditions. Obesity is largely preventable; however, there are a range of social, environmental, biological, and individual factors to consider that contribute to weight gain across the lifespan.

Globally, there is an urgent need to stop the rise and reverse current trends in obesity in order to not only improve health outcomes for current and future generations, but to ensure sustainable healthcare systems and economic development. Innovative and collaborative approaches that account for context-specific factors are needed.

Lifestyle interventions, including dietary strategies, are an important piece of the puzzle when it comes to the prevention and management of obesity. In this Special Issue, we welcome original articles, short communications, and reviews of the scientific literature, including systematic reviews and meta-analyses. The proposed manuscripts should cover evidence-based dietary strategies for obesity and can be related to any aspect of the prevention or management of obesity across the human lifespan, with special interest areas including children, youth, and pregnancy. We aim to provide readers with a clear understanding of the various dietary strategies, including innovative and novel approaches, that can be used to prevent or manage obesity and the associated health consequences. Manuscripts focusing purely on pharmacological and surgical treatments are not the focus of this Special Issue.

Dr. Robyn Littlewood
Dr. Jacki Walker
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • nutrition
  • diet
  • overweight
  • obesity
  • intervention
  • prevention
  • management

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Editorial

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3 pages, 442 KiB  
Editorial
Dietary Strategies for Obesity
by Jacqueline L. Walker and Robyn Littlewood
Nutrients 2023, 15(19), 4275; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15194275 - 7 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1103
Abstract
Overweight and obesity remains an important health focus internationally, due to the strong link to many noncommunicable diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, diabetes mellitus and mental health conditions [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Strategies for Obesity)
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Research

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8 pages, 240 KiB  
Article
The Association between the Dietary Antioxidant Index and Weight Status in Primary School Students: An Epidemiological Study
by Stamatia Kokkou, Venetia Notara, Aikaterini Kanellopoulou, George Antonogeorgos, Andrea Paola Rojas-Gil, Ekaterina Kornilaki, Areti Lagiou and Demosthenes Panagiotakos
Nutrients 2024, 16(11), 1667; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16111667 - 29 May 2024
Viewed by 162
Abstract
Obesity is an emerging threat and a current challenge for children and adolescents worldwide. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the relationship between the Dietary Antioxidant Index (DAI) and the weight status of students in early adolescence. A sample of [...] Read more.
Obesity is an emerging threat and a current challenge for children and adolescents worldwide. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the relationship between the Dietary Antioxidant Index (DAI) and the weight status of students in early adolescence. A sample of 1580 students aged 10–12 years from 47 primary schools in Greece were enrolled. Anthropometric characteristics were assessed, and calculation of the Body Mass Index (BMI) was used to categorize students into two weight-status groups. Dietary habits and physical activity were evaluated using a self-completed questionnaire, and the DAI was calculated through derived micronutrients’ content, along with energy, macro-, and micro-nutrient intake. Crude and adjusted regression analysis showed a significant inverse association of the DAI and body weight status (Odds Ratio (OR): 0.719, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.576; 0.897, and adjusted Odds Ration (aOR): 0.667, 95% CI: 0.489; 0.907). An antioxidant diet seems to play a protective role against increased body weight among students in early adolescence. Thus, dietary patterns rich in antioxidants should be promoted to facilitate healthy habits early in life, and to fight the obesity threat. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Strategies for Obesity)
13 pages, 1098 KiB  
Article
White Blood Cell and C-Reactive Protein Levels Are Similar in Obese Hispanic White Women Reporting Adherence to a Healthy Plant, Unhealthy Plant, or Animal-Based Diet, unlike in Obese Non-Hispanic White Women
by Anna Bruins, Jacob Keeley, Virginia Uhley, Kimberly Anyadike and Kyeorda Kemp
Nutrients 2024, 16(4), 556; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16040556 - 17 Feb 2024
Viewed by 927
Abstract
While modifying dietary patterns can reduce the effects of inflammation in obesity, less is known about the impact of dietary patterns on inflammation levels in women of different ethnicities. This study investigated the link between dietary patterns and mediators associated with inflammation, such [...] Read more.
While modifying dietary patterns can reduce the effects of inflammation in obesity, less is known about the impact of dietary patterns on inflammation levels in women of different ethnicities. This study investigated the link between dietary patterns and mediators associated with inflammation, such as C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cells (WBCs), among obese Hispanic and Non-Hispanic White women. CRP and WBC counts were extracted from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted between 2003 and 2010. Based on their recorded responses to two 24 h recall interviews, individuals were grouped into one of three dietary patterns: healthy plant-based, less healthy plant-based, or animal-based. Comparisons were run between obese Hispanic and Non-Hispanic women assigned to the same dietary pattern groups and between dietary pattern groups within ethnic groups. CRP and WBCs increased in obese Non-Hispanics as dietary patterns moved from healthy plant-based to animal-based (pCRP = 0.002 and pWBC = 0.017). Regardless of the dietary pattern, CRP and WBC expression were similar in Hispanic women. In addition, WBCs were higher in Hispanics compared to Non-Hispanics when both populations adhered to healthy plant and less healthy plant dietary patterns. The results indicate that dietary patterns may influence Hispanics’ inflammation differently than Non-Hispanics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Strategies for Obesity)
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23 pages, 5131 KiB  
Article
Association of a High Healthy Eating Index Diet with Long-Term Visceral Fat Loss in a Large Longitudinal Study
by Sunmin Park
Nutrients 2024, 16(4), 534; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16040534 - 14 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1128
Abstract
We aimed to investigate the association of a sustainable diet with a long-term reduction in waist circumference (WC) while identifying novel biomarkers for WC reduction (WCR). The participants were recruited initially during 2004–2013 in a large hospital-based cohort, and the follow-up measurements were [...] Read more.
We aimed to investigate the association of a sustainable diet with a long-term reduction in waist circumference (WC) while identifying novel biomarkers for WC reduction (WCR). The participants were recruited initially during 2004–2013 in a large hospital-based cohort, and the follow-up measurements were conducted during 2012–2016. The 65,611 adults aged 45–75 were categorized into WC-loss (n = 22,290) and WC-gain (n = 43,321). Each study investigated demographic, anthropometric, biochemical, genetic, and dietary factors. The modified Healthy Eating Index (MHEI), dietary patterns, and glycemic index were calculated from a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Novel biomarkers influencing WC reduction were identified using machine learning approaches. A WCR was inversely associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk and its components. Daily energy intake did not differ between those with and without WCR. However, MHEI, which represents diet quality, demonstrated a positive association with WCR. Among various dietary patterns, the Asian-style balanced diet (ABD), including more fermented soybeans and less restricted salt than the Diet Approach to Stop Hypertension, was positively associated with WCR. However, an inverse association was observed between the diet that was high in noodle and processed meat consumption and that which was high in rice consumption. However, the PRS for abdominal obesity did not significantly interrupt WCR. The receiver operating characteristic curve in the prediction model for WCR was about 0.86. The biomarkers in the models included MetS components, inflammation index, diet components, alcohol consumption, and smoking status, but not genetic factors. In conclusion, adopting a high-quality diet with a high MHEI like ABD leads to WCR, irrespective of genetic influences. These results could be applied to develop effective strategies for preventing and managing abdominal obesity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Strategies for Obesity)
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Review

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16 pages, 792 KiB  
Review
Obesity and Nutrigenetics Testing: New Insights
by Mychelle Kytchia Rodrigues Nunes Duarte, Lúcia Leite-Lais, Lucymara Fassarella Agnez-Lima, Bruna Leal Lima Maciel and Ana Heloneida de Araújo Morais
Nutrients 2024, 16(5), 607; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16050607 - 23 Feb 2024
Viewed by 3619
Abstract
Background: Obesity results from interactions between environmental factors, lifestyle, and genetics. In this scenario, nutritional genomics and nutrigenetic tests stand out, with the promise of helping patients avoid or treat obesity. This narrative review investigates whether nutrigenetic tests may help to prevent or [...] Read more.
Background: Obesity results from interactions between environmental factors, lifestyle, and genetics. In this scenario, nutritional genomics and nutrigenetic tests stand out, with the promise of helping patients avoid or treat obesity. This narrative review investigates whether nutrigenetic tests may help to prevent or treat obesity. Scientific studies in PubMed Science Direct were reviewed, focusing on using nutrigenetic tests in obesity. The work showed that few studies address the use of tools in obesity. However, most of the studies listed reported their beneficial effects in weight loss. Ethical conflicts were also discussed, as in most countries, there are no regulations to standardize these tools, and there needs to be more scientific knowledge for health professionals who interpret them. International Societies, such as the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics and the Brazilian Association for the Study of Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome, do not recommend nutrigenetic tests to prevent or treat obesity, especially in isolation. Advancing nutrigenetics depends on strengthening three pillars: regulation between countries, scientific evidence with clinical validity, and professional training. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Strategies for Obesity)
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